Current issue: 55(3)
Under compilation: 55(4)
The aim of the study was to collect the first complete statistics on pastures and grazing of cattle in Finland. The data was collected in connection with an investigation of wood utilization in 1937-1938. Overall trend in grazing is that forest pastures are being replaced with restricted forest pastures and those further with hay meadows. This development is proceeding in the whole country, and it is almost completed in Western Finland. Grazing will probably be transferred completely to cultivated lands in the coming decades. This is important question also for the forestry, because of the damage grazing causes for forest.
Forest pastures are, however, still very important in animal husbandry. They produce over 500 million forage units. It would require 400,000 ha of hay meadows to produce corresponding amount of fodder. To sustain the present number of cattle, a third of all arable land in Finland should be hay meadows. The main goal for development of pastural agriculture is improving the effectivity of grazing and productivity of the pastures.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
Linear programming was used to analyse the land use alternatives in the Debre Birhan Fuelwood Plantation area, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The region represents a rural, high-altitude area, where the main land uses are grazing and cultivation of barley, wheat and pulses. To alleviate fuelwood shortage, large plantations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been established. Livestock has traditionally used the major part of the production capacity of the sites. A decrease in the number of cattle would facilitate a considerable increase in the production of cereals, pulses, fuelwood and construction timber. The optimal share of the land for arable crops, grazing and tree plantations would be about 40, 45 and 15% respectively.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The main features of the Finnish landscape are a result of preglacial erosion processes and the structural lines of the bedrock. The microstructure of the landscape was created by the Ice Age and its melting processes. Upon this base, human activities have created a palimpsest of cultural landscapes. The article describes the effects of slash-and-burn cultivation, tar production, cattle ranging and some other forest uses to the forest landscape.
The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.
This fourth part of the six-article series about protection forest in the Northern Finland is a proposal for organizing reindeer grazing to enable scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) regeneration near the timber line. Protection forests in the Northern Finland cover third of the natural pastures of reindeer in the area. In these areas reindeer grazing can harm the young pine seedlings. The proposal suggests temporary restrictions in grazing in the coniferous forests. Also, in the northernmost parts of Lapland the pine timberline area would be used only as winter pastures. Regional limits should be set for the number of reindeer. Also the ownership of reindeer herds and herding coopearatives included problematic issues that should be solved.
The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.
Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.
The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.
Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.
The article includes a German summary.