Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'harvesting'.

Category: Research article

article id 10134, category Research article
Matti Sirén, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Kalle E.K. Kiilo, Aura Salmivaara, Ari Ryynänen. (2019). Soil disturbance by cut-to-length machinery on mid-grained soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10134
Highlights: The number of machine passes, volumetric water content in the mineral soil and the depth of the organic layer were the controlling factors for rut formation; The harvester rut depth was a good predictor of the forwarder rut formation; Changes in the penetration resistance were highest at depths of 20–40 cm.

Factors affecting soil disturbance caused by harvester and forwarder were studied on mid-grained soils in Finland. Sample plots were harvested using a one-grip harvester. The harvester operator processed the trees outside the strip roads, and the remaining residues were removed to exclude the covering effect of residues. Thereafter, a loaded forwarder made up to 5 passes over the sample plots. The average rut depth after four machine passes was positively correlated to the volumetric water content at a depth of 0–10 cm in mineral soil, as well as the thickness of the organic layer and the harvester rut depth, and negatively correlated with penetration resistance at depths of both 0–20 cm and 5–40 cm. We present 5 models to predict forwarder rut depth. Four include the cumulative mass driven over a measurement point and combinations of penetration resistance, water content and the depth of organic layer. The fifth model includes harvester rut depth and the cumulative overpassed mass and provided the best fit. Changes in the penetration resistance (PR) were highest at depths of 20–40 cm. Increase in BD and VWC decreased PR, which increased with total overdriven mass. After four to five machine passes PR values started to stabilize.

  • Sirén, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6671-7624 E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3793-1215 E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Kiilo, Versowood, Teollisuuskatu 1, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.kiilo@versowood.fi
  • Salmivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aura.salmivaara@luke.fi
  • Ryynänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.ryynanen@luke.fi
article id 9947, category Research article
Eric R. Labelle, Linus Huß. (2018). Creation of value through a harvester on-board bucking optimization system operated in a spruce stand. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9947. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9947
Highlights: Use of harvester on-board computer bucking optimization remains highly under-utilized in German forestry; Revenue per tree and harvesting productivity were both statistically higher with automatic bucking as compared to quality bucking during a thinning operation in a spruce dominated stand.

Tree bucking, defined as the process in which a stem is segmented into shorter logs of varying lengths, has a significant effect on the value adding potential of a forest enterprise. Because of its importance in terms of correct product and length combinations, improper bucking can lead to financial losses. In this study, two treatments (OFF: quality bucking performed by the operator while using hot keys and ON: automatic bucking using the optimized suggestions from the harvester on-board computer; OBC) were tested in a Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) dominated stand located in Germany. Both treatments had the aim to maximize the value of a stem. The research took place in an 80-year old spruce and beech stand under a regenerative cutting. Fully-mechanized harvesting was performed with an 8-wheel Ponsse Bear single-grip harvester equipped with a H8 harvesting head. Results indicated that the product recovery of the two treatments differed by 4% in undamaged trees (no broken tree-tops or stems) to the benefit of manual bucking. However, the revenue of trees subjected to optimized bucking were up to 4% higher (in average 3%) than those of the manual bucking once expressed on a per cubic meter basis. Moreover, the harvesting productivity of the ON treatment was at the maximum 17% higher compared to the OFF treatment. Based on the results from this case study, the use of an optimization software in Norway spruce dominated stands with the aim to maximize the value of single stems showed promising results.

  • Labelle, Assistant Professorship of Forest Operations, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: eric.labelle@tum.de (email)
  • Huß, Assistant Professorship of Forest Operations, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: linus.huss@gmx.de
article id 7830, category Research article
Jari Lindblad, Johanna Routa, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Marja Kolström, Ari Isokangas, Lauri Sikanen. (2018). Weather based moisture content modelling of harvesting residues in the stand. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7830
Highlights: Weather data used for estimating the moisture content of energy wood; The validation of the weather based models performed based on the field data.

Harvesting residues collected from the final cuttings of boreal forests are an important source of solid biofuel for energy production in Finland and Sweden. In the Finnish supply chain, the measurement of residues is performed by scales integrated in forwarders. The mass of residues is converted to volume by conversion factors. In this study, weather based models for defining the moisture content of residues were developed and validated. Models were also compared with the currently used fixed tables of conversion factors. The change of the moisture content of residues is complex, and an exact estimation was challenging. However, the model predicting moisture change for three hour periods was found to be the most accurate. The main improvement compared to fixed tables was the lack of a systematic error. It can be assumed that weather based models will give more reliable estimates for the moisture in varying climate conditions and the further development of models should be focused on obtaining more appropriate data from varying drying conditions in different geographical and microclimatological locations.

  • Lindblad, ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.lindblad@luke.fi (email)
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.routa@luke.fi
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Aviation and Military Weather Services, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.ruotsalainen@fmi.fi
  • Kolström, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marja.kolstrom@uef.fi
  • Isokangas, University of Oulu, Control Engineering, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.isokangas@oulu.fi
  • Sikanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.sikanen@luke.fi
article id 1657, category Research article
Razvan Vasile Campu, Arcadie Ciubotaru. (2017). Time consumption and productivity in manual tree felling with a chainsaw – a case study of resinous stands from mountainous areas. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1657
Highlights: An important preoccupation in sustainable logging management is represented by the analysis of work time structure and productivity level in manual tree felling with a chainsaw; Sound knowledge of the factors which influence work time allows better planning of harvesting operations so that deadlines could be met and damage to forest ecosystems be minimized.

The purpose of this research is to establish time consumption and productivity when using Husqvarna 365 chainsaw for resinous tree felling in mountainous regions. The research was conducted in the Romanian Southern Carpathians, in two mixed spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.) tree stands (S1 and S2). Only one team of workers, made up of a feller and an assistant, was used in the felling operation. This was divided into nine specific stages for which work times were measured. Work time structure used here includes WP – workplace time (PW – productive work time; SW – supportive work time, NT – non-work time) and NW – non-workplace time. The results indicated a productivity of 10.138 m3 h–1 (4.55 tree h–1) in S1 and of 11.374 m3 h–1 (4.33 tree h–1) in S2. Work time structure was WP 88.61% (PW 19.59%; SW 33.88%; NT 35.14%) and NW 11.39% in S1 and WP 83.77% (PW 17.66%; SW 30.73%; NT 35.38%) and NW 16.23% in S2. The results obtained showed that the power function best describes the relationship between productivity expressed by tree h–1 and breast height diameter (dbh) (R2 = 0.89 in S1 and R2 = 0.94 in S2). When productivity is expressed by m3 h–1 the results obtained in the case of power, exponential and linear functions are comparable (R2 = 0.65 to 0.67 in S1 and R2 = 0.81 to 0.92 in S2). Productivity is also influenced by stump diameter and the distance between trees. Their influence on productivity was emphasized by linear regression equations.

  • Campu, Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, Şirul Beethoven no. 1, 500123, Braşov, Romania ORCID ID:E-mail: vasile.campu@unitbv.ro (email)
  • Ciubotaru, Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, Şirul Beethoven no. 1, 500123, Braşov, Romania ORCID ID:E-mail: ciuboarc@unitbv.ro
article id 1546, category Research article
Jussi Manner, Lauri Palmroth, Tomas Nordfjell, Ola Lindroos. (2016). Load level forwarding work element analysis based on automatic follow-up data. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1546. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1546
Highlights: Recent developments in on-board technology enables automatic collection of follow-up data on forwarder work; Time consumption per load was more strongly associated with Loading drive distance than with extraction distance, indicating that the relevance of extraction distance as a main indicator of forwarding productivity should be re-considered; Data, within variables, were positively skewed with a few exceptions with normal distributions.

Recent developments in on-board technology have enabled automatic collection of follow-up data on forwarder work. The objective of this study was to exploit this possibility to obtain highly representative information on time consumption of specific work elements (including overlapping crane work and driving), with one load as unit of observation, for large forwarders in final felling operations. The data used were collected by the John Deere TimberLink system as nine operators forwarded 8868 loads, in total, at sites in mid-Sweden. Load-sizes were not available. For the average and median extraction distances (219 and 174 m, respectively), Loading, Unloading, Driving empty, Driving loaded and Other time effective work (PM) accounted for ca. 45, 19, 8.5, 7.5 and 14% of total forwarding time consumption, respectively. The average and median total time consumptions were 45.8 and 42.1 minutes/load, respectively. The developed models explained large proportions of the variation of time consumption for the work elements Driving empty and Driving loaded, but minor proportions for the work elements Loading and Unloading. Based on the means, the crane was used during 74.8% of Loading PM time, the driving speed was nonzero during 31.9% of the Loading PM time, and Simultaneous crane work and driving occurred during 6.7% of the Loading PM time. Time consumption per load was more strongly associated with Loading drive distance than with extraction distance, indicating that the relevance of extraction distance as a main indicator of forwarding productivity should be re-considered.

  • Manner, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.manner@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Palmroth, John Deere Forestry, P.O. Box 472, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: PalmrothLauri@JohnDeere.com
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.nordfjell@slu.se
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@slu.se
article id 1521, category Research article
Kalle Karttunen, Juha Laitila, Tapio Ranta. (2016). First-thinning harvesting alternatives for industrial or energy purposes based on regional Scots pine stand simulations in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1521. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1521
Highlights: Small-diameter delimbed wood from Scots pine stands delivered directly for energy use was the most cost-efficient option in terms of the total supply-chain cost in comparison with corresponding industrial use or a whole-tree supply chain for energy use; Forest-management and harvesting decisions influenced the removal of forest biomass and stumpage price as well as the total supply-chain costs for forest biomass; The greatest cost-reduction potential (10.0%, 4.00 € m–3) was achieved for the delimbed energy wood’s supply chain in the regional case of South Savo in eastern Finland.

Combining research into forest management stand conditions and wood supply chain processes has been missing from earlier forestry studies. There is a clear need to develop more cost-efficient small-diameter wood production, harvesting and transportation methods from first thinning, which could be used for either industrial or energy wood purposes. This study considers the total cost for small-diameter wood originating from young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands. Pine pulpwood is the most harvested and most used roundwood assortment, use of which is expected to rise following new pulp-mill investments in Finland. In addition, utilisation of small-diameter trees directly for energy purposes has been increasing steadily in recent years. The aim of the study was to determine the cost-reduction potential of alternative forest management options and supply chains for small diameter-wood in the regional case of South Savo in eastern Finland. The total costs of three distinct scenarios were studied on the basis of forest management, first-thinning harvesting methods, and transportation: 1) industrial wood, 2) delimbed energy wood, and 3) whole trees for energy purposes. The cost-reduction potential for energy-wood supply chains from first thinning was compared to the industrial supply chain. Small-diameter delimbed wood delivered straight for energy purposes was found to be the most cost-efficient as far as the total cost of the supply chain is concerned. More cost-efficient small-diameter wood processes can be found by linking forest stand simulations with supply chain analysis.

  • Karttunen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi
  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi (email)
article id 1394, category Research article
Sari Karvinen, Tuomas Nummelin. (2015). Finnish wood harvesting contractors’ risks in Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1394
Highlights: Disagreements on wood measurement and payment delays were the most important economic risks; Dependency on a few clients created risk for unfavourable agreements and work interruptions; Fires in site huts caused the risk of personal injury; Inadequate professional skills were serious economic and work interruption risks; Unhealthy competition, the functioning of the authorities, and infrastructure were important external risk factors.

Finnish wood harvesting contractors have been working in Russia since the 1990s and new entrepreneurs are still interested in starting operations there, even though Russia is not an easy business environment. This study identifies the most significant risks in contracting in Russia. Risks were identified through expert evaluation and a risk analysis was conducted by using a risk matrix. Possible preventative measures were assessed for the identified risks. Some risks were found to be common in Russia and Finland, for example a limited number of clients, dependency on a few clients, and weak negotiating positions. A stable amount of work, i.e. the availability of stands for harvesting, was also a challenge on the both sides of border. Typical problems in Russia were breaches of contract, especially disagreements on wood measurement and payment delays, potentially causing serious economic losses. Specific to Russia were problems related to machine service and spare parts, as well as security issues. The professional skills of machine operators, as well as changing work motivation were risks in Russia. Cultural differences lead to more challenging supervision and management of staff. Among the external factors, the most challenging in Russia were unhealthy competition in the marketplace and non-transparent and the unpredictable procedures of the authorities. In Russia problems caused by seasonality are amplified by the sparse road network and longer downtime. The revealed specific features of the Russian business environment can help Finnish wood harvesting companies to plan a risk management process for operations in Russia.

  • Karvinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sari.karvinen@luke.fi (email)
  • Nummelin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomas.nummelin@luke.fi
article id 1377, category Research article
Raul Fernandez-Lacruz, Fulvio Di Fulvio, Dimitris Athanassiadis, Dan Bergström, Tomas Nordfjell. (2015). Distribution, characteristics and potential of biomass-dense thinning forests in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1377. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1377
Highlights: Biomass-dense thinning forests (BDTF) cover 2.1–9.8 M ha in Sweden, which represents 9–44% of the country’s productive forest land area, depending on the constraints applied; 65% of BDTF area is found in northern Sweden; Analyses revealed a yearly harvesting potential of at least 4.3 M OD t of undelimbed whole trees (3.0 M OD t of delimbed stemwood including tops).

Understanding the characteristics of unutilized biomass resources, such as small-diameter trees from biomass-dense thinning forests (BDTF) (non-commercially-thinned forests), can provide important information for developing a bio-based economy. The aim of this study was to describe the areal distribution, characteristics (biomass of growing stock, tree height, etc.) and harvesting potential of BDTF in Sweden. A national forest inventory plot dataset was imported into a geographical information system and plots containing BDTF were selected by applying increasingly stringent constraints. Results show that, depending on the constraints applied, BDTF covers 9–44% (2.1–9.8 M ha) of the productive forest land area, and contains 7–34% of the total growing stock (119–564 M OD t), with an average biomass density of 57 OD t ha–1. Of the total BDTF area, 65% is located in northern Sweden and 2% corresponds to set-aside farmlands. Comparisons with a study from 2008 indicate that BDTF area has increased by at least 4% (about 102 000 ha), in line with general trends for Sweden and Europe. Analyses revealed that the technical harvesting potential of delimbed stemwood (over bark, including tops) from BDTF ranges from 3.0 to 6.1 M OD t yr–1 (7.5 to 15.1 M m3 yr–1), while the potential of whole-tree harvesting ranges from 4.3 to 8.7 M OD t yr–1 (10.2 to 20.6 M m3 yr–1) depending on the scenario considered. However, further technological developments of the harvest and supply systems are needed to utilize the full potential of BDTF.

  • Fernandez-Lacruz, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9284-8911 E-mail: raul.fernandez@slu.se (email)
  • Di Fulvio, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: Fulvio.di.Fulvio@slu.se
  • Athanassiadis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Dimitris.Athanassiadis@slu.se
  • Bergström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Dan.Bergstrom@slu.se
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Tomas.Nordfjell@slu.se
article id 1141, category Research article
Isabel Miranda, Jorge Gominho, Helena Pereira. (2015). Heartwood, sapwood and bark variation in coppiced Eucalyptus globulus trees in 2nd rotation and comparison with the single-stem 1st rotation. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1141. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1141
Highlights: Coppiced E. globulus trees in the 2nd rotation have similar heartwood and sapwood development as single-stem trees in the 1st rotation; The initial tree planting density did not influence heartwood development of coppiced E. globulus trees; Heartwood diameter and height can be modelled with tree diameter and height respectively; Sapwood width is approximately constant within and between coppice and single-stem E. globulus trees.
Coppiced Eucalyptus globulus trees with 18 years in a 2nd rotation were analysed in relation to heartwood, sapwood and bark content taking into account the effect of the initial planting density by using a spacing trial. A total of 25 stumps, with a variable number of stems per stump from 1 to 3, were analysed. Comparison was made to the previous 1st rotation single stem trees, also harvested at 18 years. In the 2nd rotation, the stump density did not significantly affect stem height and diameter, in opposition to the 1st rotation where spacing significantly impacted on tree dimensions. The effect of the initial planting density is somewhat lost in the coppiced stand in relation with i.e. the number of stems per stump. Heartwood was present in all the coppiced trees up to 49.9% of the total tree height and heartwood volume amounted to 38.9–51.7% of the total tree volume. Within the tree, heartwood content decreased from the base upwards, representing, on average, 54.1% at the base and decreasing to 5.1% at 15.3 m. The sapwood width remained relatively constant with an average radial width of approximately 2 cm. The average stem bark content of coppiced trees was 17.4% of the total stem volume. The comparison of heartwood and sapwood development in the coppiced trees did not show significant differences to the 1st rotation trees, nor did the initial spacing. Heartwood diameter could be modelled using the tree diameter both for 1st and 2nd rotation trees.
  • Miranda, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: Imiranda@isa.ulisboa.pt
  • Gominho, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: Jgominho@isa.utl.pt (email)
  • Pereira, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: Hpereira@isa.utl.pt
article id 1159, category Research article
Grzegorz Szewczyk, Janusz Michał Sowa, Włodzimierz Grzebieniowski, Mariusz Kormanek, Dariusz Kulak, Arkadiusz Stańczykiewicz. (2014). Sequencing of harvester work during standard cuttings and in areas with windbreaks. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1159. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1159
Highlights: In standard cutting stands and thinning areas with windbreaks there occurred three-activity operational cycles. In mature stands with windbreaks the occurrence of stable sequences supplemented with five-activity cycles was noted. Consequently, the operational time in post-disaster thinning stands should be increased by 55% whereas in mature stands it should be 30% longer in comparison with standard stands.
The aim of the study was to characterize repetitive cycles of harvester operation. The study was conducted in thinning, mature and post-disaster pine stands. The sequences of the activities characteristic of harvester operation were described as time series. In order to detect the cyclic variable structure of the analysed time series, the methodology of the single spectrum Fourier analysis was applied. In standard stands, post-disaster late-thinning stands and mature stands, the existence of stable operational cycles with the length of three activities was discovered while in post-disaster mature stands additional five-activity operational phases were noted. Described in this way, the lengths of the operational cycles of harvesters working in post-disaster areas were higher by about 55% and 30% respectively, as compared to standard thinning and mature stands.
  • Szewczyk, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rlszewcz@cyf-kr.edu.pl (email)
  • Sowa, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rlsowa@cyf-kr.edu.pl
  • Grzebieniowski, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: wrzoswj@interia.pl
  • Kormanek, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest Work Mechanisation, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rlkorma@cyf-kr.edu.pl
  • Kulak, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rlkulak@cyf-kr.edu.pl
  • Stańczykiewicz, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology, Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, Al. 29-Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rlstancz@cyf-kr.edu.pl
article id 1153, category Research article
Anu Akujärvi, Ville Hallikainen, Mikko Hyppönen, Eero Mattila, Kari Mikkola, Pasi Rautio. (2014). Effects of reindeer grazing and forestry on ground lichens in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1153. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1153
Highlights: Both reindeer grazing and forestry affect the cover and biomass of reindeer lichens; Reindeer grazing has bigger impact than forestry; The lichen cover was about five-fold and the biomass about fifteen-fold in the ungrazed (fenced) sites than in the grazed ones; The decrease of not only the biomass, but also the cover of lichens, is alarming.
Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practiced in the same areas in northern Fennoscandia. Reindeer pastures have largely deteriorated. We aimed to quantify the separate and combined effects of reindeer grazing and forestry on the amount of ground lichens. To do this, we mapped and inventoried all larger enclosures (49) in Finnish Lapland where forest management practices were similar in both sides of the fence. The average time since fencing was 43 years. We recorded the cover and estimated dry biomass of ground lichens, as well as parameters describing forest stand characteristics. The effect of reindeer grazing on both the cover and estimated dry biomass of lichens was clear: in the ungrazed (fenced) sites, the lichen cover (35.8%) was on average 5.3-fold and the dry biomass (1929 kg ha–1) 14.8-fold compared with the corresponding estimates in the grazed sites (6.8% and 130 kg ha–1). The effect of forestry on lichens was smaller. In the grazed stands the cover and biomass of lichens were higher in the mature stands compared to the younger stand development classes, whereas in the ungrazed stands there were no significant differences between the development classes. Both reindeer grazing and forestry affect the cover and biomass of ground lichens. The influence of reindeer grazing is, however, much heavier than that of forestry. The decrease of not only the biomass, but also the lichen cover, is alarming. The decrease of lichen cover may hinder the recovery of reindeer pastures, which in the long run endangers the sustainability of reindeer husbandry.
  • Akujärvi, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anu.akujarvi@ymparisto.fi
  • Hallikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@metla.fi
  • Hyppönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@metla.fi (email)
  • Mattila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eero.mattila@metla.fi
  • Mikkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@metla.fi
  • Rautio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@metla.fi
article id 962, category Research article
Paul A. Klockow, Anthony W. D'Amato, John B. Bradford, Shawn Fraver. (2014). Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.962
Highlights: We examine effects of size, species, and decay on woody debris nutrient concentrations; Results indicate wide variation in nutrient concentrations across the factors examined; Fine woody debris nutrient concentrations were greater than in coarse woody debris; Coarse woody debris nutrient concentrations generally increased as decay progressed; Results suggest high fine woody debris stocks can represent an important nutrient source.
Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.
  • Klockow, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: klock039@umn.edu (email)
  • D'Amato, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: damato@umn.edu
  • Bradford, US Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: jbradford@usgs.gov
  • Fraver, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: shawn.fraver@maine.edu
article id 993, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Jari Ala-Ilomäki. (2013). The significance of above-ground biomass, moisture content and mechanical properties of peat layer on the bearing capacity of ditched pine bogs. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 993. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.993
Intensive utilisation of peatland forests calls for logging activities to be increasingly carried out in conditions other than those in harsh winter. The low bearing capacity of peatlands forms a severe obstacle for the prevailing harvesting machinery. The aim of this study was to clarify and quantify the significance of above-ground biomass, brash mat, moisture content and mechanical properties of peat layer on the bearing capacity of pine bogs. In-situ driving tests were conducted in Western Finland on a pine bog covering a large variation of growing stock. Portable tools were tested for measuring strength properties of the top layer of peat. According to the results, shear modulus of top layer of peat, volume of trees and the existence of cutting debris are the most important factors affecting bearing capacity. Spiked shear vane was shown to be a promising tool in predicting the strength properties of peat soil.
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@metla.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@metla.fi
article id 908, category Research article
Sattar Ezzati, Akbar Najafi, M. A. Rab, Eric K. Zenner. (2012). Recovery of soil bulk density, porosity and rutting from ground skidding over a 20-year period after timber harvesting in Iran. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.908
Ground-based skidding can have detrimental effects on soil properties trough soil profile disturbance and compaction that can persist for decades. We investigated the recovery of physical properties of disturbed brown soils on four abandoned downhill skid trails in a deciduous mountain forest in northern Iran. The most recent skidding operations had taken place 1–5 yrs, 6–10 yrs, 11–15 yrs, and 16–20 yrs ago, providing a 20-year chronosequence with four 5-year recovery periods. For each recovery period, mean values for soil bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MP), soil moisture content (SM), and rut depth (RD) were assessed for three levels of traffic intensity (Primary (PS), Secondary (SS) and Tertiary (TS) skid trails) and two levels of slope gradients (Gentle (G) and Steep (S)) and compared to those in undisturbed (control) areas. Over the 20-year recovery period, PS trails on gentle slopes exhibited mean values that were 35–42% (BD), 3–7% (SM), and 13–19 cm (RD) greater and 18–24% (TP) and 19–28% (MP) lower compared to undisturbed areas; on steep PS trails, values were 40–46% (BD), 2–13% (SM), and 13–21 cm (RD) greater and 23–27% (TP) and 28–35% (MP) lower, respectively. While RD and SM recovered, 20 years was not long enough for the other physical soil properties, particularly on steep slopes. To minimize soil disturbance, skidding should be confined to areas with gentle slopes and alternative harvesting methods such as cable yarding should be used where slope gradients exceed 20%.
  • Ezzati, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Najafi, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: a.najafi@modares.ac.ir (email)
  • Rab, Soil Physics Future Farming Systems Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zenner, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: eric.zenner@psu.edu
article id 57, category Research article
Corrado Costa, Paolo Menesatti, Raffaele Spinelli. (2012). Performance modelling in forest operations through partial least square regression. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 57. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.57
Partial Least Square (PLS) regression is a recent soft-modelling technique that generalizes and combines features from principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression. It is particularly useful when predicting one or more dependent variables from a large set of independent variables, often collinear. The authors compared the potential of PLS regression and ordinary linear regression for accurate modelling of forest work, with special reference to wood chipping, wood extraction and the continuous harvesting of short rotation coppice. Compared to linear regression, PLS regression allowed producing models that better fit the original data. What is more, it allowed handling collinear variables, facilitating the extraction of sound models from large amounts of field data obtained from commercial forest operations. On the other hand, PLS regression analysis is not as easy to conduct, and produces models that are less user-friendly. By producing alternative models, PLS regression may provide additional – and not alternative – ways of reading the data. Ideally, a comprehensive data analysis could include both ordinary and PLS regression and proceed from their results in order to get a better understanding of the phenomenon under examination. Furthermore, the computational complexity of PLS regression may stimulate interdisciplinary team-building, to the greater benefit of scientific research within the field of forest operations.
  • Costa, CRA ING, Monterotondo Scalo (Roma), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Menesatti, CRA ING, Monterotondo Scalo (Roma), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 67, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Heikki Korpunen, Ari Laurén, Marika Salomäki, Jori Uusitalo. (2012). Impact and productivity of harvesting while retaining young understorey spruces in final cutting of downy birch (Betula pubescens). Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 67. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.67
Quite often Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forms an understorey in birch dominated stands in Finland. Advantageous growth conditions for both storeys are present especially in downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) stands on drained fertile peatland. The most common way of regenerating mature Downy birch forest is clear cutting and replanting with Norway spruce, even if vital spruce seedlings or saplings was already growing under the birch. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of retaining young understorey spruces on the productivity of harvesting and on the quality of the remaining stands in downy birch dominated stands with modern cut-to-length (CTL) machinery. Retaining undergrowth spruces decreased productivity of cutting in managed stands (600 stems/ha) by 6–9 per cent and in unmanaged stands (1200 stems/ha) by 11–17 per cent compared with clear cutting, where the understorey is not considered. Compared with the case where no understorey was present, the decrease in productivity was 10–17 per cent and 21–30 per cent respectively. In forwarding, retaining the undergrowth decreased the productivity of loading phases by 7–14 per cent. Harvesting treatment where spruces were retained produced an adequate stand structure for the future growing stock. Using this method, 14–24 per cent of the original spruces were totally destroyed while 25–44 per cent of spruces were destroyed when they were not considered for harvesting. The spatial variation of the remaining spruces was much better in the treatment where spruces were retained. Our study results shows that in this kind of two storey birch–spruce forests, the harvesting treatment where spruces are retained while cutting is the most acceptable and profitable method. It allows for a vital spruce sapling to continue growing, and avoids regeneration and tending costs or other harmful effects of clear-cut areas such as the freezing of young spruce plants and an increase in the ground water table.
  • Niemistö, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laurén, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salomäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@metla.fi (email)
article id 454, category Research article
Paula Jylhä, Olli Dahl, Juha Laitila, Kalle Kärhä. (2010). The effect of supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine harvested from first thinnings. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.454
The efficiencies of wood supply systems based on cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting, the harvesting of loose whole trees, and whole-tree bundling were compared using the relative wood paying capabilities (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as decisive criteria. The WPCs from mill to stump were calculated for three first-thinning stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with mean breast-height diameter of the removal of 6, 8, and 12 cm. Pulp price had a strong effect on the WPC, and the CTL system resulted in the highest WPC per m3 at stump. The savings in procurement costs and gains in energy generation from additional raw material acquired with the harvesting of loose whole trees did not compensate the losses in pulp production. Considering removal per hectare, loose whole trees gave the highest WPCs at stump in the two stands with the smallest trees and the highest proportion of additional raw material. Decrease in pulp price and increase in energy price improved the competitiveness of the whole-tree systems. In the case of whole-tree bundling, savings in transportation costs did not balance the high cutting and compaction costs, and the bundling system was the least competitive alternative.
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@metla.fi (email)
  • Dahl, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärhä, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 454, category Research article
Paula Jylhä, Olli Dahl, Juha Laitila, Kalle Kärhä. (2010). The effect of supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine harvested from first thinnings. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.454
The efficiencies of wood supply systems based on cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting, the harvesting of loose whole trees, and whole-tree bundling were compared using the relative wood paying capabilities (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as decisive criteria. The WPCs from mill to stump were calculated for three first-thinning stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with mean breast-height diameter of the removal of 6, 8, and 12 cm. Pulp price had a strong effect on the WPC, and the CTL system resulted in the highest WPC per m3 at stump. The savings in procurement costs and gains in energy generation from additional raw material acquired with the harvesting of loose whole trees did not compensate the losses in pulp production. Considering removal per hectare, loose whole trees gave the highest WPCs at stump in the two stands with the smallest trees and the highest proportion of additional raw material. Decrease in pulp price and increase in energy price improved the competitiveness of the whole-tree systems. In the case of whole-tree bundling, savings in transportation costs did not balance the high cutting and compaction costs, and the bundling system was the least competitive alternative.
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@metla.fi (email)
  • Dahl, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärhä, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 454, category Research article
Paula Jylhä, Olli Dahl, Juha Laitila, Kalle Kärhä. (2010). The effect of supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine harvested from first thinnings. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.454
The efficiencies of wood supply systems based on cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting, the harvesting of loose whole trees, and whole-tree bundling were compared using the relative wood paying capabilities (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as decisive criteria. The WPCs from mill to stump were calculated for three first-thinning stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with mean breast-height diameter of the removal of 6, 8, and 12 cm. Pulp price had a strong effect on the WPC, and the CTL system resulted in the highest WPC per m3 at stump. The savings in procurement costs and gains in energy generation from additional raw material acquired with the harvesting of loose whole trees did not compensate the losses in pulp production. Considering removal per hectare, loose whole trees gave the highest WPCs at stump in the two stands with the smallest trees and the highest proportion of additional raw material. Decrease in pulp price and increase in energy price improved the competitiveness of the whole-tree systems. In the case of whole-tree bundling, savings in transportation costs did not balance the high cutting and compaction costs, and the bundling system was the least competitive alternative.
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@metla.fi (email)
  • Dahl, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärhä, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 135, category Research article
Ola Lindroos, Marina Henningsson, Dimitris Athanassiadis, Tomas Nordfjell. (2010). Forces required to vertically uproot tree stumps. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 135. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.135
Stumpwood attracts renewed interest due to increased use of forest biomass for bioenergy. In Nordic countries stumps are generally uprooted with crawler excavators, which have strong cranes (ca. 400 kNm gross lift torque), but are not designed for moving in forest terrain. Their use is based on practical experience with available and tested machine types rather than thorough examinations of requirements, partly due to limited knowledge of force requirements for uprooting of stumps. Therefore, in this work mean and maximum forces required to vertically uproot stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula spp.) were quantified together with the effects of various soil types and uprooting methods. The used excavator’s crane-mounted uprooting device enabled comparisons between usage of solely crane force, and a method in which preparatory loosening forces were applied prior to crane force. Uprooting stumps in single pieces proved difficult; 61% split unintentionally. Force requirements were similar across tree species, increasing curve-linearly with stump diameter, and stumps uprooted in a single piece required more force than split stumps. Preparatory loosening reduced crane force requirements and, surprisingly, less force was required to uproot stumps from a mesic, till soil than from a moist, finer-textured soil. No stump required more than 60 kN crane force and functions for maximum force requirements indicate that powerful harvesters and forwarders (gross crane lifting capacity of 273 and 155 kNm, respectively) should be able to uproot all stumps with ≤ 61 cm and ≤ 32 cm diameter, respectively, in one piece. Larger stumps could be managed if it is acceptable that stumps are split before uprooting.
  • Lindroos, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@srh.slu.se (email)
  • Henningsson, Komatsu Forest AB, Box 7124, SE-907 04 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Athanassiadis, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nordfjell, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 142, category Research article
Helmer Belbo. (2010). Comparison of two working methods for small tree harvesting with a multi tree felling head mounted on farm tractor. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 142. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.142
In this study, the efficiency of a small multi-tree felling head, mounted on a farm tractor with a timber trailer was studied, when harvesting small trees for energy in thinnings. Both separate loading and direct loading of the felled trees was studied. Time studies were carried out in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). The time consumption of the work elements in the different work methods was formulated by regression analysis, where the independent variables were tree size and degree of accumulation. The average size of the harvested trees was 0.035 m3. The time consumption for the harvesting and loading were similar for the two studied methods, 20 minutes per m3 at a tree size of 0.035 m3, but the two methods showed different characteristics for different tree sizes and level of accumulation. The direct loading method had the highest productivity when more than 0.1 m3 were collected in the felling cycle, whereas the separate loading method had the highest productivity when less than 0.05 m3 were collected in the felling cycle. The total effective time consumption for harvesting and forwarding the biomass 300 meters to roadside landing was 27 minutes per m3. The efficiency of the initial felling and collecting of the small trees was the main challenge. Both the harvesting technique and harvesting technology needs further development to provide a feasible production chain for woodfuel from energy thinning.
  • Belbo, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: helmer.belbo@skogoglandskap.no (email)
article id 140, category Research article
Jussi Laurila, Risto Lauhanen. (2010). Moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood at clear cutting areas and roadside storage sites. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 140. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.140
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood is a potential source of bioenergy in Finland. The heating value of stump wood depends on, among other things, the moisture, carbon and ash content of the wood. In this study the moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood was examined immediately after harvesting at the clear cutting area and after different drying times at the roadside storage sites. Immediately after stump harvesting the average moisture content (wet basis) was 53%. The stump wood dried fairly fast during spring and summer. One month after stump harvesting, the average moisture content was about 31%. If the stump wood had dried well once, water absorption became very weak and the moisture content increased only slightly in the late autumn. Each spring and summer the moisture content of the stumps was lower than during the previous year. Annually the lowest moisture content was observed at the beginning of July and the highest at both the beginning and the end of the year. The moisture content of stump wood followed an upwards opening parabola over a one year period and was repeated each year. Three years after harvesting the heating value of the stump wood was still 5.241 MWh/ton. Overall, when harvesting took place in the spring or early summer, the stump wood was combustible after a one month drying period immediately after harvesting.
  • Laurila, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Agriculture and Forestry, FI-63700 Ähtäri, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.laurila@seamk.fi (email)
  • Lauhanen, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Agriculture and Forestry, FI-63700 Ähtäri, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 150, category Research article
Sini Eräjää, Panu Halme, Janne S. Kotiaho, Anni Markkanen, Tero Toivanen. (2010). The volume and composition of dead wood on traditional and forest fuel harvested clear-cuts. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 150. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.150
Logging residue and cut stumps are increasingly used as a renewable energy source known as forest fuel. Forest fuel harvesting obviously reduces the volume of dead wood and is likely to alter the dead wood composition, but the magnitude of the change is not known. Such information is important for the evaluation of the effects of forest fuel harvesting on biodiversity because a large proportion of forest dwelling species are directly dependent on dead wood. We measured the volume and characteristics of all dead wood units with a minimum diameter of 2 cm and a minimum length of 20 cm on 10 forest-fuel harvested and 10 traditional (control) clear-cuts. The total volume of dead wood at forest fuel harvested and control clear-cuts was 26.0 and 42.3 m3/ha, respectively. The volumes were much greater than expected suggesting that the volume of dead wood on clear-cuts has been underestimated in previous studies. Forest fuel harvested clear-cuts had 42% less branches and 81% less cut stumps than control clear-cuts but there were no differences in the volume of logs and pieces of logs, snags or roots. The volume of fine woody debris was negatively affected by forest fuel harvesting. We conclude that fine woody debris and cut stumps form a considerable resource on clear-cuts that is reduced by forest fuel harvesting. These components of dead wood have potential to be of importance in managed forests and thus deserve more attention in future biodiversity studies.
  • Eräjää, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: panu.halme@jyu.fi (email)
  • Kotiaho, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Markkanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Toivanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 162, category Research article
Ruut Rabinowitsch-Jokinen, Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa. (2010). Immediate effects of logging, mounding and removal of logging residues and stumps on coarse woody debris in managed boreal Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 162. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.162
Wood fuel production has increased remarkably, but its environmental effects within the forest ecosystem have not yet been studied much. We investigated the immediate effects of two series of forest management treatments, which produce timber and forest chips, on the volume and decay classes of coarse woody debris (CWD). One of the treatment series included logging and residue harvesting (LRH) and mounding (M), while the other series included LRH and mounding combined with stump harvesting (MSH). We hypothesized that, i) LRH reduces CWD, excluding stumps; ii) the more intense the soil preparation treatment is, M vs. MSH, the more CWD is destroyed; iii) both LRH and soil preparation treatments (M and MSH) reduce the occurence of snags, highly decayed CWD and deciduous CWD in particular. Ten sample plots in mature managed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated forests were located in Southern Finland. The total volume of CWD on the sample plots was measured three times: before and after LRH, and after M or MSH. LRH significantly decreased the volume of snags and the combined volume of snags and logs. MSH significantly decreased the total volume of CWD, while M had no significant effect on the volume of CWD. The middle and highly decayed CWD were destroyed most easily in the treatments.
  • Rabinowitsch-Jokinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanha-Majamaa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ilkka.vanha-majamaa@metla.fi (email)
article id 221, category Research article
Glen Murphy, Rod Brownlie, Mark Kimberley, Peter Beets. (2009). Impacts of forest harvesting related soil disturbance on end-of-rotation wood quality and quantity in a New Zealand radiata pine forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 221. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.221
The long-term effect of soil disturbance (litter removal, topsoil removal and compaction) from forest harvesting on wood quality and quantity of second-rotation Pinus radiata growing on a clay loam soil, was assessed at the end the rotation, 26 years after planting. Relative to Control plots, average tree and stand total volume at rotation end was not significantly affected by litter removal and nil or light compaction, but was significantly reduced by 28% by litter and topsoil removal and moderate subsoil compaction, and further reduced by 38% by heavy compaction. Wood density at breast height in the inner rings of trees in the most disturbed treatments was elevated by up to 30 kg m–3. This occurred because these treatments were more N deficient as reflected by foliar N levels during the first 11 years of growth relative to the Control. However, no treatment differences in wood density were evident in outer rings, and by rotation age overall mean density did not differ significantly between treatments. Neither acoustic velocity of standing trees, nor acoustic velocity of logs, was significantly affected by soil disturbance, indicating that stiffness of lumber cut from trees in the trial was likely to be similar for all treatments. Economic impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on this soil type will therefore result largely from the considerable negative impacts on final tree size, with little or no compensation from improved wood properties.
  • Murphy, Forest Engineering, Resources and Management Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Brownlie, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kimberley, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Beets, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 256, category Research article
Juha Laitila. (2008). Harvesting technology and the cost of fuel chips from early thinnings. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.256
This study compared and analyzed the procurement cost of whole tree chips when using supply chains based on comminution at the roadside landing or at the terminal. It also identified the bottlenecks of the most common logging systems used in Finland. The study was done by using existing and published productivity parameters and models. The procurement cost calculations were made for a stand where the forwarding distance was 200 metres, removal of whole trees was 60 m per hectare and the area of the stand was 2.0 hectares. The average size of the removed whole trees was 30 litres. The direct transport distance from the stand to the terminal or to the end use facility was 40 km while the secondary distance from the terminal to the end use facility was 10 km. A stumpage price for the harvested raw material was not included in this study. According to the study the cost of whole trees chips were 31.9–41.6 euros/m at the plant, or 14.9–19.4 euros/MWh when the moisture content of chips was estimated to be 40%. The two-machine system was found to be the most cost competitive logging system in pre-commercial thinnings thanks to both efficient cutting and, especially, forwarding work. In the manual worker based logging, the costs of felling bunching were the same as the mechanised system, whereas in forwarding the costs were almost double. Using the harwarder system the logging costs were found to be the highest, but in the larger tree volumes and removals the costs were almost equal to the manual worker based logging. The supply chain based on chipping at the roadside landing was more cost efficient compared to the chipping at the terminal system. The lower comminution cost at the terminal was not enough to cover the higher transportation cost of unprocessed material to the terminal, handling cost of chips at the terminal or the delivery cost to the end use facility.
  • Laitila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@metla.fi (email)
article id 277, category Research article
Laura Koskela, Bikas K. Sinha, Tapio Nummi. (2007). Some aspects of the sampling distribution of the Apportionment Index and related inference. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.277
As customer-oriented production strategies have gained ground in the sawmill industry, proper measurement of the fit between the log demand and log output distributions has become of crucial importance. The prevailing means of measuring the outcome is the so-called Apportionment Index (AI), which is calculated from the relative proportions of the observed and required distributions. Although some statistical properties of the AI have recently been examined and alternative means of measuring the bucking outcome have been suggested, properties of the sampling distribution of the AI have not yet been widely studied. In this article we examine the asymptotic sampling distribution for the AI by assuming a multinomial distribution for the outcome. Our results are based mainly on large-sample normal approximations. Also some studies of the determination of the number of logs needed to obtain a specified level of accuracy of the AI have been carried out.
  • Koskela, University of Tampere, Dept of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: laura.koskela@uta.fi (email)
  • Sinha, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummi, University of Tampere, Dept of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 321, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Anne Puustelli, Veli-Pekka Kivinen, Tapio Nummi, Bikas K. Sinha. (2006). Bayesian estimation of diameter distribution during harvesting. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 321. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.321
This research aims to combine two different data sets with Bayesian statistics in order to predict the diameter distribution of trees at harvest. The parameters of prior distribution are derived from the forest management plans supplemented by additional ocular information. We derive the parameters for the sample data from the first trees harvested, and then create the posterior distribution within the Bayesian framework. We apply the standard normal distribution to construct diameter (dbh) distributions, although many other theoretical distributions have been proved better with dbh data available. The methodology developed is then tested on nine mature spruce (Picea abies) dominated stands, on which the normal distribution seems to work well in mature spruce stands. The tests indicate that prediction of diameter distribution for the whole stand based on the first trees harvested is not wise, since it tends to give inaccurate predictions. Combining the first trees harvested with prior information seems to increase the reliability of predictions.
  • Uusitalo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano unit, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@metla.fi (email)
  • Puustelli, University of Tampere, Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kivinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummi, University of Tampere, Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sinha, Stat-Math Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata - 700 108, India ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 356, category Research article
Hamish D. Marshall, Glen Murphy, Kevin Boston. (2006). Three mathematical models for bucking-to-order. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 356. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.356
The aim of this paper is to investigate different mathematical approaches to buck-to-order log merchandizing. A new bucking-to-order planning model using mixed integer programming was developed to determine the optimal production from a stand given different market constraints and forest inventory data. Three different approaches: market prices, target cutting patterns and adjusted price list were tested for generating cutting instructions to fulfill the plan created by the new planning model. The three approaches were evaluated in four test stands. The market prices approach simply applied the market prices to each stand. The target cutting patterns approach applied the sample cutting patterns generated from the planning model to the stand. The adjusted price list used a dynamic programming algorithm embedded in a search heuristic to adjust both the prices and small end diameters of log products to achieve the production goals of the planning models. The results showed that developing a buck-to-order plan is important in obtaining good order fulfillment. The target cutting patterns and adjusted price list approaches certainly out performed the market prices approach. This paper shows that these two approaches are capable of achieving excellent order fulfillment. Further development and testing is needed to determine which method is the best at generating cutting instructions for buck-to-order merchandizing.
  • Marshall, Ensis Forests, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: hamish.marshall@ensisjv.com (email)
  • Murphy, Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boston, Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 365, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Carla Nati, Natascia Magagnotti. (2005). Harvesting and transport of root biomass from fast-growing poplar plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.365
Recovery of tree root biomass can be attractive, since the stump-root system represents a substantial portion of the tree mass and its removal may prove instrumental to re-cultivation. Most available studies concern Nordic technologies, particularly suited to mature conifer stands. Unlike spruce, plantation poplar develops a deep taproot, whose extraction requires completely different methods. The aim of the study was to investigate poplar root recovery operations in plantations with time studies, and to determine the productivity and delivery costs of the operations. Seven operation systems developed to work with poplar plantations in Italian conditions were studied. Extraction and cleaning units were based on general-purpose prime movers. Under favourable conditions extraction and cleaning units achieved a very high productivity: 150 stumps per hour for the extraction unit and 170 for the cleaning unit. Delivered cost varied widely, ranging from 28 to 66 Euros Mg–1. Transportation was the most expensive single work task. It accounted for about 40% of the total recovery cost. Extraction and cleaning contributed approximately 25% each to the total cost, and loading 9%. Guidelines to recovery system improvement and efficient operation are provided.
  • Spinelli, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Nati, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Magagnotti, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 387, category Research article
Sanna Laukkanen, Teijo Palander, Jyrki Kangas, Annika Kangas. (2005). Evaluation of the multicriteria approval method for timber-harvesting group decision support. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 387. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.387
The decision support methods most often used in timber-harvesting planning are based on a single criterion. In this study, a voting-theory-based method called multicriteria approval (MA) is introduced to the group decision support of timber-harvesting. The use of voting methods alleviates the problems caused by the multitude of decision objectives involved in forestry decision-making and by the poor quality of information concerning both the preferences of decision-makers and the evaluation of decision alternatives with respect to the objectives often faced in practical timber-harvesting planning. In the case study, the tactical forest management plan of a forest holding jointly owned by three people was specified at the operative timber-harvesting level. The task was to find the best actual operative alternatives for the harvesting that had been proposed in the tactical plan. These timber-harvesting alternatives were combinations of treatment, timber-harvesting system and the timing of logging. Forest owners established multiple criteria under which the alternatives were evaluated. Two versions of MA were tested, one of them based on individual decision analyses and other one based on a composite analysis. The first was markedly modified from the original MA, combining properties of MA and Borda count voting. The other was an original MA with the order of importance for criteria estimated either using Borda count or cumulative voting. The results of the tested MA versions produced were very similar to each other. MA was found to be a useful tool for the group decision support of timber-harvesting.
  • Laukkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sanna.laukkanen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Palander, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, UPM-Kymmene Forest, P.O. Box 32, FI-37601 Valkeakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 417, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Sampsa Kokko, Veli-Pekka Kivinen. (2004). The effect of two bucking methods on Scots pine lumber quality. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 417. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.417
Modern harvesters are equipped with measurement and bucking optimization systems able not only to continuously measure the length and diameter of the stem but also to predict the profile of the unknown part of a stem and to calculate the optimal cross-cutting points for the whole stem. So far, tree-bucking optimization in the Nordic countries has been efficiently applied only with spruce because the quality of pine and birch varies much more both within a stem and between stems. Since limitations in the measuring equipment mean that the presence and position of grade limits as well as additional defects in the stem will normally have to be detected and estimated manually. Consequently, optimization works inefficiently because the harvester operator is continuously forced to disregard the cutting suggestions supplied by the harvester’s automatic system. This paper presents the outcome of research intended to define how change from the current quality bucking principle to automatic bucking affects lumber quality. The study is based on field experiments and test sawing data on 100 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stems from southwestern Finland in 2001. Automatic bucking does not markedly lower the amount of good-quality lumber compared to quality bucking. Since automatic bucking inevitably leads to log distribution that matches the length requirements of customers better, it may be regarded as appropriate for these harvesting conditions.
  • Uusitalo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kokko, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kivinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 416, category Research article
Glen Murphy, John G. Firth, Malcolm F. Skinner. (2004). Long-term impacts of forest harvesting related soil disturbance on log product yields and economic potential in a New Zealand forest. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 416. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.416
The effect of soil disturbance (litter removal, topsoil removal and compaction) from forest harvesting on the productivity, log product yields and economic potential of second-rotation Pinus radiata growing on a clay loam soil, was assessed in a long-term trial 21 years after planting. The results are projected forward to the expected harvest age of 28 years. Relative to control plots, average tree volume at 21 years was reduced by 8% in the plots where the litter had been removed and the topsoil had been compacted, and by up to 42% in the plots where the topsoil had been removed and the subsoil compacted. The “degree of compaction” did not have a significant effect on average tree volume in the plots where litter had been removed but did have a significant effect where the topsoil had been removed. Per tree economic potential was reduced to a greater extent (up to 60% loss in value) than average tree volume was reduced. This was largely due to changes in log product yield distribution. Projecting tree growth forward to the end of the rotation at age 28 indicated that the impacts of soil disturbance on tree growth, economic potential and log product yields are likely to be similar in relative terms to those found at age 21.
  • Murphy, Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@orst.edu (email)
  • Firth, Forest Research, Sala Street, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Skinner, Forest Research, Sala Street, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 423, category Research article
Olle Rosenberg, Staffan Jacobson. (2004). Effects of repeated slash removal in thinned stands on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 423. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.423
The increased interest in harvesting logging residues as a source of bio-energy has led to concerns about the potentially adverse long-term impact of the practice on site productivity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on soil chemistry (pH, C, N and AL-extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) in three different soil layers (FH, 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm mineral soil) and understorey vegetation after the second removal of logging residues in whole-tree thinned stands. The study was performed at four different sites, established in the period 1984–87, representing a range of different climatic and soil conditions: a very fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) site in south-western Sweden and three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sites located in south, south-central and central Sweden. The effects of whole-tree thinning on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation were generally minor and variable. Across all sites the concentrations of Ca and Mg were significantly lower when slash was removed.
  • Rosenberg, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: olle.rosenberg@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 437, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Philip M. O. Owende, Shane M. Ward, Maximiano Tornero. (2004). Comparison of short-wood forwarding systems used in Iberia. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 437. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.437
Time studies were conducted to quantify the productivity and the operational cost of mechanized wood extraction in the Iberian Eucalyptus plantations. The key objectives were: to determine the significant variables that influence machine productivity and extraction costs in shortwood transport within the forest and to find the basis for optimization of shortwood transport with respect to Eucalyptus forest stands. Three machines were selected for study, each representative of the different log forwarding regimes that are used in Iberia and that could be extended to most of Southern Europe. These were: 1) a modified articulated dumper, 2) a purpose-built forwarder and 3) a farm tractor paired to a twin-axle forestry trailer. It was observed that the productivity and the cost of shortwood extraction may vary from 6 to 15 fresh tonnes/SMH and 3.5 to 6.5 Euro/fresh tonne, respectively. It was estimated that the optimal extraction route network covered approximately 10% of the forest surface. It was also observed that the modified dumper is the most-productive unit, and given its higher speed (> 5 km/h) and larger payload (16 tonnes), it is the economic choice for extraction distances in excess of 1000 m. However, it also generates the most severe rutting, hence it should be used with caution. For extraction distances below 1000 m, the light purpose-built forwarder compares favourably with the modified dumper, while generating less than half the site disturbance. The tractor-trailer combination is economically inferior to the modified dumper and the light forwarder, and should be regarded as a complement to the main extraction fleet and where short-haul operations are required. Under the assumptions of the study, light forwarders (8-tonne payload) may become competitive with heavier ones when road density is at least 6 m/ha, so that extraction distance does not exceed 1 km. This study provides a model for estimating the productivity and the cost of timber forwarding under varying conditions.
  • Spinelli, CNR - Timber and Tree Institute, Via Madonna del Piano - Pal. F, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; University College Dublin, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Owende, Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ward, Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tornero, Servicios Forestales SA, Ctra. SE-184 Km 0.63, E-41970 Santiponce, Sevilla, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 915, category Research note
Kalle Kärhä. (2012). Comparison of two stump-lifting heads in final felling Norway spruce stand. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.915
The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2010 it was approximately 2 TWh. Metsäteho Oy and TTS Research evaluated two stump-lifting devices for the lifting of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stumps. The productivity and costs of stump lifting were determined. There was one base machine with one operator in the time study. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 30 cm, the effective hour productivity of stump lifting was 11.2 m3 solid over bark (sob)/E0 (4.8 tonD/E0) without site preparation using a Väkevä Stump Processor, and when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the productivity was 14.9 m3 sob/E0 (6.5 tonD/E0). When the site preparation (mounding) was integrated into lifting work, the stump-lifting productivity decreased 21–27%. The stump-lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Järvinen) was lower than that of the Väkevä Stump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Järvinen lifting head were presented and discussed. The cost calculations showed that stump-lifting costs are extremely high when stump diameter is less than 20 cm. Therefore, the study recommended a change in the current stump-harvesting guidelines of Finland: The study suggested that all the stumps with a diameter less than 20 cm should be left on the harvesting site.
  • Kärhä, Stora Enso Wood Supply Finland, Talvikkitie 40 C, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karha@storaenso.com (email)
article id 470, category Research note
Paula Jylhä, Juha Laitila. (2007). Energy wood and pulpwood harvesting from young stands using a prototype whole-tree bundler. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 470. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.470
The productivity of cutting and bundling whole trees using the first prototype of a bundle-harvester comprised of a harwarder as the base machine, an accumulating felling head, and a compacting device was studied in three young stands in order to facilitate the further development of the concept. In addition, the removal and its composition were studied as a means of laying the foundations for developing methods for work rating and measurement on delivery. Bundling enables in-depth integration of pulpwood and energy wood procurement. Both energy wood (crown biomass) and pulpwood can be incorporated into the same bundles, and the subsequent separation of these fractions takes place at the debarking phase at the pulpmill. Bundle-harvesting productivities were relatively low (2.8–3.7 m3/E0-h) when compared to current harvesting technology. Improving working techniques, machine structure, and components showed great potential for increasing the efficiency of the concept. The bundles were dimensionally uniform. Their solid volume varied between 0.350 m3 and 0.513 m3, depending on the bundle assortment and stand properties. Integrating energy wood harvesting with pulpwood harvesting increased removal even by 59 per cent.
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@metla.fi (email)
  • Laitila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7474, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1957). Puutavaran hankinnan yhteiskustannukset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 4 article id 7474. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7474
English title: Joint costs of logging in Finland.

The analysis of costs is the foundation for the efficient management of logging activities. However, there is little research on cost accounting of logging. This article is an overview on harvesting of timber and its cost accounting, concentrating on joint costs. Costs have to be divided on their structural elements and then regrouped according to different accounting needs to be investigated. This investigation bases the structural cost analysis on running booking of costs. Due to the variability of logging, the costs are divided in detail into categories. The costs of logging are classified by their origin into personnel cost, material costs, costs of services, compensation for use, unrequited costs, risks, depreciation and interest. Further, the costs are classified according to the subject and quality of performance, and by location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7474, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1957). Puutavaran hankinnan yhteiskustannukset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 4 article id 7474. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7474
English title: Joint costs of logging in Finland.

The analysis of costs is the foundation for the efficient management of logging activities. However, there is little research on cost accounting of logging. This article is an overview on harvesting of timber and its cost accounting, concentrating on joint costs. Costs have to be divided on their structural elements and then regrouped according to different accounting needs to be investigated. This investigation bases the structural cost analysis on running booking of costs. Due to the variability of logging, the costs are divided in detail into categories. The costs of logging are classified by their origin into personnel cost, material costs, costs of services, compensation for use, unrequited costs, risks, depreciation and interest. Further, the costs are classified according to the subject and quality of performance, and by location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7270, category Article
Eino Saari. (1932). Tutkimuksia Suomen sahateollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 7270. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7270
English title: Studies on cost of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry.

The article is a review on the costs of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry in 1920s based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries). The article includes statistics about the average size of if the saw timber bought in standing sales from private forests and harvested from the industry’s own forests, stumpage price of the timber, and labour costs of the harvesting of the wood. The average size of the logs was greater in the northern part of Finland, where the sawmills could limit the purchases of smaller timber. In the southern part of the country, the size of the timber decreased in 1922‒1926 due to growing demand of the timber. The long transport distances in the north influenced the costs. The number of logs per tree increased during the period. The level of stumpage price varied considerably in different parts of the country, falling from the south-west to the east and north. Competition of raw material increased the stumpage prices in 1922a and 1926‒27. The international economic downturn influenced the industry in 1929‒1931.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5639, category Article
Dimitris Athanassiadis. (1997). Residual stand damage following cut-to-length harvesting operations with a farm tractor in two conifer stands. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8541

The objectives of this study were to record residual stand damage during harvesting operations and evaluate the influence of factors such as distance of the tree from the strip road, machine parts, operational phase, on the occurrence of tree wounds. The machine was a farm tractor equipped with a crane mounted on the front axle and a single grip harvester head. The study was carried out in two stands located in Southeast Sweden. Stand 1 was a 30-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantation on an afforested pasture while stand 2 was a 90-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and aspen (Populus tremula L.).

The mean damage percentage was 6.3% for the first stand and 6.5% for the second stand. Sixty-five percent of the wounds were less than 50 cm2, with 91% of the damage occurring on the stem and 91% of the damage on or below the root collar. Sixty-six percent of the wounds produced by the stem under processing or by the harvesting head while only 10% of the wounds were produced by the tractor wheel. Damaged trees were distributed evenly in the crane reach zone. Significant differences were found between rut depths after one, two, four and six passes of the tractor in stand 1.

  • Athanassiadis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5564, category Article
Jerry Johansson. (1995). Backhoe loaders as base machines in logging operations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5564. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9215

Time studies and an ergonomic assessment were carried out in logging operations for three logging machines based on backhoe loader chassis. The time studies were completed with a follow-up study of one backhoe loader-based single-grip harvester. The studies indicated a productivity at the same level as that of specialized Nordic logging machines. Ergonomics also proved to be good. Mean ground pressure exerted by the backhoe loader-based logging machines was little higher than for some of the conventional Nordic single-grip harvesters to which it was compared. The ability of the machines to operate in the terrain was also good, even in rough terrain.

These machines can also be used for other jobs, such as ditch digging, road building and road maintenance. The machines then function more as carriers for attachments rather than custom-built backhoe loaders. By more careful planning of operations, the machines can be used to a higher degree and more effectively. The relatively low investment cost compared to many custom-built Nordic logging machines also contributes to a reduction of operating costs.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5500, category Article
Mikko Kantola, Pertti Harstela. (1993). Puunhankinnan englantilaiset ja suomalaiset perustermit. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5500. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15661
English title: The basic terminology of timber harvesting in Finnish and in English .

The paper discussed the definitions of different Finnish and English terms concerning timber harvesting, and suggests definitions and translations of the terms.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15529
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7060
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5179, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Antti Maukkonen. (1983). Tavanomainen ja kuormainprosessori varttuneissa harvennusmetsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5179. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15095
English title: A conventional and grapple loader processor in second and third thinnings. A simulator experiment.

Using literature and a simulator experiment, an ordinary processor and a grapple loader processor were compared in conditions corresponding to thinning later than the first commercial thinning. Visual bucking only was employed in the simulator experiment. The strip road spacing was 30 m and there was no preliminary skidding of the trees. The simulator experiment confirmed the view reached in the literature that work productivity of the grappler loader processor is 20–40 % greater than that of an ordinary processor provided that the stem size is under 0.2–0.4 m3.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maukkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5126, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Koneiden uppoaminen suometsien puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5126. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15067
English title: Sinkage of forest machines during harvesting operations on peatlands.

Questionnaires were sent out to determine the volume of wood harvested from peatlands during 1978 and the harvesting problems encountered. In total there were 110 responses which accounted for 8 million m3 of wood harvested, of which 1.0 million m3 (14%) was harvested from peatlands. The largest proportion of wood harvested from peatlands was during the winter. Most of the respondents reportet that they wait for the soil frost to set before harvesting is started on peatlands. Respondents indicated a total of 263 machines bogging down in to the soil or, for 1978, a total for Finland of 750 to 1,000 machines.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5112, category Article
Timo Kyttälä. (1981). Yhteistoiminnan kehittäminen puunkorjuuorganisaatiossa työmaatapaamisen avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15053
English title: Development of cooperation between workers and supervisors in logging through work-site meetings.

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of the working place meetings on the increased cooperation between workers and supervisors, the improved work performance, the intensified use of machines and the improved job satisfaction. In the study loggers, forest machine operators and forement were interviewed. The results showed that the working place meeting is a useful means to realise the above-mentioned aims.

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  • Kyttälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5059, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1980). Jäljelle jäävä puusto ja ajouralta toimivat harvennuspuun korjuukoneet. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5059. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15000
English title: Remaining trees and machines working from the strip roads in thinning.

In the first part of the study the hindrance of the remaining trees when felling trees by machines working from the strip road in selective thinning was studied on the basis of the literature. In the second part there was geometrically studied the need of schematic thinning in some type stands when bundles are pre-skidded straight-lined to the strip road. In average only 0-1 trees per pre-skidding trail needs to be removed. It was concluded that trees removed from the pre-skidding trail do not significantly increase the need of schematic thinning. Remaining trees do not limit the length of machine booms if the pre-skidding trails are planned during the felling.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14845
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4974, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Teknisesti korjattavissa oleva hakkuutähde sekä kanto- ja juuripuu Kaakkois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4974. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14825
English title: The amounts of logging residues and stump and root wood technically harvestable in southeast Finland.

The amounts of harvestable logging residues and stump and root wood were examined in the area where 100,000 solid m3 of stemwood was cut in 1975. The cutting amounts of stemwood from work sites suitable for harvesting of logging residues was 35,000 m3, and suitable for harvesting of stump and root wood 38,000 m3. The increase in the yield of wood (without bark) from logging residues compared with the unbarked stemwood was 2.4%. The same percentage of wood from stump and root wood was 5.0–5.8% depending on the harvesting loss.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4944, category Article
Eino Mälkönen. (1976). Effect of whole-tree harvesting on soil fertility. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4944. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14790

This paper analyses the nutrient loses caused by whole-tree harvesting on the basis of the literature data. It has been considered that traditional stemwood harvesting does not lead to impoverishment of the soil because the nutrient content of the wood is quite low. The nutrient loss occurring in connection with heavy thinnings and whole-tree harvesting has been considered so great that it has to be compensated by fertilizer application. In comparison with harvesting unbarked stem timber, whole-tree harvesting has been found to increase the nutrient loss at the stage of final cutting as follows: N2 to 4 times, P 2 to 5 times, K 1.5 to 3.5 times and Ca 1.5 to 2.5 times. Depending on the conditions prevailing on the site, any one of these nutrients may be the limiting factor for tree growth during the next tree generation

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

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  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

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  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4900, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1974). Eräiden koneellistamisennusteiden herkkyydestä kustannustason muutoksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4900. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14744
English title: The influence of the change of cost level on some mechanization prognosis.

In this study a formula has been developed to describe the influence of the change of cost level on such a mechanization prognosis, where is assumed that wages and machine costs bear compound interest. In the study there are some numerical examples.

In the formula p1 = annual per cent increase of wages, p3 = annual per cent increase of machine costs, p2 = sudden and incident per cent increase of machine costs, and tv = delay in the profitability of mechanization.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4883, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Näkökohta kuitupuupölkkyjen siirtelymatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4883. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14720
English title: A note on the moving distance of pulpwood bolts.

The aim of the paper was to analyse, using a computer simulation technique, the moving distance of pulpwood bolts when direct felling of trees is used and the bolts are gathered alongside the strip road. According to the results, the average moving distance of bolts depends in a complicated way on the usable part of the stem and the spacing of strip road. As a rule, the differences between moving distances of two-meter bolts weighted and unweighted by bolt volume of various trees is 0–16% when the strip road spacing is 30 m the reason being the fact that the heaviest butt bolts are often more far away from the strip road than the top bolts.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4848, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1971). Lahon leviäminen puunkorjuun aiheuttamista kuusen runko- ja juurivaurioista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4848. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14650
English title: Decay following logging injury in stems and roots of Norway spruce.

The material of 78 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees was gathered in Southern Finland in order to clarify the advance of decay. The harvesting which had caused the scars had been carried out 12 years earlier and at the moment of the investigation the growing stand was 110 years old. It was noticed that the variables used could explain only a few per cent of the variation of the advance of decay. It was concluded that the only important thing in practice is whether the injuries are in roots or in stems.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

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  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7521, category Article
Johanne M. G. Morasse. (1998). Estimation of cutting volume with three inventory methods for harvest planning in Canadian boreal forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 261 article id 7521. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7521

Two methods of pre-harvest inventory were designed and tested on three cutting sites containing a total of 197,500 m3 of wood. These sites were located on flat-ground boreal forest in north-western Quebec, Canada. Both methods studied involved scaling of trees harvested to clear the road path one year (or more) prior to harvest of adjacent cutblocks.

The first method (ROAD) considers the total road right-of-way volume divided by the total road area cleared. The resulting volume per hectare is then multiplied by the total cut-block area scheduled for harvest during the following year to obtain the total estimated cutting volume. The second method (STRATIFIED) also involves scaling of trees cleared from the road. A volume per hectare is calculated for each stretch of road that crosses a single forest stand. This volume per hectare is then multiplied by the remaining area of the same forest stand scheduled for harvest one year later. The sum of all resulting estimated volumes per stand gives the total estimated cutting-volume for all cut-blocks adjacent to the studied road. A third method (MNR) represent the actual existing technique for estimating cutting volume in the province of Quebec. It involves summing the cut volume for all forest stands. The cut volume is estimated by multiplying the area of each stand by its estimated volume per hectare obtained from standard stock tables.

When the resulting total estimated volume per cut-block for all three methods was compared with the actual measured cut-block volume (MEASURED), the analysis showed that MNR volume estimate was 30% higher than MEASURED. However, no significant difference from MEASURED was observed for volume estimates for ROAD and STRATIFIED methods, which respectively estimated cutting volumes 19% and 5% lower than MEASURED.

  • Morasse, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7515, category Article
Vesa Kaarakka. (1996). Management of bushland vegetation using rainwater harvesting in eastern Kenya. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 253 article id 7515. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7515

Microcatchment water harvesting (MCWH) improved the survival and growth of planted trees on heavy soils in eastern Kenya five to six years after planting. In the best method, the cross-tied furrow microcatchment, the mean annual increment (MAI; based on the average biomass of living trees multiplied by tree density and survival) of the total and usable biomass of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. were 2,787 and 1,610 kg ha-1 a-1 respectively, when the initial tree density was 500 to 1,667 trees per hectare. Based on survival, the indigenous Acacia horrida Span., A. mellifera (Vahl) Benth. and A. zanzibarica (S. Moore) Taub. were the most suitable species for planting using MCWH. When both survival and the yield were considered, a local seed source of P. Juliflora was superior to all other species. The MAI in MCWH was at best distinctly higher than that in the natural vegetation (163–307 and 66–111 kg ha-1 a-1 for total and usable biomass respectively); this cannot satisfy the fuelwood demand of concentrated populations, such as towns or irrigation schemes.

The density of seeds of woody species in the topsoil was 40.1 seeds/m2 in the Acacia-Commiphora bushland and 12.6 seeds/m2 in the zone between the bushland and the Tana riverine forest. Rehabilitation of woody vegetation using the soil seed bank alone proved difficult due to the lack of seeds of desirable species.

The regeneration and dynamics of woody vegetation were also studied both in cleared and undisturbed bushland. A sub-type of Acacia-Commiphora bushland was identified as Acacia reficiens bushland, in which the dominant Commiphora species is C. campestris. Most of the woody species did not have even-aged population but cohort structures that were skewed towards young individuals. The woody vegetation and the status of soil nutrients were estimated to recover in 15–20 years on Vertic Natrargid soils after total removal of above-ground vegetation.

  • Kaarakka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7510, category Article
Arto Rummukainen, Heikki Alanne, Esko Mikkonen. (1995). Wood procurement in the pressure of change. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 248 article id 7510. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7510

Linear optimization model was used to calculate seven wood procurement scenarios for years 1990, 2000 and 2010. Productivity and cost functions for seven cutting, five terrain transport, three long distance transport and various work supervision and scaling methods were calculated from available work study reports. All methods are based on Nordic cut to length conditions. Finland was divided in three parts for description on harvesting conditions. Twenty imaginary wood processing points and their wood procurement areas were created for these areas. The procurement systems, which consists of the harvesting conditions and work productivity function, were described as a simulation model. In the LP-model the wood procurement system has to fulfil the volume and wood assortment requirements of processing points by minimizing the procurement cost. The model consists of 862 variables and 560 restrictions.

Results show that it is economical to increase the mechanical work in harvesting. Cost increment alternatives effect only little on profitability of manual work. The areas of later thinnings and seed tree- and shelterwood cuttings increase on cost of first thinnings. In mechanized work one method, 10-tonne one grip harvester and forwarder, is gaining advantage among other methods. Working hours of forwarder are decreasing opposite to the harverster. There is only little need to increase the number of harvesters and trucks or their drivers from today’s level. Quite large fluctuations in level of procurement and cost can be handled by constant number of machines, by alternating the number of season workers and by driving machines in two shifts. It is possible, if some environmental problems of large-scale summer time harvesting can be solved.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Alanne, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7598, category Article
T. Eriksson, G. Nilsson, G. Skråmo. (1978). The Inter-Nordic project of terrain and machines 1972-1975. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 164 article id 7598. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7598

The paper is the final report of the Inter-Nordic Terrain-machine Project (1972–1975). It deals with the requirements for a terrain classification for forestry, its factors and classes, and presents a terrain classification.

The mechanization of hauling, which took place in the field of forestry in the 1950's, added to the need for a terrain classification. Different terrain classifications based on different terrain factors have been developed in many countries. In the meeting of IUFRO Section 32 held in Montreal in 1964, it was found that a general system was needed for measuring and describing those terrain conditions having a significant influence on forest operations. The requirements for such a classification system are given in the paper. Because some of the requirements are contradictory, the classification must be a compromise. The most important factors from the forestry point of view are presented in the article.

The terrain classification presented in this report consists of two stages. The first stage is a primary terrain classification, in which terrain factors are measured or described objectively. The second is a secondary descriptive classification. Only factors essential to the activity in question are taken into account. After this, in a secondary functional stage, the requirements of the employer of the system, e.g., working method, machines etc., are also taken into account.

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  • Eriksson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Skråmo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7570, category Article
Antti Isomäki, Tauno Kallio. (1974). Consequences of injury caused by timber harvesting machines on the growth and decay of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 136 article id 7570. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7570

The study material was collected from 10 localities in South Finland in 1971–72. The material comprised 816 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees with a total of 978 injuries.

Decay (discoloration) spread upward from the damaged point was about three times as fast as downward. The mean rate of advance upward was 21 cm/year. The decay spreading at the quickest rate started from above-ground root collar injuries. The size of the damaged area (surface area, width and depth) correlated positively with the rate of increase in decay initiated by the injury. For the first 10 years the decay advanced at the same rate after which the advance became slower though not ceasing. Damage produced in the early summer caused a faster spread of decay than that produced in the late summer or winter. The rate of advance was the greater the larger the stem involved. When decay started from trunk damage its rate of advance was greater the faster the growth of the trees. With a better soil type, the rate of advance in decay increased. Fertilization increased the rate of advance.

The widest stem injuries reduced tree growth by about one-third, and severed roots by nearly half of the growth of trees where the width of the injuries was 0–4 cm. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) infected spruce injuries especially in the southern coastal district. The farthest tips of discoloration proved in most cases to be sterile. The most common fungus isolated from these sites was Stereum sanguinolentum.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4659, category Article
P. Piepponen. (1957). Arvo- ja rakennuspuiden merkitseminen asutustilojen metsissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14060
English title: Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Fellings of valuable timber in the forests to be surrendered for settlement farms have been discussed widely in Finland. This presentation describes the effects of the new section in the Land Settlement Decree and new directions given by Central Forestry Association Tapio based on the decree. According to the directions, the fellings have to follow legislation concerning other fellings in private forests. The felling of all large, valuable timber, as has previously been the custom in settlement farm forests, does not follow this principle.

  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4590, category Article
E. A. Sopanen. (1948). Hankintatöiden paikallinen organisointi. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13992
English title: Organizing delivery loggings locally.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the history of timber sales at delivered price made in state forests, and describes good practices to arrange timber harvesting locally.

  • Sopanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4581, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1945). Metsäteollisuusyhtiöiden metsistä ja niiden hakkuista. Silva Fennica no. 61 article id 4581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9085
English title: Forests of woodworking industry and the fellings carried out in them.

The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.

Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.

During the war  the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.

During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4496, category Article
E. A. Sopanen. (1937). Leimausehdotuksen laadinnasta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4496. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13906
English title: Planning of wood harvesting in Forest Service.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes how to make a document required in Metsähallitus (Forest Service) when a stand is marked for harvesting.

  • Sopanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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