Current issue: 54(2)

Under compilation: 54(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'herbivory'.

Category: Research article

article id 360, category Research article
Timo Kurkela, Tarmo Aalto, Martti Varama, Risto Jalkanen. (2005). Defoliation by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini) and subsequent growth reduction in Scots pine: a retrospective approach. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.360
The foliage status in the main stem of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) was studied retrospectively using the needle trace method (NTM) on a stand, seriously defoliated by the pine sawfly (Diprion pini) in the 1980s. Needle density increased abruptly in the seasons following the defoliation. The strongest reduction in annual needle production occurred one year later. As a consequence of lower needle production, the annual number of attached needles decreased three to five years after the defoliation. Needle retention and the average age of attached needles tended to increase after defoliation. In analyses of covariance with the NTM variables, needle density (logarithmic transformed values) and average age of attached needles, had the highest, significant, negative relationship with radial and height increments both in the period prior to the defoliation and in the time when the trees were suffering from defoliation. The relationships between height increment and the number of needles and needle loss were positive and significant. Also radial increment had a positive relationship with the number of needles but not with needle loss. Interestingly, an abrupt increase in the needle density gave a good indication of the effects of a sudden defoliation in pines.
  • Kurkela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kurkela@metla.fi (email)
  • Aalto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varama, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 576, category Research article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Pirkko Velling. (2001). Micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula) in the field – performance and clonal differences. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 576. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.576
Micropropagated and seed-born silver birches (Betula pendula Roth) were compared for survival, height growth and occurrence of biotic damage (voles, hares, mooses, stem lesions and cankers) in field trials in southern Finland. The material consisted of 11 clones and 10 different lots of seedlings growing in 10 field trials, established in clear-cut forest cultivation areas. The plants were 6–7 years old. The micropropagated and seed-born material types did not significantly differ from each other as regards survival, height growth and frequencies of damage caused by biotic agents. Large and significant differences were, however, detected in survival, height and frequencies of all types of biotic damage between single clones. Careful selection and testing of birch clones in field conditions is recommended before wide-scale commercial micropropagation and practical forest cultivation takes place.
  • Viherä-Aarnio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box. 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@metla.fi (email)
  • Velling, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box. 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 550, category Review article
Lars Edenius, Margareta Bergman, Göran Ericsson, Kjell Danell. (2002). The role of moose as a disturbance factor in managed boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 550. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.550
We review the interactions between moose (Alces alces) and native tree species in Fennoscandia. The Fennoscandian boreal forests have been intensively managed for wood production over decades. Moose population density is also relatively high in these northern forests. Forest management affects habitat characteristics and food resources from regeneration to final harvest, with the most significant effects occurring early in the stand development. The plant-animal interactions found in such a situation may be different from what has been observed in natural boreal forests with low densities of moose (e.g. in North America). The strong focus on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in forest regeneration in conjunction with a homogenisation of the landscape structure by clear-cutting has favoured moose. Forest development is controlled by man from regeneration to final harvest, and in relation to human-induced disturbances the disturbance by moose is relatively small, but occurs on different spatial levels. At the landscape level, the most prominent effects of moose seem to be suppression and/or redistribution of preferred browse species. At the forest stand level moose primarily induce spatial heterogeneity by browsing patchily and exploiting existing gaps. At the tree level, moose damage trees and lower timber quality, but also create substrate types (e.g. dead and dying wood) valuable for many organisms. Co-management of moose and forest requires good monitoring programmes for both plants and animals, as well as extensive ecological knowledge on the relations between moose and their food plants on different spatial levels.
  • Edenius, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.edenius@szooek.slu.se (email)
  • Bergman, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ericsson, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Danell, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

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