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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'hierarchy'.

Category: Review article

article id 552, category Review article
Timo Kuuluvainen. (2002). Natural variability of forests as a reference for restoring and managing biological diversity in boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 552. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.552
In Fennoscandia, use of the natural forest as a reference for restoration and management of forest biodiversity has been widely accepted. However, limited understanding of the structure and dynamics of the natural forest has hampered the applications of the natural variability approach. This is especially the case in areas, where the natural forests have almost totally vanished. This review was motivated by the idea that despite these difficulties the essential features of the natural forest can be reconstructed based on biological archives, historical documents, research done in adjacent natural areas, and modeling. First, a conceptual framework for analyzing the relationship between forest structure, dynamics and biodiversity is presented. Second, the current understanding of the structure and dynamics of natural forests at different spatiotemporal scales in boreal Fennoscandia is reviewed. Third, the implications of this knowledge, and gaps in knowledge, on research and on practical restoration and management methods aimed at forest biodiversity conservation are discussed. In conclusion, naturally dynamic forest landscapes are complex, multiscaled hierarchical systems. Current forest management methods create disturbance and successional dynamics that are strongly scale-limited when compared with the natural forest. To restore some of the essential characteristics of the natural forest’s multiscale heterogeneity, diversification of silvicultural and harvesting treatments, as guided by natural disturbance dynamics, is needed to produce more variation in disturbance severity, quality, extent, and repeatability.
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kuuluvainen@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Discussion article

article id 572, category Discussion article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Kaisu Aapala, Petri Ahlroth, Mikko Kuusinen, Tapio Lindholm, Tapani Sallantaus, Juha Siitonen, Harri Tukia. (2002). Principles of ecological restoration of boreal forested ecosystems: Finland as an example. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.572
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 27 FIN-00014, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kuuluvainen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Aapala, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahlroth, University Museum, Section of Natural History, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusinen, Ministry of the Environment, Land Use Department, P.O.Box 380, FIN-00131 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sallantaus, Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, P.O. Box 297, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.siitonen@metla.fi
  • Tukia, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7509, category Article
Mauno Pesonen. (1995). Non-industrial private forest landowners’ choices of timber management strategies and potential allowable cut. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 247 article id 7509. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7509

In the study, the potential allowable cut in the district of North-Savo, Eastern Finland was clarified  based on the non-industrial private forest landowners’ (NIPF) choices of timber management strategies. Alternative timber management strategies were generated, and the choices and factors affecting the choices of timber management strategies by NIPF landowners were studied. The choices of timber management strategies were solved by maximizing the utility functions of the NIPF landowners. The parameters of the utility functions were estimated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

The level of the potential allowable cut was compared to the cutting budgets based on the 7th and 8th National Forest Inventories (NFI7, NFI8) in Finland, to the combining of private forestry plans, and to the realized drain from non-industrial private forests. The potential allowable cut was calculated using the MELA system that has been used in calculating the national cutting budget.

The data consisted of the NIPF holdings that had been inventoried compartmentwise and had forestry plans made in 1984–92. The NIPF landowners’ choices of timber management strategies were clarified by a mail inquiry.

The most preferred strategy obtained was ”sustainability” (chosen by 62% of landowners). The second was ”finance” (17%) and the third ”savings” (11%). ”No cuttings”, and ”maximum cuttings” were the least preferred (9% and 1%, resp.). The factors promoting the choices of strategies with intensive cuttings were: a) ”farmer as forest owner” and ”owing fields”, b) ”increase in the size of the forest holding”, c) agriculture and forestry orientation in production, d) ”decreasing short-term stumpage earnings expectations”, e) ”increasing intensity of future cuttings”, and f) ”choice of forest taxation system based on site productivity”.

The potential allowable cut defined in the study was 20% higher than the average of the realized drain in 1988–93, which was at the same level as the cutting budget based on the combining of forestry plans in Eastern Finland. The potential allowable cut defined in the study was 12% lower than the NFI8-based greatest sustained allowable cut for the 1990. Using the method, timber management strategies can be clarified for private forest owners.

  • Pesonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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