Current issue: 55(1)
Under compilation: 55(2)
Based on literature this paper describes the natural afforestation of Finland that took place after the last ice age and the changes which have taken place during the last 10,000 years. The origin and development of the vegetation and trees are related to the changes in the edaphic and climatic factors. The first tree species to arrive in Finland were the primary colonizing species, birch and Scots pine. The appearance of Norway spruce dates back to about 5000 B.P. There have been great changes in the species composition of Finnish forests during the last several thousands of years but some 2,000–3,000 years ago the various species reached their present balance. The epoch of naural forests, which had lasted some 9,500 years, came to a conclusion, however, when man started to have a marked effect on the forest’s development 300–400 years ago.
The PDF includes an abstract in English.
The article is an abridged version of an essay published in the “Lännetär” (a book published in Finnish on the occasion of the 50th birthday of Professor E. N. Setälä). The article presents the main points of the plant migration to Finland after the glacial period. The research method was based on J. A. Palmen’s work on flyways of the birds. Some results are achieved through plant paleontological studies, others rely on the current distribution of the species.
Some species, such as trees birch, spruce and pine have migrated widely in Finland and there isn’t any specific migration way to be found. Those species do not have any specific preconditions for their habitat and adapt also to barren soils. Species that require more specific habitats can migrate only through ways where those preconditions are available.