Current issue: 54(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'information'.

Category: Research article

article id 10147, category Research article
Mika Aalto, Olli-Jussi Korpinen, Tapio Ranta. (2019). Feedstock availability and moisture content data processing for multi-year simulation of forest biomass supply in energy production. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10147. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10147
Highlights: A method for allocating forest biomass availability for a multi-year simulation model was developed; The possibility to take the quality change of feedstock into account by moisture estimations was studied; A method to estimate weather data for moisture estimation equations with fewer parameters was presented.

Simulation and modeling have become more common in forest biomass studies. Dynamic simulation has been used to study the supply chain of forest biomass with numerous different models. A robust predictive multi-year model requires biomass availability data, where annual variation is included spatially and temporally. This can be done by using data from enterprises, but in some cases relevant data is not accessible. Another option is to use forest inventory data to estimate biomass availability, but this data must be processed in the correct form to be utilized in the model. This study developed a method for preparing forest inventory data for a multi-year simulation supply model using the theoretical availability of feedstock. Methods for estimating quality changes during roadside storage are also presented, including a possible parameter estimation to decrease the amount of data needed. The methods were tested case by case using the inventory database “Biomass Atlas” and weather data from a weather station in Mikkeli, Finland. The data processing method for biomass allocation produced a reasonable quantity of stands and feedstock, having a realistic annual supply with variation for the demand point. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to estimate moisture content changes using weather data. The estimations decreased the accuracy of the model and, therefore, estimations should be kept minimal. The presented data preparation method can generate a supply of forest biomass for the simulation model, but the validity of the data must be ensured for correct model behavior.

  • Aalto, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7768-1145 E-mail: mika.aalto@lut.fi (email)
  • Korpinen, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli-jussi.korpinen@lut.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5464-5136 E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi
article id 10089, category Research article
Arto Haara, Annika Kangas, Sakari Tuominen. (2019). Economic losses caused by tree species proportions and site type errors in forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10089. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10089
Highlights: Errors in tree species proportions caused more economic losses for forest owners than site type errors; Economic losses due to sub-optimal treatments were observed from 26.5% to 31.7% of plots, depending on the remote sensing data set used; Even with the most accurate remote sensing data set, namely ALS data set, NPV losses were on average 124.4 € ha–1 with 3% interest rate.

The aim of this study was to estimate economic losses, which are caused by forest inventory errors of tree species proportions and site types. Our study data consisted of ground truth data and four sets of erroneous tree species proportions. They reflect the accuracy of tree species proportions in four remote sensing data sets, namely 1) airborne laser scanning (ALS) with 2D aerial image, 2) 2D aerial image, 3) 3D and 2D aerial image data together and 4) satellite data. Furthermore, our study data consisted of one simulated site type data set. We used the erroneous tree species proportions to optimise the timing of forest harvests and compared that to the true optimum obtained with ground truth data. According to the results, the mean losses of Net Present Value (NPV) because of erroneous tree species proportions at an interest rate of 3% varied from 124.4 € ha–1 to 167.7 € ha–1. The smallest losses were observed using tree species proportions predicted using ALS data and largest using satellite data. In those stands, respectively, in which tree species proportion errors actually caused economic losses, they were 468 € ha–1 on average with tree species proportions based on ALS data. In turn, site type errors caused only small losses. Based on this study, accurate tree species identification seems to be very important with respect to operational forest inventory.

  • Haara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: arto.haara@luke.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8637-5668 E-mail: annika.kangas@luke.fi
  • Tuominen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5429-3433 E-mail: sakari.tuominen@luke.fi
article id 9923, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Terje Gobakken, Stefano Puliti, Marius Hauglin, Erik Naesset. (2018). Value of airborne laser scanning and digital aerial photogrammetry data in forest decision making. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 9923. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9923
Highlights: Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and digital aerial photogrammetry (DAP) are nearly equally valuable for harvest scheduling decisions even though ALS data is more precise; Large underestimates of stand volume are most dangerous errors for forest owner because of missed cutting probabilities; Relative RMSE of stand volume and the mean volume in a test area explain 77% of the variation between the expected losses due to errors in the data in the published studies; Increasing the relative RMSE of volume by 1 unit, increased the losses in average by 4.4 € ha–1.

Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been the main method for acquiring data for forest management planning in Finland and Norway in the last decade. Recently, digital aerial photogrammetry (DAP) has provided an interesting alternative, as the accuracy of stand-based estimates has been quite close to that of ALS while the costs are markedly smaller. Thus, it is important to know if the better accuracy of ALS is worth the higher costs for forest owners. In many recent studies, the value of forest inventory information in the harvest scheduling has been examined, for instance through cost-plus-loss analysis. Cost-plus-loss means that the quality of the data is accounted for in monetary terms through calculating the losses due to errors in the data in the forest management planning context. These costs are added to the inventory costs. In the current study, we compared the losses of ALS and DAP at plot level. According to the results, the data produced using DAP are as good as data produced using ALS from a decision making point of view, even though ALS is slightly more accurate. ALS is better than DAP only if the data will be used for more than 15 years before acquiring new data, and even then the difference is quite small. Thus, the increased errors in DAP do not significantly affect the results from a decision making point of view, and ALS and DAP data can be equally well recommended to the forest owners for management planning. The decision of which data to acquire, can thus be made based on the availability of the data on first hand and the costs of acquiring it on the second hand.

  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, P.O. Box 68, FI-80170 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@luke.fi (email)
  • Gobakken, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
  • Puliti, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: stefano.puliti@nibio.no
  • Hauglin, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: marius.hauglin@nmbu.no
  • Naesset, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: erik.naesset@nmbu.no
article id 6989, category Research article
Åsa Gustafsson. (2017). Assessing work order information quality in harvesting. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 6989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6989
Highlights: This paper concludes that information quality with regards to accuracy in work order information components pertaining to “Landing – placement and size”, “Cleaning understory trees – not conducted and of low standard”, are lacking and need to be improved in harvesting.

Being a logging contractor involves several uncertainties, amongst others, information quality in the work order received from customers. The information quality of work orders is of the utmost importance for logging contactors, in order to be able to plan and conduct work properly. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: 1) identifying work order information components in harvesting, 2) identifying work order information quality dimensions in harvesting and 3) assessing work order information quality in harvesting. The paper is based on interviews and a survey. Various interviews took place in Sweden with professionals within the harvesting industry as well as logging contractors, and thereafter a survey was developed. Random selection was conducted and 100 Swedish logging contractors were contacted by telephone in order to answer the survey, with a response rate of 82% from the sample. The paper concludes that the information quality dimension of accuracy concerns the individual work order information components, whereas timeliness is related to receiving the complete work orders. A factor analysis has been conducted with five factors emerging. The assessment of work order information quality in harvesting implies that the potential for improvement exists with regard to increasing the accuracy of the order information for the components of “Cleaning under story trees – not conducted” and “Cleaning under story trees – of low standard” as well as “Landing – size”, and “Landing – placement”. However, their effect on capacity is utilization needs to be explored.

  • Gustafsson, Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: asa.gustafsson@lnu.se (email)
article id 922, category Research article
Malin Nilsson, Dianne Staal Westerlund, Olof Wahlberg, Ljusk Ola Eriksson. (2012). Forest planning in a Swedish company – a knowledge management analysis of forest information. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.922
Forest data and forest information are central to forest management planning. The knowledge a large forest-owning company possesses about its forests could potentially be a strategic capability. In this study, the forest-planning process of a large forest company is analyzed in terms of knowledge management (KM). The study was conducted as a case study of Sveaskog – the largest forest-owning company in Sweden. The study focuses on the long-term harvest strategy through medium-term planning until the stands are transferred to the tract bank and ready for operational planning. Interviews with key persons within the organization were conducted to assess how forest knowledge is used in this process. The results are presented for the four knowledge management processes: creation, storage-retrieving, transferring and applying. They show that the planning system relies to a great extent on codified knowledge realized by a push strategy.
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: malin.nilsson@slu.se (email)
  • Staal Westerlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dianne.wasterlund@slu.se
  • Wahlberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ljusk.ola.eriksson@slu.se
article id 906, category Research article
Eivind Meen, Anders Nielsen, Mikael Ohlson. (2012). Forest stand modelling as a tool to predict performance of the understory herb Cornus suecica. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.906
Forest simulation models have been widely used to predict future stand structure. Generally these models do not include the understory vegetation and its response on stand structure change or other environmental factors. Previous simulation studies have shown that stand structure related variables, e.g. basal area, can explain diversity of the forest floor vegetation in boreal forests. We hypothesise that such variables also can be used to explain the performance of understory species and we conceptualise how plant ecology and forest modelling can be combined to predict the performance of understory plants in Norwegian boreal forests. We predict the performance of an understory plant species (Cornus suecica) over time using simulated values of forest variables as input to models expressing the relationship between forest environment variables and plant performance variables (viz. plant height, plant dry weight, number of flowers, number of branches and number of leaves). We also present relationships between plant performance and explanatory variables commonly used in basic ecological research, variables that currently not are readily compatible with forest simulators (e.g. soil chemical variables).We found basal area of canopy trees being the most important explanatory variable explaining C. suecica performance. The performance variable dry weight was predicted by one single model whereas the other performance variables were best predicted by model averaging. Forest simulations for 150 years showed values of plant performance of C. suecica to be reduced during forest succession.
  • Meen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: eivind.meen@umb.no (email)
  • Nielsen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ohlson, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 55, category Research article
Antti Mäkinen, Annika Kangas, Mikko Nurmi. (2012). Using cost-plus-loss analysis to define optimal forest inventory interval and forest inventory accuracy. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 55. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.55
In recent years, optimal inventory accuracy has been analyzed with a cost-plus-loss methodology, where the total costs of inventory include both the measurement costs and the losses from the decisions based on the collected information. Losses occur, when the inaccuracies in the data lead to sub-optimal decisions. In almost all cases, it has been assumed that the accuracy of the once collected data remains the same throughout the planning period, and the period has been from 10 up to 100 years. In reality, the quality of the data deteriorates in time, due to errors in the predicted growth. In this study, we carried out a cost-plus-loss analysis accounting for the errors in (stand-level) growth predictions of basal area and dominant height. In addition, we included the inventory errors of these two variables with several different levels of accuracy, and costs of inventory with several different assumptions of cost structure. Using the methodology presented in this study, we could calculate the optimal inventory interval (life-span of data) minimizing the total costs of inventory and losses through the 30-year planning period. When the inventory costs only to a small extent depended on the accuracy, the optimal inventory period was 5 years and optimal accuracy RMSE 0%. When the costs more and more heavily depended on the accuracy, the optimal interval turned out to be either 10 or 15 years, and the optimal accuracy reduced from RMSE 0% to RMSE 20%. By increasing the accuracy of the growth models, it was possible to reduce the inventory accuracy or lengthen the interval, i.e. obtain clear savings in inventory costs.
  • Mäkinen, Simosol Oy, Rautatietori 4, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.makinen@simosol.fi (email)
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nurmi, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 101, category Research article
Risto Laamanen, Annika Kangas. (2011). Large-scale forest owner’s information needs in operational planning of timber harvesting - some practical views in Metsähallitus, Finnish state-owned enterprise. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 101. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.101
Metsähallitus in Finland is a state enterprise that manages about 3.5 million hectares of productive commercial state-owned forest land. Metsähallitus has a forest management planning system which uses information stored in a GIS-based forest resource information system. The information on forest resources is currently collected using a standwise inventory system with ocular estimation of stand characteristics. New promising inventory methods based on laser scanning have been introduced. Before taking a new system into use, the information needs of Metsähallitus must be analysed. In this study, information needs in operational harvest planning have been analysed with a qualitative approach. A total of eight team leaders in the forestry business unit were interviewed, six of them representing the process responsible for the operational harvest planning and two representing the process responsible for the harvest and deliveries. Based on the study, two main decision making points with different information needs were confirmed. The first decision making point is related to finding the areas potential for immediate or near future harvesting. Here, geographical information on the need for the treatment as well as rough information on the harvestable volume is needed. In the second decision making point, a final decision of sites to be harvested is made with rather intensive field work. Precise delineations of the treatment are needed as well as good estimates of volumes of different timber assortments. When considering a new inventory system it is justified to consider how much of the information needs in these decision making points can be covered. Two different approaches are proposed for further analysis. The interviews revealed a need for a more structured tactical planning system. Some of the findings of this study – especially the decision making points and information needs in them – may be transferable to other large-scale forest owners.
  • Laamanen, Metsähallitus, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: risto.laamanen@metsa.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Metsähallitus, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 111, category Research article
Ilona Pietilä, Annika Kangas, Antti Mäkinen, Lauri Mehtätalo. (2010). Influence of growth prediction errors on the expected losses from forest decisions. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 111. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.111
In forest planning, forest inventory information is used for predicting future development of forests under different treatments. Model predictions always include some errors, which can lead to sub-optimal decisions and economic loss. The influence of growth prediction errors on the reliability of projected forest variables and on the treatment propositions have previously been examined in a few studies, but economic losses due to growth prediction errors is an almost unexplored subject. The aim of this study was to examine how the growth prediction errors affected the expected losses caused by incorrect harvest decisions, when the inventory interval increased. The growth models applied in the analysis were stand-level growth models for basal area and dominant height. The focus was entirely on the effects of growth prediction errors, other sources of uncertainty being ignored. The results show that inoptimality losses increased with the inventory interval. Average relative inoptimality loss was 3.3% when the inventory interval was 5 years and 11.6% when it was 60 years. Average absolute inoptimality loss was 230 euro ha–1 when the inventory interval was 5 years and 860 euro ha–1 when it was 60 years. The average inoptimality losses varied between development classes, site classes and main tree species.
  • Pietilä, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Mäkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 525, category Research article
Thomas Knoke. (2002). Value of complete information on red heartwood formation in beech (Fagus sylvatica). Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.525
Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is the most important deciduous tree species in Germany. The wood of beech shows normally a bright colour (white beech) as long as no coloured heartwood has been formed. The facultative heartwood formation is induced when oxygen enters central parts of older trees, where dead or at least less vital parenchyma exist. The coloured heartwood is usually called ‘red heartwood’. Beech without red heartwood can preferably be found in younger trees which show a high water content even in central parts of the stem. The presence of red heartwood is regarded as a severe reduction of timber quality. Numerous studies have investigated opportunities to derive information on the presence and characteristics of red heartwood of standing beech trees. But until now it has not been tested whether such information could be helpful to improve the economics of beech-silviculture. This paper investigates whether complete information on the heartwood of standing beech could be useful to control the proportion of discoloured timber harvested during one rotation. It is also examined, which kind of information on the heartwood could be used to improve the economic results. To verify this, simulations based on simple algorithms were conducted. The general assumption was made that all information on the heartwood would be available. The results show that information which is restricted on the mere existence of red heartwood is neither suited to significantly reduce the amount of coloured timber nor is it possible to improve economic results based on this information. Only based on information on the recent formation of red heartwood of beech, which is actually still white the amount of discoloured timber can be reduced significantly. Consequently the discounted cash flows can only be substantially improved based on information on an expected formation of recent red heartwood.
  • Knoke, Institute of Silviculture and Forest Management, Technische Universität München, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: knoke@wbfe.forst.tu-muenchen.de (email)

Category: Review article

article id 369, category Review article
Jaroslaw Zawadzki, Chris J. Cieszewski, Michal Zasada, Roger C. Lowe. (2005). Applying geostatistics for investigations of forest ecosystems using remote sensing imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 369. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.369
Geostatistically based methods that utilize textural information are frequently used to analyze remote sensing (RS) images. The role of these methods in analyzing forested areas increased rapidly during the last several years following advancements in high-resolution RS technology. The results of numerous applications of geostatistical methods for processing RS forest images are encouraging. This paper summarizes such results. Three closely related topics are reviewed: 1) specific properties of geostatistical measures of spatial variability calculated from digital images of forested areas, 2) determination of biophysical forest parameters using semivariograms and characterization of forest ecosystem structure at the stand level, and 3) forest classification methods based on spatial information.
  • Zawadzki, Environmental Engineering Department, Warsaw Technical University, Ul. Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaroslaw.zawadzki@is.pw.edu.pl (email)
  • Cieszewski, D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zasada, Department of Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw Agricultural University, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lowe, D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 10197, category Research note
Ville Kankare, Ville Luoma, Ninni Saarinen, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Markus Holopainen, Mikko Vastaranta. (2019). Assessing feasibility of the forest trafficability map for avoiding rutting – a case study. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10197. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10197
Highlights: A static trafficability map was developed to provide information about suitable harvesting season; The majority (91.7%) of the evaluated thinning stands were harvested without causing rutting damage if operations were timed correctly in relation to the static trafficability map information; The static trafficability map provides reliable and slightly conservative estimation of the forest trafficability for supporting forest operations.

Information on forest trafficability (i.e. carrying capacity of the forest floor) is required before harvesting operations in Southern Boreal forest conditions. It describes the seasons when harvesting operations may take place without causing substantial damage to the forest soil using standard logging machinery. The available trafficability information have been based on subjective observations made during the wood procurement planning. For supporting forest operations, an open access map product has been developed to provide information on trafficability of forests. The forest stands are distributed into classes that characterize different harvesting seasons based on topographic wetness index, amount of vegetation, ground water height and ditch depth. The main goal of this case study was to evaluate the information of the static forest trafficability map in relation to the detected rutting within logging tracks measured in the field. The analysis concentrated on thinning stands since the effect of rutting is significant on the growth of the remaining trees. The results showed that the static trafficability map provided reliable and slightly conservative estimation of the forest trafficability. The majority (91.7%) of the evaluated stands were harvested without causing significant damage if harvesting was timed correctly compared to the trafficability information. However, it should be pointed out that the weather history at small scale, the skills of a driver, and effects of used machinery are not considered in the map product although they can have a considerable impact on the rutting.

  • Kankare, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland; Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6038-1579 E-mail: ville.kankare@uef.fi (email)
  • Luoma, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.luoma@helsinki.fi
  • Saarinen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ninni.saarinen@helsinki.fi
  • Peuhkurinen, Arbonaut Oy, Malminkaari 13–19, FI-00700 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.peuhkurinen@arbonaut.com
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
  • Vastaranta, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.vastaranta@uef.fi

Category: Article

article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5479, category Article
Douglas K. Loh, Hannu Saarenmaa. (1992). Design of integrated forest resource information systems. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5479. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15640

Managing forests and other natural resources requires merging of data and knowledge from many fields. Research efforts in many countries have simultaneously aimed at computer applications to help managing the large amounts of data involved and the complexities of decision making. This has invariably led to large integrated systems. An integrated system is software that consists of modules for various tasks in natural resource management, spatial analysis, simulation and optimization, diagnostic reasoning, levels, and communicating with the user.

The paper presents an overview of the need, levels and historical development of integrated systems. Newly emerged technologies, especially object-oriented programming and the X Window System with its associated environment have given new flexibility and transparency to the designs. The client-server architecture is found out as an ideal model for integrated systems. The paper describes an implementation of these ideas, the INFORMS system that supports the information needs of district level forest management planning.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Loh, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5455, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1991). Tiedottamisesta kannattaa keskustella. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15613
English title: Cooperation between scientists and press officers in scientific information.

The paper is a comment on a previous paper in the issue discussing the challenges in providing information on science to the public. The author points out that in this process cooperation between a scientist and a press officer is needed, and that the scientific formulation differs from that of the media.

  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5454, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1991). Tieteestä tiedottaminen - meneekö metsään? Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15612
English title: The role of a researcher in providing scientific information.

This paper discusses the ways of providing scientific information and the role of a researcher in the process. The author contemplates the relationship between the researcher and a press officer and ways to present the scientific findings, and its challenges.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5453, category Article
Annika Kangas. (1991). Updated measurement data as prior information in forest inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5453. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15611

Old inventory data has widely been used as prior information in forest inventory using the method of sampling with partial replacement (SPR). In this method knowledge about forest growth has not been utilized. However, the accuracy of the inventory results can be improved if this knowledge is utilized. The usability of the inventory results can be improved if the prior information is updated by treewise growth models. In this paper a statistical basis is presented for a method in which such information can be used. The applicability of the method is also discussed. An example is given to demonstrate the method.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5307, category Article
Simo Poso, Raito Paananen, Markku Similä. (1987). Forest inventory by compartments using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5307. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15464

A method for using satellite data in forest inventories and updating is described and tested. The stand characteristics estimated by the method showed high correlation with the same characteristics measured in the field. The correlation coefficients for volume, age and mean height were about 0.85. It seems that the method is applicable to practical forestry. Extensive work in programming, however, is required.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paananen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Similä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7524, category Article
Jari Varjo. (1997). Change detection and controlling forest information using multi-temporal Landsat TM imagery. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 258 article id 7524. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7524

A method was developed for relative radiometric calibration of single multitemporal Landsat TM image, several multitemporal images covering each other, and several multitemporal images covering different geographical locations. The radiometrically calibrated different images were used for detecting rapid changes on forest stands. The nonparametric Kernel method was applied for change detection. The accuracy of the change detection was estimated by inspecting the image analysis results in field.

The change classification was applied for controlling the quality of the continuously updated forest stand information. The aim was to ensure that all the manmade changes and any forest damages were correctly updated including the attribute and stand delineation information. The image analysis results were compared with the registered treatments and the stand information base. The stands with discrepancies between these two information sources were recommended to be field inspected.

  • Varjo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7674, category Article
J. Ashley Selby, Leena Petäjistö. (1992). Small sawmills as enterprises: a behavioural investigation of development potential. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 228 article id 7674. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7674

The investigation examines the development potential of small sawmills in rural Finland. Development is defined with qualitative bias, given small sawmills’ limited possibilities for large-scale investments. Potential is defined in terms of the behavioural limitations to development. The investigation assumes that small sawmill entrepreneurial behaviour is essentially satisficing, and that the concept of bounded rationality is applicable. The empirical material concerns a random sample of 399 sawmills from all regions in Finland collected in connection with the 1990 small sawmill inventory.

Three sets of enterprise/entrepreneurial attributes are constructed using principal component analyses: i) entrepreneurial skills & organization, ii) small sawmill outlets, and iii) information attributes. Development potential is measured by employing discriminant analyses to test these attributes against four a priori sawmill classifications: i) sawmill production structure, ii) entrepreneurial development intentions, ii) sawmill operating environments, and iv) sawmilling as a livelihood. Each of these analyses contributes to an understanding of the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic.

Based on the use of Pred’s behavioural matrix, small sawmill entrepreneurs’ quantity & quality of information and their ability to use information are examined with respect to sawmill typologies. In this way, the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic is given a third dimension, that of the entrepreneurs’ partial space. The analysis is therefore able to examine development potential from the standpoint of an entrepreneur-enterprise-environment (partial space) trialectic.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Petäjistö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7652, category Article
J. Ashley Selby. (1989). An exploratory investigation of entre­preneurial space: the case of small sawmills, North Karelia, Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 205 article id 7652. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7652

The investigation concerns the nature of the dialectic relationships between small-scale entrepreneurs in peripheral areas and their business environments.

The investigation is weighted towards a theoretical and philosophical examination of the ways in which the behaviours of real-world entrepreneurs relate to their business environments. The theoretical framework first examines the assumption of intended or bounded rationality, which recognizes that human beings are in possession of imperfect information and imperfect ability, so that their perceived world is only an approximation of the real world. Following this, an epistemology is sought which enables the individual entrepreneur to be considered as the creator of his own world, and to compare this private world to the shared context of a wider set of spatial and social relations. Such an epistemology is found in existential phenomenology, which is subjected to a critical review.

As an empirical case study, the investigation examines the small sawmill entrepreneurs of North Karelia, Finland. The empirical investigation examines the aspects of the small-scale entrepreneurs’ business attitudes, perceived business environments, and their ability to use business-related information. The existential man-environment dialectic is revealed by relating these attributes to the entrepreneurs’ social setting and the level of entrepreneurship as revealed by the sawmill typology.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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