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Articles containing the keyword 'juvenile wood'.

Category: Research article

article id 938, category Research article
Lars Karlsson, Tommy Mörling, Urban Bergsten. (2013). Influence of silvicultural regimes on the volume and proportion of juvenile and mature wood in boreal Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.938
Highlights: Initial stand densities have a large impact on the proportion of mature wood within trees throughout most of their life cycle; The difference between regimes in volume of long fibres in crop trees could be substantial; Long-term silvicultural strategies implemented at juvenile stand ages can be important tools in order to produce wood raw material suited for specific end-uses.
Trees from 48 to 78 years old, exposed to three different long-term silvicultural regimes, were examined for transition ages between juvenile (JW), transition (TW) and mature wood (MW), total wood volume and proportions of the same wood types, as defined by fibre length. Twenty one sample trees were collected at sites with similar growing conditions within the same geographical area. Stem discs and fibre samples from breast height (BRH), 20% of tree height, green crown height and 70% of tree height were analysed. Trees growing in an environment with few neighboring trees (Sparse regime) started to produce MW, on average, five years later at BRH and six to nine years later at 20% of total tree height than trees in stands with high stem numbers (Dense regime) and trees growing in stands where the stem number had been heavily reduced after an initial high stand density (Dense/Sparse regime). For all regimes, the greatest mean fibre length was found below the green crown and high initial stem numbers were found to positively influence fibre length. The proportion of MW in the whole stem was 34% at Sparse regime sites, 57–69% at Dense/Sparse sites and 63–64% in sites where there was a Dense regime. The proportion of MW was significantly lower for trees from the Sparse regime on each stem section compared. In conclusion, the results suggest that the initial condition a tree faces affects the stem wood properties and quality output at the end of the rotation period.
  • Karlsson, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.karlsson@slu.se (email)
  • Mörling, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tommy.morling@slu.se
  • Bergsten, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
article id 439, category Research article
Christina Lundgren. (2004). Microfibril angle and density patterns of fertilized and irrigated Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 439. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.439
Two Norway spruce nutrient optimisation trials, one in the north of Sweden and one in the south, were used to study the effects of intensive growth and fertilization on wood density and microfibril angle. Three different treatments and a control were available; daily irrigation, daily liquid fertilization and solid fertilization. The nutrient optimisation was based on foliage analysis and the solid fertilization essentially comprised the same amount of nutrients but was applied annually in solid form. Measurements of density and microfibril angle (MFA) were performed using X-ray diffraction. Growth rate, expressed as a transformation of annual ring width, was very important at the southern site when the effect of cambial maturation had been taken into account. Effects of both fertilization and irrigation remained strong and significant for density, and irrigation was a significant factor explaining MFA. At the northern site distance from pith was the dominant factor but the effect of growth rate was also strong and the treatment effect was significant for both density and MFA. The combination of higher MFA and decrease in density for fertilized trees resulted in a lower calculated strength of the wood. An over 100% increase in ring width only corresponded to approximately a 20% decrease in wood density and the production of wood dry matter was hence increased by treatments.
  • Lundgren, SLU, Dept. of Forest Products and Markets, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: christina.lundgren@spm.slu.se (email)
article id 438, category Research article
Christina Lundgren. (2004). Cell wall thickness and tangential and radial cell diameter of fertilized and irrigated Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.438
Two Norway spruce nutrient trials were used to evaluate the effects of fertilization and irrigation on transverse tracheid dimensions. Three different treatments and a control (C) were used; daily irrigation (I), daily liquid fertilization (IL) and an annual solid fertilization (F). The nutrient optimisation was based on foliage analysis and both liquid and solid fertilization essentially comprised the same amount of nutrients but the latter was applied annually in solid form. The cell measurements; cell wall thickness, radial and tangential cell widths, were obtained using image analysis (SilviScan at CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia). Mean annual cell wall thickness was decreased by fertilization (F and IL) on both sites whereas no effect of the irrigation on wall thickness could be detected. Radial cell width was increased by treatment at Flakaliden but at Asa the effect of irrigation and fertilization was reversed when the data structure i.e. development from pith and out and annual ring width was taken into account. Tangential cell width was not significantly affected by treatment at Flakaliden. At Asa fertilization caused a small increase on tangential cell width. Ring width was positively affected by treatment and is an important factor explaining the effects on primarily cell wall thickness and radial cell width.
  • Lundgren, SLU, Dept. of Forest Products and Markets, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: christina.lundgren@spm.slu.se (email)
article id 542, category Research article
Håkan Lindström. (2002). Intra-tree models of juvenile wood in Norway spruce as an input to simulation software. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 542. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.542
Juvenile wood found in the first 5–25 growth rings of a conifer has a structure and properties that differ from mature wood. Juvenile wood is therefore said to influence processing and the end-use of sawn products. Consequently, models describing the juvenile wood content, within and between trees, could be useful in improving the utilisation and value of wood as an industrial raw material. The objective of the present study was to develop juvenile wood models, based on Norway spruce trees, which could be used within a model system for conversion simulation studies. Nineteen stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were selected throughout Sweden. Based on DBH, two small, two medium, and two large diameter timber trees were taken from each stand. DBH varied between 180–470 mm, tree height between 17–34 m, and total age between 51–152 years. Each selected tree was cross-cut into logs; discs were prepared from the large end of each log and from the top end of the top log. Image analysis was used to determine growth ring development on sampled discs. Using tree and growth variables, the juvenile core radius and the logarithmic value of juvenile wood percentage were modelled. The two models had an R2Adj of 0.71 and 0.88 respectively.
  • Lindström, University of Canterbury, School of Forestry, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: lindstromhakan@netscape.net (email)

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