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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'kataja'.

Category: Article

article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loisa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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