Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'kustannukset'.

Category: Article

article id 7127, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1961). Puutavaran hankintakustannusten ennakkolaskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 5 article id 7127. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7127
English title: Precalculation of logging costs.
English keywords: wood sales; costs; cost accounting

The investigation studies the whole logging operation from the stump to the consumption. The main purpose is to obtain a maximum profit. Proceeds and costs have been studied from the view point of precalculation. First, basic costs theory concepts are introduced. Second, the role of precalculation is described and finally a survey of the practical calculation problems and its results are described.

The purpose of precalculation is to achieve the best possible total financial result for the whole enterprise. The aim is to maximize the difference between future proceeds and the costs. When an alternative calculation is prepared, as many promising alternatives as possible is sought, and the most advantageous of these are selected after a rough survey. Since contributory factors are changing, precalculation is a continuous operation.

Logging operations can be handled in various alternative ways, of which the most advantageous has to be chosen. If there is a large number of different courses of action, the target must be maximum contribution margin per time unit. With labour, too, the aim is to maximize the differentiation between proceeds and costs of a long-term point of view. A working plan of the alternative selected can be formed into a target calculation with the aid of budgets and standards. When purchasing timber, procurement plans can be drawn up and priced for each consignment, and then combined and scrutinized to give target calculations. If the factors affecting them change, the targets must be altered.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7127, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1961). Puutavaran hankintakustannusten ennakkolaskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 5 article id 7127. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7127
English title: Precalculation of logging costs.
English keywords: wood sales; costs; cost accounting

The investigation studies the whole logging operation from the stump to the consumption. The main purpose is to obtain a maximum profit. Proceeds and costs have been studied from the view point of precalculation. First, basic costs theory concepts are introduced. Second, the role of precalculation is described and finally a survey of the practical calculation problems and its results are described.

The purpose of precalculation is to achieve the best possible total financial result for the whole enterprise. The aim is to maximize the difference between future proceeds and the costs. When an alternative calculation is prepared, as many promising alternatives as possible is sought, and the most advantageous of these are selected after a rough survey. Since contributory factors are changing, precalculation is a continuous operation.

Logging operations can be handled in various alternative ways, of which the most advantageous has to be chosen. If there is a large number of different courses of action, the target must be maximum contribution margin per time unit. With labour, too, the aim is to maximize the differentiation between proceeds and costs of a long-term point of view. A working plan of the alternative selected can be formed into a target calculation with the aid of budgets and standards. When purchasing timber, procurement plans can be drawn up and priced for each consignment, and then combined and scrutinized to give target calculations. If the factors affecting them change, the targets must be altered.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7474, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1957). Puutavaran hankinnan yhteiskustannukset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 4 article id 7474. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7474
English title: Joint costs of logging in Finland.

The analysis of costs is the foundation for the efficient management of logging activities. However, there is little research on cost accounting of logging. This article is an overview on harvesting of timber and its cost accounting, concentrating on joint costs. Costs have to be divided on their structural elements and then regrouped according to different accounting needs to be investigated. This investigation bases the structural cost analysis on running booking of costs. Due to the variability of logging, the costs are divided in detail into categories. The costs of logging are classified by their origin into personnel cost, material costs, costs of services, compensation for use, unrequited costs, risks, depreciation and interest. Further, the costs are classified according to the subject and quality of performance, and by location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7401, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1950). Tutkimuksia pinopuutavaran proomuun lastauksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 7401. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7401
English title: Investigations on loading piled wood into barges.

In Finland, transportation of wood by vessels has decreased, but is still an important mode of transport especially for firewood. In 1941-1947, nearly 25% of the firewood procured by the State Fuel Board was transported by vessels. This investigation concentrates on loading of wood into barges, since the share of wages of total expenses is greatest in this phase. The loading work amounts to nearly 40% of the total wages.

Two methods of loading barges are used in Finland: loading from the shore and truck loading. This study concentrates on the more common method, loading from the shore. A time study was conducted on the different stages of loading and piling wood into barges, most of which is done by hand. Most time-consuming part of the work is transporting the logs to the barge with a wheelbarrow, comprising over 40% of the working time. Time required for loading firewood is almost twice as much as loading pulp wood. Recommendations for loading places and organization of work are given in the article to improve the efficiency of the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7270, category Article
Eino Saari. (1932). Tutkimuksia Suomen sahateollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 7270. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7270
English title: Studies on cost of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry.

The article is a review on the costs of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry in 1920s based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries). The article includes statistics about the average size of if the saw timber bought in standing sales from private forests and harvested from the industry’s own forests, stumpage price of the timber, and labour costs of the harvesting of the wood. The average size of the logs was greater in the northern part of Finland, where the sawmills could limit the purchases of smaller timber. In the southern part of the country, the size of the timber decreased in 1922‒1926 due to growing demand of the timber. The long transport distances in the north influenced the costs. The number of logs per tree increased during the period. The level of stumpage price varied considerably in different parts of the country, falling from the south-west to the east and north. Competition of raw material increased the stumpage prices in 1922a and 1926‒27. The international economic downturn influenced the industry in 1929‒1931.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5412, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1990). Metsäpuiden paakkutaimituotannon nykynäkymät. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5412. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15564
English title: Future trends for containerized tree seedling production: A literature review.

Containerized tree seedlings will be used on an increasing scale in the future in different parts of the world. There are number of techniques for the production of small one-year-old seedlings but it has not been possible to develop a completely satisfactory methods for large containerized seedlings production. In the long-term development of pine plantations established with containerized seedlings the greatest problem has been deformation of the root system. With a new method, based on a sheet of peat and root pruning, it has been possible to produce conifer seedlings with a good root regeneration potential and favourable morphological root system development. The use of small containerized seedlings allows an increase in planting density without any marked increase in regeneration costs.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14845
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14845
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4976, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Toimittajan havaintoja metsätieteellisistä julkaisusarjoista. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4976. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14827
English title: Editorial observations on scientific series in forestry.

The paper describes the use of printed area in some scientific series concerned with forestry. The material consisted of 8 scientific series, the total number of analysed pages being 2,942. According to the results, the use of printed area was more efficient in journals and other similar periodicals which included several scientific papers than in series published as separate issues. The main reason was the more efficient editorial make-up. The Finnish papers included less figures but more tables than foreign series. There were marked differences between series irrespective of the country of origin. The average figure area varied from 60 to 180 cm2 between series, for example. According to the observations there are good possibilities for making more efficient use of the printed area available.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4962, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Ojitusalueiden hieskoivikoiden kasvatus taloudellisena vaihtoehtona. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14813
English title: The economics of growing downy birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland.

The aim of this study was to determine under what conditions and with what premises the growing of Betula pubescens Ehrh. is an economically competitive alternative to the growing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in drained peatlands. The basic material consisted of all drainage projects in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland in 1937–38 and 1957–59, according to the archives of the Central Board of Forestry Tapio, including such areas that were at least moderately fertile and had birch dominated young stands or no tree cover. A total of 202 sample plots were measured.

According to the results, the discounted timber yield of the thinned B. pubescens stands is about 10% greater than that of untreated stands. The removing of birch seedlings and the subsequent growing of fully stocked Scots pine is more profitable than growing B. pubescens stands only if the establishment and subsequent development of the pine stand involve no costs. If the site in question is a fertile open drained peatland, establishment of a pine stand is obviously a better financial proposition than a naturally regenerated birch stand. However, if there is already a fully stocked young birch stand on the site, it is more economical to let it grow using a shortish rotation time.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4900, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1974). Eräiden koneellistamisennusteiden herkkyydestä kustannustason muutoksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4900. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14744
English title: The influence of the change of cost level on some mechanization prognosis.

In this study a formula has been developed to describe the influence of the change of cost level on such a mechanization prognosis, where is assumed that wages and machine costs bear compound interest. In the study there are some numerical examples.

In the formula p1 = annual per cent increase of wages, p3 = annual per cent increase of machine costs, p2 = sudden and incident per cent increase of machine costs, and tv = delay in the profitability of mechanization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4765, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1968). Raakapuuvaraston suunnittelusta ja tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4765. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14550
English title: On the planning and control of raw-wood inventories.

The present study is an examination of the problems involved in raw-wood inventory from the viewpoint of business economics. The term inventory used here includes the standing timber marked for cutting as well as delivery contracts. The task of inventory is to buffer the differences in timing, locality, quantity and quality caused by purchase, production and delivery processes. The basic problem is concerned with profits.

The basic aim is to keep the inventory small. Its limits are determined by comparing the storage costs and costs of shortage. The costs may be decreased without risking the reliability of deliveries by technical development and road improvement, which also decrease dependence on the seasonal variation of harvesting of timber. A model based on present practices, statistics and practical experiences can be used to calculate different alternatives. The volume of purchases, felling, deliveries, transportation, and differences in quantities and transfer is used to estimate the target level of the inventory. It forms a forecast which the future performances can be compared to. In addition to monitoring turnover rate of the total inventory and capital tied to the inventory, also the exceptions in structure, time and quantity of the inventory and the factors changing it should be monitored. A special difficulty in timber inventory book-keeping are the continuous variations in the measured volumes even if no loss occurs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7585, category Article
Jorma Ahvenainen. (1976). Suomen paperiteollisuuden kilpailukyky 1920- ja 1930-luvulla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 151 article id 7585. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7585
English title: The competitive position of the Finnish paper industry in the inter-war years.

The aim of the present study was to explain how the Finnish paper industry increased its production and its exports, broadened its markets and managed to show a profit in its activities during the period between the two world wars, despite the restrictive international commercial policies then prevailing, and despite the economic depression of the thirties. Newsprint has been treated as a subject for detailed examination.

The study is based on a comparative investigation of the price received by the paper mills for their paper and the costs of production. Since the market price of paper fell during the twenty years in question, one must examine how the mills responded to the reduction in selling price. Technically the study ranges from the valuation of the standing timber to the handing over of the finished product to the buyer. Between 1929 and 1933 the cost of producing newsprint fell by 387 marks per ton.

The most significant factor in maintaining competitive power was the technical development and increased output brought about in the mills. That alone accounted for half the savings achieved. The reduction in the buying price of wood and in delivery costs accounted for about a third of the difference in production costs, and other factors for the remaining fifth. In addition, the devaluation of the Finnish mark was crucial. Measures taken to reduce costs were effective in so far as the paper mills, with only one or two exceptions, maintained their competitiveness in international markets and managed not only to retain but also to extend their markets.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ahvenainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7585, category Article
Jorma Ahvenainen. (1976). Suomen paperiteollisuuden kilpailukyky 1920- ja 1930-luvulla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 151 article id 7585. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7585
English title: The competitive position of the Finnish paper industry in the inter-war years.

The aim of the present study was to explain how the Finnish paper industry increased its production and its exports, broadened its markets and managed to show a profit in its activities during the period between the two world wars, despite the restrictive international commercial policies then prevailing, and despite the economic depression of the thirties. Newsprint has been treated as a subject for detailed examination.

The study is based on a comparative investigation of the price received by the paper mills for their paper and the costs of production. Since the market price of paper fell during the twenty years in question, one must examine how the mills responded to the reduction in selling price. Technically the study ranges from the valuation of the standing timber to the handing over of the finished product to the buyer. Between 1929 and 1933 the cost of producing newsprint fell by 387 marks per ton.

The most significant factor in maintaining competitive power was the technical development and increased output brought about in the mills. That alone accounted for half the savings achieved. The reduction in the buying price of wood and in delivery costs accounted for about a third of the difference in production costs, and other factors for the remaining fifth. In addition, the devaluation of the Finnish mark was crucial. Measures taken to reduce costs were effective in so far as the paper mills, with only one or two exceptions, maintained their competitiveness in international markets and managed not only to retain but also to extend their markets.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ahvenainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7569, category Article
Heikki Vesikallio. (1974). Yksityismetsälöiden alueelliset yhdentymisratkaisut puunkorjuun ja metsänhoitotöiden kustannusten kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 135 article id 7569. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7569
English title: Regional cooperation in farm forests in Finland. Possibilities to control the costs of wood harvesting and silvicultural operations.

The paper deals with the possibilities of decreasing the costs of timber harvesting and silvicultural work through regional cooperation between private forest owners in Finland. Alternatives based on joint management and, on the other hand, joint ownership were compared with activities on a forest-unit basis. According to the results obtained, considerable savings in costs can be gained through cooperation on a regional basis. Examination of the data obtained from the study shows that in the case of harvesting some 40 million Finnish marks can be saved annually by application of the joint-management alternative, and as much as 90 million marks annually by the joint-ownership alternative, when taking the whole country into consideration. The corresponding values for silvicultural work were 2 million marks and 4 million marks, respectively.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesikallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4716, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kustannusten jakaminen yhteisissä metsäojitushankkeissa. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4716. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14274
English title: Allocation of costs in joint forest drainage undertakings.

One forest drainage undertaking in Finland often consists of woodlots belonging to several owners, and over hundred owners may be involved. In the present paper a method for allocation the costs to different owners in a joint drainage undertaking is worked out. The problem has been emphasised by the new Waterways Law, which enables also such drainage projects to be undertaken to which some of the land owners oppose. In those cased the costs must be allocated according to the benefit driven by each owner from the project.

The method attempts to assess the benefits to be driven from the forest drainage, those costs of the drainage that are joint and thus subjected to allocation, and what is the area affected by drainage as used as a basis for cost allocation.

The joined costs are apportioned in the following manner. The area of peatland adjusted to differences in the benefit obtained by drainage is ascertained by the land holder by multiplying the index number by the corresponding areas. In the case of cultivated agricultural land, also an index showing the need for drainage is used in computing the adjusted area. Each topographic unit in the map is provided with a notation of its apportionment area. Joined costs are allocated to different land owners in relation to their adjusted land areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4716, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kustannusten jakaminen yhteisissä metsäojitushankkeissa. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4716. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14274
English title: Allocation of costs in joint forest drainage undertakings.

One forest drainage undertaking in Finland often consists of woodlots belonging to several owners, and over hundred owners may be involved. In the present paper a method for allocation the costs to different owners in a joint drainage undertaking is worked out. The problem has been emphasised by the new Waterways Law, which enables also such drainage projects to be undertaken to which some of the land owners oppose. In those cased the costs must be allocated according to the benefit driven by each owner from the project.

The method attempts to assess the benefits to be driven from the forest drainage, those costs of the drainage that are joint and thus subjected to allocation, and what is the area affected by drainage as used as a basis for cost allocation.

The joined costs are apportioned in the following manner. The area of peatland adjusted to differences in the benefit obtained by drainage is ascertained by the land holder by multiplying the index number by the corresponding areas. In the case of cultivated agricultural land, also an index showing the need for drainage is used in computing the adjusted area. Each topographic unit in the map is provided with a notation of its apportionment area. Joined costs are allocated to different land owners in relation to their adjusted land areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4671, category Article
O. Leskinen, O. Vuorelainen. (1957). Tutkimus keskuslämmityslaitosten eri polttoaineiden taloudellisen käytön alueellisesta jakautumisesta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4671. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9118
English title: A study on regional differences in economical use of different fuels in central heating boilers in Finland.

The purpose of the study was to find out the most economical fuel for central heating boilers in different parts of Finland. The most common central heating fuels and boilers used in Finland were compared in the study.

The present consumption of different fuels and the regional distribution of the boilers of a few main types was investigated. The costs were calculated according to the costs level of February 1957. To be able to compare the costs, both variable costs and fixed costs were calculated. The heat output produced annually in the different boilers was studied to divide the fixed costs into costs per heat unit.

Comparison of the total costs per heat unit showed that cost of wood or imported fuels (oil, coke, coal etc.) was about on the same level in the coastal areas close to import harbours, but wood was the cheapest fuel for central heating in inland.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Leskinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorelainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4671, category Article
O. Leskinen, O. Vuorelainen. (1957). Tutkimus keskuslämmityslaitosten eri polttoaineiden taloudellisen käytön alueellisesta jakautumisesta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4671. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9118
English title: A study on regional differences in economical use of different fuels in central heating boilers in Finland.

The purpose of the study was to find out the most economical fuel for central heating boilers in different parts of Finland. The most common central heating fuels and boilers used in Finland were compared in the study.

The present consumption of different fuels and the regional distribution of the boilers of a few main types was investigated. The costs were calculated according to the costs level of February 1957. To be able to compare the costs, both variable costs and fixed costs were calculated. The heat output produced annually in the different boilers was studied to divide the fixed costs into costs per heat unit.

Comparison of the total costs per heat unit showed that cost of wood or imported fuels (oil, coke, coal etc.) was about on the same level in the coastal areas close to import harbours, but wood was the cheapest fuel for central heating in inland.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Leskinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorelainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4532, category Article
E. J. Koskenmaa. (1938). Hoitoalueen talous ja tieverkosto. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4532. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13941
English title: Economy of a regional district and road network.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation summarises the state of road network in districts of Forest Service, the costs of road construction and future needs of transport.

  • Koskenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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