Current issue: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'kuusikko'.

Category: Article

article id 7490, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1959). Suomalaisista seinäsammaltyypeistä ja niiden asemasta Cajanderin luokitusjärjestelmässä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 69 no. 2 article id 7490. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7490
English title: Finnish feather-moss types and their position in Cajander’s forest site classification .

Since Finnish professor A.K. Cajander published his theory on forest types, there have been discussion and contradictory studies on certain forest types. This paper is a litterature review on the thick-moss type in Northern Finland and its parallel types in Kainuu and Southern Finland. First, the principles of Cajander’s theory on forest types is described and discussed. It is concluded that Cajander has described forest site types as their common, genuine variants. Borderline variants have been excluded from the description. 

Second, the North Finnish thick-moss type (Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type, HMT) and its position in Cajander’s system is discussed. Concepts of this forest type have varied considerably, and it has been argued that the type does not fit Cajander’s system very well, as it arises as a result of the invasion of other forest types by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with consequent degeneration of the site.  

The writer concludes findings of the results of the previous studies about MHT and its relations to the Myrtillus type. Cajander in his system included the thick-moss type in the moist upland forests as a type whose vegetation is less exacting than that of the Myrtillus type. This position seems to be the right one. Some factors point out the moist nature of HMT: the ability of Norway spruce to compete, a relatively high persipitation, the humidity of the climate in general and the rather poor water percolation capacity of the moraine soil. The HMT sites are relatively poor. It is stated that the opinion that the thick-moss type is secondary state of development of the Myrtillus type has no plant sociological, ecological, mensurational or silvicultural foundation. The type is probably Finland's most dynamic forest type, but in the natural forest its dynamics are confined to such changes as are permitted within the same forest type. HMT must be described as three series of plant association types, which differ from another to some extent. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7473, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1957). Käenkaali-mustikkatyypin kuusikoiden kehityksestä Suomen lounaisosassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 3 article id 7473. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7473
English title: On the development of spruce forests of the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type in the south-west of Finland.

In this investigation was studied 1) Volume growth and yield of timber in managed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests under different rotations. 2) Value growth, net forest income and soil expectation value of managed forests under different rotations, and 3) The rotations of spruce forests managed on different rotation principles. The data was collected from Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests in South-West Finland.

Two developmental series of stands were constructed for the research, one of which were of better sites than the other. Sample plots were pure, even-aged spruce stands in well-managed forests. The stands had been thinned from below. The age varied from 25-30 years to the age of final cutting.

According to the study, in the artificially regenerated spruce stands the highest mean annual volume growth, 9.7 m3/ha, and also the highest net annual income of 14,50 Finnish marks/ha (calculated from average stumpages) was reached in rotation of 70 years. In the other managed spruce forests a mean annual volume growth of 6.6-8.8 m3/ha and the net annual income of 10,500-14,500 Finnish marks/ha were reached in the rotation of 70-100 years. The rotation for the maximum mean annual volume growth varied in the different series between 67-92 years. The maximum mean annual forest rent was only achieved in series B in a rotation of about 100 years, and in a naturally normal stand in a rotation of about 120 years. The intensity of thinnings and silviculture had a greater effect on value growth and on net income than on volume growth.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7389, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1947). Perä-Pohjolan kuusikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7389
English title: Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola in Northern Finland.

The different kinds of injuries in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands was studied in 52 sample plots in Peräpohjola in the northernmost Finland. The age classes of the stands varied from 100 years to over 220 years. Most of the stands were unevenaged, as is usual in the area.

In the younger age classes (121-160 years) majority of the trees were of normal quality or had smaller injuries in all forest types. In age classes over 160 years the trees of merchantable quality decreased markedly in all forest types. The quality of the trees decreases with the age especially because of butt rot, braking of trees and crooks, forks and heart and top decay caused by the injuries. To ensure future quality it would be important that the stand is healthy from the beginning. When old spruce stands of the area are in large extent diseased by the root rot, it is questionable if they can be regenerated using natural regeneration. The spruce stands of the area are also relatively branchy. This could be prevented by growing the young stands dense. Changing the dominant tree species to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the dry upland forest sites could be a way to improve the quality of the forests in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4558, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Kokemuksia paksusammaltyypin metsien käsittelystä. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4558. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13965
English title: Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type forests in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes a study of forest management practices suitable for in Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type forests, typical for Northern Finland. A special problem for the forest site type is poor regeneration due weak seed production of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and thick moss layer.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4513, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1937). Kuusimetsien uudistushakkauksista. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14091
English title: Regeneration felling of Norway spruce stands.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the principles of reneneration felling in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands.

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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