Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'larch'.

Category: Research article

article id 1340, category Research article
Mostafa Farhadi, Mulualem Tigabu, Per Christer Odén. (2015). Near Infrared Spectroscopy as non-destructive method for sorting viable, petrified and empty seeds of Larix sibirica. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1340
Highlights: Near Infrared spectroscopy discriminates filled-viable, empty and petrified seeds of Larix sibirica with 98%, 82% and 87% accuracy, respectively based on spectral differences attributed to moisture and storage reserves; The classification accuracy reached 100% when sorting seeds into viable and non-viable class; The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy has great potential as non-destructive sorting technique to upgrade seed lot quality.

Larix sibirica Ledeb. is one of the promising timber species for planting in the boreal ecosystem; but poor seed lot quality is the major hurdle for production of sufficient quantity of planting stocks. Here, we evaluated the potential of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy for sorting viable and non-viable seeds, as the conventional sorting technique is inefficient. NIR reflectance spectra were collected from single seeds, and discriminant models were developed with Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The computed model predicted the class membership of filled-viable, empty and petrified seeds in the test set with 98%, 82% and 87% accuracy, respectively. When two-class OPLS-DA model was fitted to discriminate viable and non-viable (empty and petrified seeds combined), the predicted class membership of test set samples was 100% for both classes. The origins of spectral differences between non-viable (petrified and empty) and viable seeds were attributed to differences in seed moisture content and storage reserves. In conclusion, the result provides evidence that NIR spectroscopy is a powerful non-destructive method for sorting non-viable seeds of Larix sibirica; thus efforts should be made to develop on-line sorting system for large-scale seed handling.

  • Farhadi, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mostafa.farhadi@slu.se
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.oden@slu.se
article id 921, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen. (2012). Tracheid wall thickness and lumen diameter in different axial and radial locations in cultivated Larix sibirica trunks. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.921
In Larix trunks the properties of wood differ clearly radially, but the axial differences are smaller as well as being less studied. Wood anatomy is in particular poorly studied, even though all other wood properties derive from cell and tissue structure. The aim of this study was to chart variation in tracheid size (double wall thickness (2CWT), diameter of lumen (RD)) within fast grown cultivated Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trunks. The differences in 2CWT and RD were clear between earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW), 2CWT increasing clearly less in EW than in LW towards the bark, while RD stayed quite stable in LW but in EW increased markedly towards the bark. The difference in 2CWT between EW and LW increased towards the upper trunk. In conclusion, the radial variation in RD and 2CWT was different between the butt and other studied heights. As the difference in 2CWT between EW and LW was smaller at the butt than the upper portion of the trunk, the wood was the most homogenous at the butt.
  • Luostarinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@uef.fi (email)
article id 45, category Research article
Guolei Li, Yong Liu, Yan Zhu, Qing Mei Li, R. Karsten Dumroese. (2012). Effect of fall-applied nitrogen on growth, nitrogen storage and frost hardiness of bareroot Larix olgensis seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 45. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.45
Nursery response of evergreen trees to fall fertilization has been studied widely, but little attention has been given to deciduous trees. Bareroot Olga Bay larch (Larix olgensis Henry) seedlings were fertilized in the nursery with urea at four rates (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha–1), with half of each rate applied on two dates (September 16 and October 1, 2009). The seedlings were excavated for evaluation on October 15. In the unfertilized (control) treatment, root and shoot dry mass increased by 100% and 57% respectively, while N concentration in the roots and shoots increased by 43% and 40% during the 30 day period. This indicated that substantial biomass growth during this period did not lead to internal nutrient dilution. Root dry mass increased when fall fertilization rates were ≥ 60 kg N ha–1. Fall fertilization increased N concentrations in root tissue by 48–73%. Compared with the control, shoot tissues of fall fertilized seedlings had slightly higher N concentration and content and significantly higher frost hardiness.
  • Li, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liu, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: lyong@bjfu.edu.cn (email)
  • Zhu, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Forest Silviculture of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumroese, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Moscow, ID, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 120, category Research article
Antti J. Lukkarinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Teijo Nikkanen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Survival, height growth and damages of Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances in field trials located in southern and northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.120
The aim of this study was to analyse differences in the survival and height growth of, as well as damages to Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances over four growing seasons in field trials established in 2006 in southern (Punkaharju) and northern Finland (Kivalo). In this context, the study also investigated if the geographical and climatic conditions of the origin of the provenance could explain the differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 20 Russian Siberian and Dahurian larch provenances and five seed sources from Finland (4) and Russia (1) as comparison lots. It was found that the Finnish seed sources of Siberian larch survived well in both the Kivalo and Punkaharju trials. Five northern latitude Russian provenances, of which one was Dahurian and the remainder were Siberian larches, had the highest survival in Kivalo. However, the differences observed in survival between provenances were only significant (p < 0.05) in Kivalo. Regardless of the trial, the differences, however, in height growth were significant and large between provenances. The southern Dahurian larches had a superior height growth in Punkaharju. The northern Dahurian larch provenance from Magadan (59°50′N, 150°40′E) had the largest height growth in Kivalo, among some northern Siberian larches. Damages were diverse, though Dahurian larches had less mammal damage than the Siberian larches. In general, the differences between provenances were not significant. Latitude and altitude best explained the differences between provenances, but also mean temperature, temperature sum and continentality index affected them (p < 0.05).
  • Lukkarinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lukkarinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 215, category Research article
Antti J. Lukkarinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Teijo Nikkanen, Heli Peltola. (2009). The growth rhythm and height growth of seedlings of Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances in greenhouse conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 215. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.215
The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth rhythm and height growth differ between various larch provenances grown in greenhouse conditions. We also investigated whether the geographic and climatic conditions at the origin of the provenance could explain the possible differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 16 Russian Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) provenances and four seed sources from Finland as comparison lots. The growth rhythm differences were clearest between the southern and northern provenances; the southern provenances grew for a longer period and the proportion of late summer height growth was larger. Autumn colouration also developed later in these provenances. In the Russian larch material the provenances with a longer growing period had greater height growth. In the whole material the relationship was not so linear due to the deviating behaviour of the comparison material. Several of the Russian larch provenances were taller than the Finnish comparison seed lots, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, the growth of these provenances must be followed for a much longer period in field trials before any conclusions can be drawn about their usability in practical forestry.
  • Lukkarinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lukkarinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Unit, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Unit, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1053, category Research note
Aleksey Fedorkov. (2014). Vitality and height growth of two Larix species and provenances in a field trial located in north-west Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 1053. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1053
Highlights: Differences in tree vitality among provenances were insignificant (p > 0.05) at an early age; The provenance effect was significant (p < 0.05) for total height; These findings were in agreement with those of Lukkarinen et al. (2010) using the same material at the same age for field trial located in Punkaharju (Finland).
Vitality and height of Larix species and provenances originating from Russia were estimated in a 5-yr field trial performed in the Komi Republic (north-west Russia) using a fully randomized single-tree plot design with 7–8 blocks. Tree provenance had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on tree vitality, though for Larix sukazcewii originating from the European part of Russia, trees from the northern regions were more vital than those from southern regions. Provenance was a significant (p < 0.05) factor for height, where the average height of 136 cm varied considerably (168 cm for trees from Nizhnij Novgorod and 111 cm for trees from Ufa). There were no significant correlations when vitality and height were compared to geographic and climatic variables for the locations.
  • Fedorkov, Institute of Biology, Komi Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, 167982, Kommunisticheskaya st., 28, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: fedorkov@ib.komisc.ru (email)

Category: Article

article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5021, category Article
Antti Koskimäki, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Inherent growth rythm of some Larix-species grown in a plastic greenhouse. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5021. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14875

The daily height growth rate of several larch species and progenies (Larix decidua, Larix sibirica, Larix laricina, Larix leptolepis) grown in a plastic greenhouse and in the open was measured. The growth pattern indoors was completely different compared with the normal outdoor growth pattern. The onset of growth took place in the greenhouse much earlier than outdoors and the phase of increasing growth was much shorter, as was expected. However, the phase of maximum growth was unexpectedly long. This fact suggests that there is great potential for using greenhouse cultivation to change the growth pattern of cultivated plants in order to obtain more complete utilization of the potential growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koskimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4989, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja iän vaikutuksesta lehtikuusen puuaineen tiheyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14843
English title: Observations on the effect of age on the basic density of larch wood.

About 100 years old larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. And L. decidua Mill.) trees were felled and the basic density samples taken from the stump level were determined. The number of trees was 21 and number of samples 378. The maximum basic density was reached at the age of 40–60 years, as counted from the pith. The basic density decreased as the width of the growth rings increased or the amount of heartwood decreased. The average basic density of the whole disc was 543 kg/m3 in L. sibirica and 497 kg/m3 in L. decidua. The basic densities of bark were 328 kg/m3 and 286 kg/m3, respectively. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Versuche mit ausländischen Holzarten im Staatsforst Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7529
English title: Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Versuche mit ausländischen Holzarten im Staatsforst Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7529
English title: Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1960). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Untersuchungen über das Wurzel- und Sprosswachstum einiger Gehölze. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4726. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14284
English title: Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species.
Original keywords: Wachstum; Baumarten; Versuche; Kiefer; Birke; Lärche

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hoffmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Untersuchungen über das Wurzel- und Sprosswachstum einiger Gehölze. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4726. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14284
English title: Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species.
Original keywords: Wachstum; Baumarten; Versuche; Kiefer; Birke; Lärche

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hoffmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4442, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1927). Cultivation of exotic tree species. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4442. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8390

Successful cultivation of a tree species outside its natural area of distribution involves that the original climate is similar to that of the area where it will be cultivated. Seeds should be procured from an area, where the climate is most similar to the area of cultivation. In addition, the site requirements should be met. To be worth of cultivation, the exotic tree species should offer advantages over the native species, such as wood quality, higher productivity, modest site requirement, greater endurance against spring frosts and cold in the winter, valuable by-products, resistance against grazing, insects or fungi, or improvement of soil.

In Finland, successful examples are Larix europaea Lam. &amp; A. DC. and Larix sibirica Lebed, which both give better yield than the native species, and have better resistance against decay. In Central Europe, Pseudotsuga mentziesii (Mirb.) Fnanko, Pinus strobus L. and Pinus sitchensis (Bong.) Carriére have proved to be good forest trees. In Hungary, Robinia pseudoacacia L. has become economically important. Eucalyptus spp. have been cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, South America and California.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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