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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'lime'.

Category: Research article

article id 469, category Research article
Henri Vanhanen, Timo O. Veteli, Sonja Päivinen, Seppo Kellomäki, Pekka Niemelä. (2007). Climate change and range shifts in two insect defoliators: gypsy moth and nun moth – a model study. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.469
Environmental factors influenced by global climate change determine the distribution ranges of organisms. Especially ectothermic animals are expected to shift their distribution ranges northwards in the next hundred years or so. In this study simulations made with CLIMEX-modelling software were used to predict the future distribution ranges of two Central European serious forest pest species: the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) and the gypsy moth (L. dispar L). The software calculates an ecoclimatic index based on the life cycle requirements of a species and thus represents the probability of a viable population to exist at a certain location. Three different climate warming scenarios were considered: temperature increase of 1.4, 3.6 and 5.8°C. Simulations generated with the current climate conditions corresponded well to the current distributions of the species. The climate warming scenarios shifted the northern boundary of the distribution for both of these species north by c. a. 500–700 km. Also the southern edge of the ranges retracted northwards by 100–900 km. The results of this study are in agreement with the results of empirical studies on other species. Being serious pest species, these species pose a potential threat to silviculture and therefore, have to be considered in the planning of forest management practices.
  • Vanhanen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veteli, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.veteli@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Päivinen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 372, category Research article
Ulf Sikström. (2005). Pre-harvest soil acidification, liming or N fertilization did not significantly affect the survival and growth of young Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 372. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.372
Acidification, liming, and N fertilization affect a number of soil properties. Such changes may have an impact on forest regeneration and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival and growth of Picea abies (L.) Karst. planted on plots that had been acidified (in 12 annual treatments totalling 600 or 1200 kg S ha–1 in the form of elemental sulphur), limed (12 x 500 = 6000 kg lime ha–1 in the form of CaCO3) or N-fertilized (3 x 200 = 600 kg N ha–1 in the form of urea) prior to harvest. Trees growing on plots treated with a combination of the N plus the lower S application were also tested. None of the treatments, applied in three replicate stands, significantly influenced either survival or growth of Picea abies trees during the first 11 growing seasons after planting.
  • Sikström, SkogForsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ulf.sikstrom@skogforsk.se (email)

Category: Research note

article id 7749, category Research note
Eeva J. Vainio, Sannakajsa M. Velmala, Pertti Salo, Seppo Huhtinen, Michael M. Müller. (2017). Defoliation of Tilia cordata trees associated with Apiognomonia errabunda infection in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7749. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7749
Highlights: Defoliation of Tilia cordata was investigated by fungal isolation from symptomatic leaf petioles and ITS sequence determination; The disease symptoms were associated with the presence of Apiognomonia errabunda; We report the first nucleotide sequences of A. errabunda from the Nordic countries.

We investigated the causative agent of a disease outbreak affecting small-leaved limes (Tilia cordata Mill.) and resulting in darkening of the leaf petioles and excessive defoliation during summer 2016 in southern Finland. The fungal species composition of the symptomatic petioles was examined by culture isolation and molecular identification using ITS rDNA sequences, which revealed the most prevalent fungal species present in the petioles as Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge) Höhn. Based on reviewing curated herbarium specimens deposited at the Universities of Helsinki and Turku, A. errabunda is native and widely distributed in small-leaved limes in Finland, and occasionally infects also other broadleaved trees, including Quercus robur L. and ornamental species of Tilia L. and Fagus L. The ITS sequence analysis conducted during this study revealed minor within-species polymorphisms similar to those observed earlier in the Central European and Russian populations of A. errabunda, and reports the first nucleotide sequences of this species from the Nordic countries.

  • Vainio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6739-7968 E-mail: eeva.vainio@luke.fi (email)
  • Velmala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sannakajsa.velmala@luke.fi
  • Salo, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Botanical Museum, P.O. Box 7, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.salo@helsinki.fi
  • Huhtinen, University of Turku, Herbarium, Biodiversity Unit, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sephuh@utu.fi
  • Müller, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: micms.muller@gmail.com

Category: Article

article id 7261, category Article
K. Linkola. (1930). Über die Halbhainwälder in Eesti. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 7261. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7261
English title: On half-deciduous woodlands in Estonia.

Half-deciduous woodlands are the combination of deciduous forests and heath forests from their vegetation. The article describes three half-deciduous forest types from the commune of Hager, 40 kilometers south form Tallinn.

The occurrence of half-deciduous forests depends on the soil conditions, especially on lime content of the soil, when the occurrence of other forest types is more a question of climate. They are important as an original site for many continental plant species.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5471, category Article
Hannu Fritze. (1992). Effects of environmental pollution on forest soil microflora - a review. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15632

The article is a literature review focusing on the reaction of soil respiration, litter decomposition and microflora of forest soils to various pollutants like acidic deposition, heavy metals and unusual high amounts of basic cations. There is a great deal of evidence indicating that environmental pollution affects soil microbial activity and community structure. Much of the data originates from experimental designs where high levels of pollutants were applied to the soil under field or laboratory conditions. Furthermore, many were short-term experiments designed to look for large effects. These experiments have an indicative value, but it has to be kept in mind that environmental pollution is a combination of many pollutants, mostly at low concentrations, acting over long periods of time. There is therefore consequently a demand for research performed in natural forest environments polluted with anthropogenic compounds. 

  • Fritze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7085, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Korrelation zwischen den Eigenschaften des Bodens und dem Zuwachs des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 10 article id 7085. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7085
English title: Paper on the correlation between the characteristics of the soil and the growth of forest stand.

The study is based on the results of the soil studies by Valmari (1921) and the growth inventories of respective areas. The aim is to show the connection of soil fertility (nutrient content) and forest growth with means of correlation calculations. The examined nutrients were nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, also the electrolyte content was studied.

The results show that with increase of nitrogen content of the soil the growth of pine stand increases as well. The correlation is clearly identified. The number of birch and spruce stands is too small for systematic review. For calcium there is a similar kind of relation. With phosphorus content or amount of electrolytes the correlation with doesn’t exist. Also the loss on ignition test was conducted. The relation found is somewhat weak.
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4751, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1967). On the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the bacteria and microfungi in humus layer. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4751. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14535

During the summer and fall of 1966 changes brought about by urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, nitrate of lime, and ammonium sulphate were observed. Application of the fertilizers corresponded to 100 kg/N per hectare.

The effect of urea was immediate. The pH rose and the bacterial density increased to 20–30 times more than determined in the spring, while the microfungal density decreased to one third of the spring density. In the ammonium sulphate plot opposite changes occurred almost as rapidly as in the previous case. A gradually increasing biological activity observed after application of calcium ammonium nitrate and of lime fertilizers seemed almost the same for bacteria and microfungi. Both microbe groups displayed consistent quantitative growth. pH 4.3 was the limit of acidity below which the bacteria showed a tendency to decline and the microfungi to increase, while the opposite was true above this limit.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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