Current issue: 53(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'männikkö'.

Category: Article

article id 7112, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Etelä-Suomen kylvömänniköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 3 article id 7112. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7112
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands established by sowing in Southern Finland.

In Southern Finland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is mainly sown on Vaccinium and Myrtillus-type sites. The material for the study was collected by measuring sample plots in pure, even-aged pine stand that had been sown. The sample stands had been thinned from below.

The volume of the stands was roughly the same as that of repeatedly thinned pine stands. The cubic volume of sown pine stands is 65–90%, varying according to age, of that of natural-normal pine stands. The current annual volume increment of stands on Myrtillus-type was 8–9 m3/ha at age of 20–30 years. The peak was reached at age of 35 years with 9 m3/ha, in the following years the increment is about 8 m3/ha until the age of 60 years. On Vaccinium type sites increment reaches 6–7 m3 level at age of 30 years, and attains the peak of 7 m3/ha at the age of 45 years. Annual increment was in young and middle-aged Myrtillus-type stands about 10% greater, and on Vaccinium-type stands 15–20% greater than in natural-normal pine stands.

The total volume increment in 70 years old Myrtillus-type stands was 580 m3/ha over bark, and in 80 years old Vaccinium-type stands 520 m3/ha. The total removal on Myrtillus-type sites totalled nearly 350 m3/ha in sown pine stands up to 70 years of age, and 280 m3/ha on Vaccinium-type stands. The total yield in sawn timber per hectare rises up to 6,300 cubic ft in a 70 years old stand on Myrtillus-type stands, and 5,300 cubic ft in Vaccinium-type stands. In conclusion, the volume and increment development of managed pine stands established by sowing up to 70–80 years of age is largely the same as in repeatedly thinned pine stands, but the structure and yield offer greater advantages. The investigation demonstrates that, in the case of Scots pine, sowing is an advantageous method of regeneration. Sowing is an advantage especially in the cases where natural regeneration is uncertain and slow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4435, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsien säilymisen turvaaminen Karjalan kannaksen Suomenlahden rannikolla. Silva Fennica no. 2 article id 4435. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8383
English title: Ensuring preservation of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) commissioned a study about condition of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus. The study was made because of a growing concern on overcutting of the private forests in the area. Dominant tree species in the area is Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In fresh mineral soil sites Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grows in mixed forest with pine or as pure stands. The forests are in average 50 to 70 years old. Younger or older stands are less frequent.

At the beginning of 18th century the local peasants sold plots for Russians, and a villa area was created along the coast. When Finland became independent, many of the properties changed owners. Timber harvesting of the forests increased and many small sawmills increased the demand of wood. Because of the cuttings, productivity of the forests decreases and danger for wind damage in the forests increases.

The author suggests that legislation created to prevent deforestation as well as counselling should be applied to improve forest management. In addition, a protective area should be formed in the Karelian Isthmus where forest preserving directives should be followed.

A summary in German is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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