Current issue: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'maa'.

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7159, category Article
Seppo E. Mustonen. (1965). Ilmasto- ja maastotekijöiden vaikutuksesta lumen vesiarvoon ja roudan syvyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 1 article id 7159. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7159
English title: Effect of meteorological and terrain factors in water equivalent of snow cover and frost depth.

The aim of the investigation was to obtain by snow and soil frost observations sufficient material for determination of regional springtime snow and soil frost values, because the water equivalent of snow and the frost depth affect runoff. The present paper elaborates a method by which the observations along a survey line can be corrected to be valid for a basin. Along the line 50 measurement points were arranged at specific intervals. Snow depth was recorded at each point, and snow density and frost depth at every fifth point. The terrain was studied along the line and the terrain of the survey points were classified in eight classes depending on the vegetation. The classes ranged from cultivated lands and open bogs to wooded areas according to volume of the growing stock and tree species composition.

The mean snow depth was 51.9 cm and mean snow density 0.235 g/m2. Water equivalent of snow in class 4 terrain (forest with small growing stock) was 30% higher than in class 8 (forest with high growing stock). An ample stand increases evaporation in wintertime. The difference can be partly caused by the different accumulation of snow in the different types of stands.

Soil type was not found to have any distinct influence on the frost depth in the present material. On cultivated lands the soil frost clearly penetrates to greater depth than in the forest. The growing stock of wooded areas influences the snow depth

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mustonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7155, category Article
Bo Högnäs. (1966). Investigations on forest types and stand development in Åland in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 2 article id 7155. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7155

The purpose of this study is to clarify the forest types in pure coniferous stands in Åland in Finland, to study them in a biological light and account for the production of the stands on respective sites. The flora of the forest types in Åland has been described in an earlier study, but as the plant associations have not been described it has often been difficult to determine the correct types in field work. Sample plots were chosen in coniferous forests with maximum 20% of other species. The vegetation analysis was limited to determine composition of species, projected coverage and the frequency of species. In addition, cubic volume and growth of the growing stock was calculated for the stands.

The results of the study showed that site type and fertility correspond to each other nearly without exception only on normal moraines, if only the ground vegetation is used as a criterion for the type. The general occurense of soils of different qualities makes it necessary to determine, besides forest type, other characteristics in the stands, preferably the dominant height. The total production of coniferous forests with great probability is smaller in Åland than in mainland Finland. The results can be applied also to Åboland’s archipelago, where the milieu of the coniferous forests is similar.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Högnäs, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7122, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Pinotavaraleimikon taksatoriset tunnukset ja niiden vaikutus leimikkoarvioinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 5 article id 7122. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7122
English title: Mensurational characteristics of cordwood stock market for felling and their effect on the precision of stock estimation.

The annual fellings and sales of pulpwood from the State Forests of Finland comprised 4.0–4.6 million m3 in 1955–1959. In order to improve the accuracy of the methods used in estimating the pulpwood stocks marked for felling, a pilot survey of 18 marked stocks was carried out in 1959. The stock area, average plot volume, variation of the plot volumes, size and shape of the plot and the distribution of the trees by diameter classes as factors affecting the precision have been studied in this paper.

The greater the mean volume of a plot the more homogenous is the structure of the marked stock. The same number of plots gives a better relative precision for the south Finnish marked stock than for the north Finnish ones, which are heterogenous and less valuable. Stocks smaller than 50 ha can often be estimated more advantageously by the strip method or visually than by the plot method. The proper size of plot in Southern Finland is 0.02–0.03 ha. In Northern Finland the plots should be larger due to the heterogenous stocks, about 0.05 ha. The shape can be either circular or rectangular. The former may be more practical and reliable in the field. The minimum number of sample trees is considered to be about 200 per 100 sample plots 0.03 ha in size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7116, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Metsikön taksatorinen tiheys keskipituuteen ja tiheyteen perustuvassa kuutiomäärän arvioinnissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7116
English title: The mensurational density of a stand in estimating the volume on the basis of the mean height and the density class.

In Finland ocular estimation of the growing stock has been made by means of volume tables based on the mean height and density class, or on the dominant height and density class of the stand. The author has observed that if the volume of a stand is estimated by employment of both tables, the results vary markedly from one another. Furthermore, volume of fully stocked stands in the dominant height tables show an approximate correspondence with the volumes of managed normal stands in Southern Finland.

The purpose of this study is therefore to develop volume tables for coniferous trees, based on the density class and the mean height; these tables should give the same volume for a stand as the dominant height tables.

Volume per hectare of 187 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and 120 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands on different forest types were estimated using the relascope method in Southern Finland. With the volume and the measured mean and dominant heights as a basis, the density classes were extracted from both mean height tables and the dominant height tables. The investigation indicates that the author estimated the dense stands too thinly, and the thin ones too densely, and that the erroneous estimation of the density can be corrected by comparison of the ocular estimations and the corresponding measurements. The density can be measured by means of crown closure, stem number per hectare or the basal area per hectare.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7111, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1960). Turpeen maatuneisuuden määrittämisestä : v. Postin maatumisasteen ja Pjavtshenkon maatumisprosentin vertailu. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 2 article id 7111. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7111
English title: Determining decomposition decree of peat with von Post Humification Scale and Pjavtshenko's method.

Decomposition of the peat using von Post Humification Scale (1–10), developed by Lennart von Post, can be determined based on characteristics of peat, such as fibre integrity, colour and viscosity of exudate, and presence of colloidal particles, of handful of peat squeezed in the hand. It is easy to use and has proved useful in the practical work. The method developed by Pjavthenko is mostly based on specific weight off a dried sample in percentage, and requires analysis in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to compare the results of these two methods by measuring 156 peat samples representing different stages of decomposition.

The methods are based on different principles, which is reflected in small differences of the results. The maximum scores of the methods are clearly in different level. The maximum grade of 9–10 in von Post scale correspond decomposition percentage 51 in the scale of Pjavtsheko. However, the decomposition values in von Post scale are placed evenly on the scale of Pjavtshenko. This suggests that the von Post Scale is consistent and accurately developed. According to the study, the Pjavtshenko method is a good method to validate results of von Post Humification Scale, and can be used when decomposition of peat samples is determined in laboratory.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7481, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Kasvuennusteen suorittaminen hakkuulaskelman yhteydessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 7 article id 7481. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7481
English title: Increment forecast in connection with cutting budget.

The purpose of this study was to clarify increment forecast methods in connection with the cutting budget. The emphasis is laid on the Finnish increment per cent methods. A tentative attempt is made to carry out a passage calculation. Increment forecasts are accomplished for diameter class distribution of a 60 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The increment data for the growing stock are taken from the domestic increment calculating tables.

When comparing the results of the two methods, the increment values are expressed in rabatt per cent in which the forecasted annual increment is in proportion to the initial value of the growing stock. It will be emphasized that the weak point in the domestic budgets is in the relation between the increment of the developable stock and the increment of the exploitable stock. Almost all the Finnish increment data are from the developable trees and the estimates of the increment of the exploitable trees have not been on sufficient facts.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7479, category Article
Matti Franssila. (1958). Kulovaaran ja säätekijöiden välisestä riippuvuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 5 article id 7479. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7479
English title: The dependence of forest fire danger on meteorological factors.
Original keywords: metsäpalot; ilmasto; kuivuus; maan kuivuus

The investigation is divided into statistical and experimental sections, the latter of which were conducted in a Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand with the aim of elucidating the interdependence of soil humidity and meteorological factors. The moisture content of pine needles and moss and wooden cylinders placed on the soil or slightly over the ground was determined by weighing. The results showed that there is correlation between the moisture content of the wooden cylinders and the relative humidity of air during the days without rain. Correlation between moisture content of pine needles and moss with the air was slightly poorer.

In the statistical section, based on meteorological observations made in the geophysical observatory at Sodankylä in Northern Finland in 1920-1943, and forest fire statistics of the area, forest fire days and days without forest fires were divided into 40 temperature-humidity groups. Of the 391 forest fires observed in the area, the cause of the fire was known in 353 cases, and 69% of these were caused by lightning. A forest fire danger index was calculated using the data. A sharp increase in the burned area when the index exceeded the limit k=0.3 seem to be explained by thunderstorms, which are the most notable cause of forest fires in the Sodankylä area.

The forest fire index was calculated also at four meteorological stations in different parts of the country using weather observations in 1927-1936. It appears that the number of days in which the k>0.1 decreases when proceeding northwards, obviously because of the shortening of the summer. On the other hand, the number of days in which k>0.3 increases towards the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Franssila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7462, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1955). Suomesta Pohjanmeren maihin vuosina 1920-1952 viety havusahatavara : koostumuksen muutokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 2 article id 7462. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7462
English title: Export of sawn softwood from Finland to the North Sea Countries in 1920-1952.

The objective of the investigation was to study the trends and fluctuations in the composition of sawn goods, changes due to business cycles, and casual fluctuations. The subject is confined to sawn softwood export to Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and France (The North Sea countries) in 1920-1952. The data was based mainly on statistics of the Board of Customs, Series of Foreign Trade, Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Official Statistics.

The North Sea countries took 75-85% of the sawn softwood exported from Finland before World War II, and 50-70% of the quantity exported since the war. Sawn softwood export from Finland is almost exclusively long and small-dimension timber. The composition of the export from Finland to the North Sea countries was defined already during the 1900th century, and no big chances were observed even during the period of 1920-1952. The only definite trend was decrease in the proportion of u/s grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7460, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Toini Ristimäki. (1956). Metsä- ja uittotyövoiman määrä ja rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 7 article id 7460. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7460
English title: Size and structure of forest and log-floating labour force in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; uitto; työvoima; maataloustyö

The investigation is based mainly on the material collected for Finnish rural labour force study in connection with the 1950 Population Census. A total of 44,667 men, aged 15-64, were interviewed in connection of the census, and a sub-group consisting of a sample of the forest and floating labour, 28,850 men, was formed for this study. Finnish rural population typically cultivates the land, tends cattle, works in the forest, builds roads and houses and floats timber without specializing in any of these jobs. The work done in the own farms is called unpaid work in this study in contrast to paid work outside the farm.

The paid forest and floating labour force (308,600 men) includes all forest and floating workers who reported that they have worked for a minimum of one day. Forest work is heavily winter-dominated. Only in the floating work there was a declining trend in the time series of 1933-1934 and 1942-1955. The average forest and floating labour input per man was small, 40-70 days depending on the occupational group. Only 13,000 workers worked over 200 days, and 32,000 worked 150 days. 44% of the paid forest and floating workers were members of families cultivating small farms, 26% had larger farms, and the remaining 30% were farmless or members of a family holding a building lot.

The main difficulty in finding manpower for summertime forest work seems not to be the lack of time for paid work because of the men’s unpaid work. They seem to prefer other, more attractive paid work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7459
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7459
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7457, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Kääpiöviljelmien miestyövoiman käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 4 article id 7457. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7457
English title: Use of workforce of small farms.

The investigation into the manpower of small farms is a part of the 1950 rural labour force survey. The purpose of this work was to study the use of manpower of small farms, that have 0.25-0.499 ha under plough. The manpower of the farms refers to men of 15-64 years of age, members of the family, whose input of unpaid labour to farming was not less than 21 days in 1950. The aim was to find out the extent to which the labour input was to farming and to what extent to paid work outside the farm. The data was collected in connection to the census of Finland as a sample.

The men of small farms are primarily temporal workers in the different occupations. Their labour input in the own farms per hectare under plough increased as the size of the farms decreased. This seemingly contradictory result is due to a low decree of mechanization, the organization of work, the quality of the labour force and the great relative importance of maintenance work in small farms. Also, especially in the remote areas there is not available enough paid work for the men living in small farms. Farms in Lapland and the county of Oulu had most forest land, which increased the unpaid work on forestry. Forestry in small farms tends to require more unpaid work, because they use less hired labour and make less sales of standing timber.

This is the workforce in forest and construction industry, that are sensitive to business cycles, and draw additional manpower during boom of trends without affecting unemployment figures. Agricultural income of the men of small farms was estimated by comparing it with wages of a worker. Their income per day for unpaid labour was lower than the daily wage of a farm worker. High number of small farms is a result of agricultural policy in Finland. The aim has been to keep the proportion of agricultural population high since it is considered to be best able to provide work and a decent living. The farms, established in connection with the abolition of tenant farming and through colonization, were mostly small.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7456, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Nuorukaisten ja täysi-ikäisten miesten arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 3 article id 7456. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7456
English title: Annual round of activity of youths and adult men.

The study is a part of the investigation of the rural labour force in Finland in 1950. The data was collected in the form of a sample in connection with the census of Finland, and covers the rural male population of the age of 15-64. In this study the men in the age group of 15-19 are classified as youths and the 20-64 as adult men.

Youths in rural districts participated in production, calculated in man-days, to almost at the same extent as adult men. The total labour input of the youths was 78% of the total activity, and that of adult men 85%. About 75% of the men or their families owned a farm. The main activity, 151 days a year, of 47% of the youths and 51% of the adult men was in work on their own family farms. The input of paid labour of youths was smaller than that of adult men.

In rural districts 37% of the youths and 47% of the adult men spent the main part of the annual round of activity in paid work. However, in Lapland only quarter of the youths and half of the adult men was in paid work. Forest and agricultural work seem to have a greater meaning for youths, and construction of houses and industrial work for adult men. Only 12% of the youths and 13% of the men were employed principally as professional workers in forestry, agriculture or construction of houses. Jobs in industry, commerce, transport and communication had little significance.

About 36% of the youths had no permanent occupation. This figure includes, however, also those who were studying, or were at home at least for the greater part of the year. About 12% of the total activity of the youths was studying.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7456, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Nuorukaisten ja täysi-ikäisten miesten arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 3 article id 7456. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7456
English title: Annual round of activity of youths and adult men.

The study is a part of the investigation of the rural labour force in Finland in 1950. The data was collected in the form of a sample in connection with the census of Finland, and covers the rural male population of the age of 15-64. In this study the men in the age group of 15-19 are classified as youths and the 20-64 as adult men.

Youths in rural districts participated in production, calculated in man-days, to almost at the same extent as adult men. The total labour input of the youths was 78% of the total activity, and that of adult men 85%. About 75% of the men or their families owned a farm. The main activity, 151 days a year, of 47% of the youths and 51% of the adult men was in work on their own family farms. The input of paid labour of youths was smaller than that of adult men.

In rural districts 37% of the youths and 47% of the adult men spent the main part of the annual round of activity in paid work. However, in Lapland only quarter of the youths and half of the adult men was in paid work. Forest and agricultural work seem to have a greater meaning for youths, and construction of houses and industrial work for adult men. Only 12% of the youths and 13% of the men were employed principally as professional workers in forestry, agriculture or construction of houses. Jobs in industry, commerce, transport and communication had little significance.

About 36% of the youths had no permanent occupation. This figure includes, however, also those who were studying, or were at home at least for the greater part of the year. About 12% of the total activity of the youths was studying.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7451
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hanioja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vartiovaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7415, category Article
W. E. Roitto. (1954). Eräitä näkökohtia Saimaan vesistöalueen puutavaran kaukokuljetuksen kehittymismahdollisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 3 article id 7415. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7415
English title: Development potential of transportation of roundwood in the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa in Finland.

About 17.5% of forest lands of Finland is situated around the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa. Furthermore, the growth of the forests  of the area correspond about 25% of the total growth of forests in Finland. The watersystem is one of the most important portages of roundwood in the country. It consists 11,000 km of floating channels, 2,000 km of which suit for floating in bundles. Annually 30-35 million cu ft of saw logs, 7 million cu ft of veneer timber and 2,5-3 million cu ft of pulp wood is floated in the area.

Even if the water system at present still suits well for floating, there are many opportunities for development, which would improve its competitiveness against other modes of transport. Several different sites where building of floating channels or improving the floatways are needed are described in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7415, category Article
W. E. Roitto. (1954). Eräitä näkökohtia Saimaan vesistöalueen puutavaran kaukokuljetuksen kehittymismahdollisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 3 article id 7415. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7415
English title: Development potential of transportation of roundwood in the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa in Finland.

About 17.5% of forest lands of Finland is situated around the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa. Furthermore, the growth of the forests  of the area correspond about 25% of the total growth of forests in Finland. The watersystem is one of the most important portages of roundwood in the country. It consists 11,000 km of floating channels, 2,000 km of which suit for floating in bundles. Annually 30-35 million cu ft of saw logs, 7 million cu ft of veneer timber and 2,5-3 million cu ft of pulp wood is floated in the area.

Even if the water system at present still suits well for floating, there are many opportunities for development, which would improve its competitiveness against other modes of transport. Several different sites where building of floating channels or improving the floatways are needed are described in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7402, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1950). Alikasvoskuusten biologiaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 7402. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7402
English title: On the biology of undergrown Norway spruce.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) invading sites is common in Finland. The species tends to establish itself as undergrowth, and takes over when it gets space to grow. To determine whether the undergrowth is suitable as the new generation requires knowledge on the biology of spruce undergrowth. One of the issues is determining the age of the stunted trees. In this investigation, 100 undergrown spruce trees, their crown and their root systems were studied. A method was developed to determine the age of the trees.

The root system of all trees in Vaccinium sites and of stunted trees in Myrtillius sites were superficial. The root systems of older spruces were purely of adventitious origin. The longer the period of stunting growth, the younger is the root system. In addition to acropetal and general adventitious ramification there is often adventitious branching of the roots of pathological causes. Mortality among the long roots is frequent.

A stunted tree has not the same ability as a viable tree to make use of already existing branches for building assimilating surface. When comparing trees with equally large assimilating surface, a stunted tree had greater sum of roots compared to a viable tree. The root system of a stunted undergrown spruce was very superficial compared with the other trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7379, category Article
Paavo Harve. (1947). Puunjalostusteollisuutta ja puutavarakauppaa harjoittavien yhtiöiden maan hankinta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7379. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7379
English title: Land purchases of wood manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales in Finland.

The article is a report of land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland in 1935. Second World War postponed publishing of the report. The land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, especially farms with agricultural land, was considered a concern in the end of 19th century, because it caused social problems related to landless people. To solve the problem, the government of Finland enacted in 1915 an act that restricted land purchase of the companies. The aim of this report was to collect statistics on the extent of the land purchases.

According to the investigation, forest manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales intensified land purchases in 1890s. After 1894 the companies purchased 80,000-100,000 ha land yearly. When the regulations restricting purchases of land came into act in 1915, the companies evaded the regulations by using private people or other companies to buy the land. Still, the annual purchases decreased to in average 21,000 ha in 1915-1936. The companies were still allowed to buy forest land when it did not affect agriculture in the farm. During and after the war the land purchases were interrupted. The report concludes that the regulations have worked as expected, and suggests some improvements in the legislation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Harve, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7379, category Article
Paavo Harve. (1947). Puunjalostusteollisuutta ja puutavarakauppaa harjoittavien yhtiöiden maan hankinta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7379. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7379
English title: Land purchases of wood manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales in Finland.

The article is a report of land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland in 1935. Second World War postponed publishing of the report. The land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, especially farms with agricultural land, was considered a concern in the end of 19th century, because it caused social problems related to landless people. To solve the problem, the government of Finland enacted in 1915 an act that restricted land purchase of the companies. The aim of this report was to collect statistics on the extent of the land purchases.

According to the investigation, forest manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales intensified land purchases in 1890s. After 1894 the companies purchased 80,000-100,000 ha land yearly. When the regulations restricting purchases of land came into act in 1915, the companies evaded the regulations by using private people or other companies to buy the land. Still, the annual purchases decreased to in average 21,000 ha in 1915-1936. The companies were still allowed to buy forest land when it did not affect agriculture in the farm. During and after the war the land purchases were interrupted. The report concludes that the regulations have worked as expected, and suggests some improvements in the legislation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Harve, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7379, category Article
Paavo Harve. (1947). Puunjalostusteollisuutta ja puutavarakauppaa harjoittavien yhtiöiden maan hankinta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7379. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7379
English title: Land purchases of wood manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales in Finland.

The article is a report of land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland in 1935. Second World War postponed publishing of the report. The land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, especially farms with agricultural land, was considered a concern in the end of 19th century, because it caused social problems related to landless people. To solve the problem, the government of Finland enacted in 1915 an act that restricted land purchase of the companies. The aim of this report was to collect statistics on the extent of the land purchases.

According to the investigation, forest manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales intensified land purchases in 1890s. After 1894 the companies purchased 80,000-100,000 ha land yearly. When the regulations restricting purchases of land came into act in 1915, the companies evaded the regulations by using private people or other companies to buy the land. Still, the annual purchases decreased to in average 21,000 ha in 1915-1936. The companies were still allowed to buy forest land when it did not affect agriculture in the farm. During and after the war the land purchases were interrupted. The report concludes that the regulations have worked as expected, and suggests some improvements in the legislation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Harve, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7363, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1942). Puuston hakkuuarvosta ja sen määräämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 10 article id 7363. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7363
English title: Determination of felling value.

The article discusses use of felling value in determining the value of growing stock. It has been argued that use of felling value to calculate value for a forest holding usually leads to too high values. Consequently, when setting a price for growing stock, felling value should be applied only for such parts of the property that can be sold immediately at a current price.

The article describes in detail assessment of the felling value, first using timber assortments of the stand, and second, by conducting the felling value using parameters affecting the value, such as volume and tree species of the stand. An assessment method  was developed to calculate the value by using structure of a cubic metre of timber in a stand. The structure was determined using data of the national forest inventory in Finland. Finally, the article discusses application of the method.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7348, category Article
E. E. Metsäpelto. (1940). Suomen yhteismetsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 7348. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7348
English title: Jointly owned forests in Finland.

The shared forests of the villages were generally parceled out to farms in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Finland, that begun in 1775. The state established also jointly owned forests, mostly in the beginning of 2000th century when land was donated for landless population. Some have been established voluntarily. Act on Jointly Owned Forests was enacted in 1925 to ensure proper management of the forests. It contains instructions of administration of the forests.

A survey was conducted to study the conditions of the jointly owned forests. The forests, a total of 37,843 ha, are distributed evenly over the country. Average size of settlement jointly owned forests in Southern Finland are 314 ha, initial jointly owned forests in Southern Finland 1,726 ha, settlement joined forests in the county of Oulu in Northern Finland 592 ha, and initial joined forests in Northern Finland 1,268 ha. The forest lands are poorer than in other private forests. The most common age class is 41-80 years in Southern Finland and 61-120 years in the north. The forests resources were larger in the initial joined forests than in the settlement joined forests when the joined forests were established. In settlement joined forests fellings were smaller than the increment, while in initial joined forests fellings were slightly larger than the increment. Joined forests have given the owners rather good and regular income, which has probably been larger than if the forests had been managed as farm forests. Joined forests have, therefore, met their objectives.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Metsäpelto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7345, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Tuntsa-Oulankajoen sekä Jäämeren päävesistöalueiden metsät ja niiden kaukokuljetusmahdollisuudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 7345. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7345
English title: The forests in the Tuntsa-Oulanka and the use of Arctic Ocean main water system area in long-distance transport.

The principal method of transporting timber for long distances in Finland is floating. It is supplemented in the principal forest districts by transport in ships, by rail and lorries. However, in north-eastern and northern parts of the country the main water systems flow into Arctic Ocean, and floating cannot be used to transport timber. The area does not have railroad and road network is sparse. The poor accessibility has hindered the use of forest in the area. A division of the Tuntsa-Oulanka and Arctic Ocean water system area into supply areas is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7344, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1939). Maan arvo metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 7344. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7344
English title: Value of forest land in the financial accounting of forestry.
English keywords: forest site type

The valuation of forest land for financial accounting purposes is usually performed only when using methods that are based on wood resources. In the yield based methods, the book value of forest land and wood resources form one totality. In the first case, forest land in a separate land account usually has same value in the beginning and end of the accounting year. For instance, the costs of forest improvement are considered capital costs. Forest land can be valued either by multiplying the average hectare price of land with the hectares, or using separate unit prices for the different forest site types. Different ways to value forest land are presented, comparing the forest site type classification developed in Finland and the traditional method based on average height of the trees used in Central Europe. The study shows that values of forest land has relative nature.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7339, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1937). Saimaan vesistön uittoväylät ja uittojen organisaatio niissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 7339. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7339
English title: Floating channels and administration of floating in the Lake Saimaa water system.

The length of drivable water courses in Finland was about 43,800 km in 1936, while the length of the water courses used by the floating associations was 12,467 km. The aim of the survey was to study the volume of timber in private (or separate) floating and co-operative floating operated by the floating associations in Lake Saimaa water system, and how floating was administrated in the area.

According to the study, the floating channels of the area are in good condition. Floating of timber in rafts is common in Lake Saimaa water system. The proportion of co-operative floating is smaller than in the other major water systems in Finland, and the administration of floating is, therefore, unusual. The reason for this is the nature of the water system, the wood procurement policy of the industry, the disinterest of the private forest owners towards organized floating, and the way the authorities apply the Water Rights Act. The present system is beneficial to the forest companies that float big quantities of timber, but increase of co-operative floating would avail the small and medium industry and floaters, wood selling forest owners and the workforce.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7339, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1937). Saimaan vesistön uittoväylät ja uittojen organisaatio niissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 7339. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7339
English title: Floating channels and administration of floating in the Lake Saimaa water system.

The length of drivable water courses in Finland was about 43,800 km in 1936, while the length of the water courses used by the floating associations was 12,467 km. The aim of the survey was to study the volume of timber in private (or separate) floating and co-operative floating operated by the floating associations in Lake Saimaa water system, and how floating was administrated in the area.

According to the study, the floating channels of the area are in good condition. Floating of timber in rafts is common in Lake Saimaa water system. The proportion of co-operative floating is smaller than in the other major water systems in Finland, and the administration of floating is, therefore, unusual. The reason for this is the nature of the water system, the wood procurement policy of the industry, the disinterest of the private forest owners towards organized floating, and the way the authorities apply the Water Rights Act. The present system is beneficial to the forest companies that float big quantities of timber, but increase of co-operative floating would avail the small and medium industry and floaters, wood selling forest owners and the workforce.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7305, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1934). Maanjakotoimituksessa syntyvien palstojen muodosta metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 28 article id 7305. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7305
English title: Conditions of forestry in land plots formed in the parceling of land.

The shape of land lots formed in parceling of land has been affected by many variables. It is an important economic factor when the land is used in forestry or agriculture. The report concentrates on the larger farms with relatively large forest holdings. In the general parceling of the land that started in the middle of 1700s, the allotted plots were often long and narrow, and the width of the plot could be 20‒50 meters. Later these farms may have been further parceled.

Narrow plots are difficult to manage from the forestry point of view. For example, it is not possible to build a forest road in the plot, and wood harvesting is difficult. To use natural regeneration for a specific tree species is impossible, because the seed trees in the adjacent plot are so near. When the boundaries are long and the properties narrow, there is bigger risk for felling trees on the land of the neighbour. The optimal form for a plot is rectangle which is 3‒6 times longer than its width. Local examples of parceling and the effects of the shape of the plots are given in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7290, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1934). Fennoskandian koivuvyöhykkeen eläinmaantieteellisestä merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 13 article id 7290. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7290
English title: The zoogeographical significance of the birch zone in Fennoscandia.

The subarctic-subalpine mountain birch forest zone discerns Fennoscandia from other northern regions. The zone offers protection against wind to animal life, protects soil from evaporation and increases humidity. The article reviews distribution of vertebrate and butterfly species in the birch forest zone. There are no vertebrates that occur solely in the birch forest zone, and only few live mostly in the zone. Many species live either both on the birch forest zone and the treeless fell area above it, or in the birch forest zone and coniferous zone below it. Similarly, no butterflies occur only in the birch forest zone, but the zone is the main habitat for some species. Consequently, the subarctic-subalpine birch forest zone cannot be considered to be an independent ecozone but a transitional zone between regio silvatica and regio arctica that is nearer to the northern coniferous zone than the fell region

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7290, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1934). Fennoskandian koivuvyöhykkeen eläinmaantieteellisestä merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 13 article id 7290. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7290
English title: The zoogeographical significance of the birch zone in Fennoscandia.

The subarctic-subalpine mountain birch forest zone discerns Fennoscandia from other northern regions. The zone offers protection against wind to animal life, protects soil from evaporation and increases humidity. The article reviews distribution of vertebrate and butterfly species in the birch forest zone. There are no vertebrates that occur solely in the birch forest zone, and only few live mostly in the zone. Many species live either both on the birch forest zone and the treeless fell area above it, or in the birch forest zone and coniferous zone below it. Similarly, no butterflies occur only in the birch forest zone, but the zone is the main habitat for some species. Consequently, the subarctic-subalpine birch forest zone cannot be considered to be an independent ecozone but a transitional zone between regio silvatica and regio arctica that is nearer to the northern coniferous zone than the fell region

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7099, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista IV. Karjanhoidosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 7099. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7099
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland IV. Animal culture.

The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second and third part of the article series about agriculture in Perä-Pohjola and Lapland. The typical breed of cattle in the area was the white Northern Finnish landrace (pohjoissuomenkarja). The size of herds in the farms varied from one to 25, but exceeded seldom 10 cows. Summer pastures were mostly forest pastures. For the winter hay and leaf fodder was gathered. The article includes a detailed description of cattle-keeping in the area. In addition, the farms often had horses and sheep. Keeping pigs or poultry was rare.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a fourth part of four-article series about the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7098, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista III. Maanviljelyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 7098. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7098
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland III. Plant culture.
English keywords: agriculture; forestry; cattle; farms; Lapland

Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7098, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista III. Maanviljelyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 7098. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7098
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland III. Plant culture.
English keywords: agriculture; forestry; cattle; farms; Lapland

Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5438, category Article
Juha Heiskanen, Hannu Raitio. (1991). Maan vesipotentiaali paljasjuuristen männyntaimien taimitarhakasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 5438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15592
English title: Soil water potential during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine seedlings.

The matrix potential, measured with tensiometers, and its effect on the soil air-water ratio were examined during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in nursery fields. Soil water potential was monitored during the growing season of 1983 at three nurseries in Finland, and from fields growing various seedling types at depths of 10 and 20 cm. In 1986, soil core samples were collected in order to assess the water desorption characteristics of the soil. In addition, the effect of polypropylene gauze covering (Agryl P 17) on the soil water potential was examined during the growing season of 1985 at two nurseries in Finland at depths of 5, 10 and 15 cm.

The soil water potential was relatively high in all the fields studied. In fields growing one- and two-year-old seedlings, the median potential was higher than -10 kPa. The potential did not fall below the limit of the measured scale (ca. -85 kPa) of the tensiometers. Soil aeriation may have been periodically insufficient in the rooting zone, as a result of high water content. The favourable water potential is below -5 to – 6 kPa. The gauze covering slightly (1–4 kPa) increased the soil water potential, an effect which could be harmful if the soil air space is low. During the second growing season, the soil water potential was lower in the fields covered by the gauze during the first year than in the fields without the covering.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raitio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5438, category Article
Juha Heiskanen, Hannu Raitio. (1991). Maan vesipotentiaali paljasjuuristen männyntaimien taimitarhakasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 5438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15592
English title: Soil water potential during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine seedlings.

The matrix potential, measured with tensiometers, and its effect on the soil air-water ratio were examined during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in nursery fields. Soil water potential was monitored during the growing season of 1983 at three nurseries in Finland, and from fields growing various seedling types at depths of 10 and 20 cm. In 1986, soil core samples were collected in order to assess the water desorption characteristics of the soil. In addition, the effect of polypropylene gauze covering (Agryl P 17) on the soil water potential was examined during the growing season of 1985 at two nurseries in Finland at depths of 5, 10 and 15 cm.

The soil water potential was relatively high in all the fields studied. In fields growing one- and two-year-old seedlings, the median potential was higher than -10 kPa. The potential did not fall below the limit of the measured scale (ca. -85 kPa) of the tensiometers. Soil aeriation may have been periodically insufficient in the rooting zone, as a result of high water content. The favourable water potential is below -5 to – 6 kPa. The gauze covering slightly (1–4 kPa) increased the soil water potential, an effect which could be harmful if the soil air space is low. During the second growing season, the soil water potential was lower in the fields covered by the gauze during the first year than in the fields without the covering.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raitio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5411, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1990). Effect of refertilization of pine and birch stands on a drained fertile mire. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5411. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15563

Refertilization with PK, about 15 years after the first fertilizer application, increased tree growth and the amount of nutrients in tree litter in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (mainly Betula pubescens Erhr.) stands on a drained fertile mire in Northern Finland (65°34 N’, 25°42’ E). The increase in growth and nutrient contents after refertilization was greatest in the mature pine stand where the application of nitrogen and micronutrients gave an additional response compared to the PK-application.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5410, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1990). Männyn ja kuusen siementen massan vaihtelusta. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5410. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15562
English title: Variation in the seed mass of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

Seed mass within any plant species is one of the least plastic components of plant structure. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the seed mass of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in relation to three environmental factors: soil fertility, mean temperature and precipitation during seed filling period. Data published earlier on seed mass of these species on different sites and different years was used in the study.

The seed mass of both species was independent of soil fertility (forest type) but did vary between different years. It is hypothesized that if the seed-ripening summer is warmer than average, Scots pine seed mass tends to be smaller. In this study, seed mass varied independently of the amount of precipitation during the ripening summer. However, generalization of the results requires further study.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5407, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1990). Lumi-, routa- ja lämpöolot eri tavoin muokatussa metsämaassa Kuusamossa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5407. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15559
English title: The effect of site preparation on snow, soil frost and temperature conditions at a site near Kuusamo.

The winter 1986–87 was unusually cold; the snow cover remained thin and consequently the soil froze to a considerable depth. In spite of the severe frost, the lowest temperatures measured at the ground surface was -10.3°C and in the soil at the depth of 10 cm -5.8°C. The temperature sum of the following summer was unusually small and the soil frost melted more slowly than usual. The winter frosts did not have a decisive influence on the survival of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5407, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1990). Lumi-, routa- ja lämpöolot eri tavoin muokatussa metsämaassa Kuusamossa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5407. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15559
English title: The effect of site preparation on snow, soil frost and temperature conditions at a site near Kuusamo.

The winter 1986–87 was unusually cold; the snow cover remained thin and consequently the soil froze to a considerable depth. In spite of the severe frost, the lowest temperatures measured at the ground surface was -10.3°C and in the soil at the depth of 10 cm -5.8°C. The temperature sum of the following summer was unusually small and the soil frost melted more slowly than usual. The winter frosts did not have a decisive influence on the survival of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5396, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1989). Uuteen maatalous- ja metsäakatemiaan. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5396. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15554
English title: Towards new agriculture and forest academy .

This paper is a commentary which summarises the history of the Finnish Society of Forest Science and its connection to the corresponding society in the field of agriculture, the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland. The original idea when the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland was founded was that the society would function as a scientific society for both forest scientists and agronomists. However, A.K. Cajander founded a separate academy for forest sciences. The article discusses the implications of this decision. 

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5380, category Article
Arto Rummukainen. (1989). Moreenimurskeella pinnoitettujen metsäteiden kunnossapito maataloustraktorikalustolla. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15537
English title: Maintenance of crushed moraine paved forest roads with agricultural tractor implements.

The condition of forest road pavements was studied in spring, one week after maintenance and in autumn. The effect of vibrating blade was slightly better than that of pulled drag. Large loose stones couldn’t be pressed into pavement with either of the implements. The use of the vibrating blade was three times as expensive as the use of the pulled drag, however, the blade is suitable for other purposes as well.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15529
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5341, category Article
Hannu Hökkä, Jukka Laine. (1988). Suopuustojen rakenteen kehitys ojituksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5341. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15498
English title: Post-drainage development of structural characteristics in peatland forest stands.

The effect of drainage on structure of tree stands is analysed by comparing the average structural characteristics (e.g. diameter distribution) of stands in the data for different drainage age classes and selected site types. The material consists of ca. 4,400 relascope sample plots, which are part of a large drainage area inventory project. The uneven-aged structure of the virgin peatland forest is preserved for several decades after drainage. This is enhanced by the post-drainage increase of small-diameter trees, especially birch. The number of trees per hectare increased during a period of ca. 30 years and levelled off thereafter. The increase in the number of saw log stems is clearly related to the fertility of the site and its geographical location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hökkä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7069, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1921). Verollepano- ja jakotoimituksista Kuusamon, Kemijärven ja Kuolajärven knihtikontrahtipitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 5 article id 7069. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7069
English title: Taxation and partitioning of land in counties of Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolajärvi.

The article is a detailed review on the problems in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi counties from the context of forest policy. The disputes about division of the land originate from military tenure contracts (knihtikohtrahti) made with the local tenants in 1700s. Later some counties got alleviations in the contracts concerning taxation and partition of land. These alleviations delayed the parceling out of land in the area. According to the article, from the forest policy point of view, the inhabitants in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi were conveyed disproportionately large forest properties from the state due to the military tenure contracts. This gave them undue benefits from the state compared to the neighbouring counties.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7069, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1921). Verollepano- ja jakotoimituksista Kuusamon, Kemijärven ja Kuolajärven knihtikontrahtipitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 5 article id 7069. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7069
English title: Taxation and partitioning of land in counties of Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolajärvi.

The article is a detailed review on the problems in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi counties from the context of forest policy. The disputes about division of the land originate from military tenure contracts (knihtikohtrahti) made with the local tenants in 1700s. Later some counties got alleviations in the contracts concerning taxation and partition of land. These alleviations delayed the parceling out of land in the area. According to the article, from the forest policy point of view, the inhabitants in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi were conveyed disproportionately large forest properties from the state due to the military tenure contracts. This gave them undue benefits from the state compared to the neighbouring counties.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5325, category Article
Eero Julkunen, Altti Kuusamo. (1987). Kansallis/omaisuus. Metsän mielikuvat isänmaallisissa lauluissa ja metsämainoksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5325. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15482
English title: Images of forests in patriotic songs and forest advertisements.

The article compares forest images in provincial and patriotic songs and in forest advertisements by banks and insurance companies. In songs, coniferous forests represent the primaeval nature and broadleaved forests represent culture. Coniferous forest is the real patriotic forest. Forest images in advertisements are twofold: both elevated patriotic forests and profane raw-material forests are found.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Julkunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nepveu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5257, category Article
Heikki Hänninen. (1986). Metsäpuiden vuosirytmitutkimuksen käsitteistä ja teorioista. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5257. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15436
English title: Conceptual remarks about the study of the annual rhythm of forest trees.

Different approaches to the study of the annual rhythm of forest trees are described and compared by analysing the concepts and theories presented in the literature. The seasonality varying morphological and physiological state of forest trees is referred to as the annual rhythm s. lat., from which the annual ontogenetic rhythm is separated as a distinct type. The dormancy phenomena of the trees are grouped into four categories. Theories concerning the regulation of the annual rhythm are divided into two main types, the most common examples of which are the photoperiod theory and the temperature sum theory. Recent efforts towards a synthetic theory are described.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5255, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Jukka Pietilä, Raili Vihola. (1985). Suomalaisten puulajien iskutaivutuslujuus tuoreena. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5255. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15434
English title: Impact bending strength of Finnish tree species in green condition.

There are great impact forces in mechanized harvesting and wood yard in the mills which can cause breaks in timber. The impact strength of timber in green condition was tested in temperatures of +18°C and -18°C using sawn pieces (20 x 20 x 300 mm) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), grey alder (Alnus incana L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.). In addition, unbarked naturally round sticks (length 300 mm, diameter 15 and 35 mm) of the same species were tested.

The impact strength of round sticks was 1.5–4.4 times as great as that of sawn pieces. The reasons are possibly the avoidance of cell breaks at the surface as well as growth stresses. The frozen samples were clearly weaker than the unfrozen ones. As a rule, the impact bending strength increased with increased density of the species. However, the correlation varied greatly between species. If density was kept constant, an increase in the growth ring width decreased the impact strength. The reason may lie in the fracture mechanism.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vihola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7060
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7060
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7054, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista. Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7054. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7054
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Peräpohjola.
Original keywords: maatalous; pääoma; asutus
English keywords: agriculture; capital; settlement

The agriculture in the Northern Finland differs markedly from the rest of the land. The farms are small and pioneer farming is common. The article is a survey about the economic situation of the agriculture in the Northern Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. The lands are predominantly owned by the state, which has annually assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The survey shows values of different categories of capital, namely stock, equipment; land, domestic animals, and gives an overview on the types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5211, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Esko Jalkanen, Jyrki Jalkanen, Marja Jalkanen. (1984). Maanpinnan rikkomisen 10-vuotisvaikutus korvasienisatoon. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5211. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15390
English title: Ten-year effects of breaking the soil surface on the yield of Gyromitra esculenta.

The yield of Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. was surveyed during 1973–82 in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stand in Central Finland. The soil surface was treated with different light methods, mainly removing the vegetation and humus layer.

It was shown that is possible to improve the natural yield of G. esculenta by breaking the soil surface. In the 286 m2 of treated the yield could be improved over 50 fold compared to the control area. In the untreated control area, the yield per hectare was 0.98 kg/yr. In treated plots the yield was 52.4 kg/yr (in the best year 191 kg/ha/yr). Fruit bodies of G. esculenta were found in treated plots every year after the soil treatment. The yield was at its best in the two first years declining later to the level of 10–20% of the first year’s yield.

The best natural yield was reached in the last year. The previous year’s precipitation was an important factor influencing the yield of the mushroom.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5211, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Esko Jalkanen, Jyrki Jalkanen, Marja Jalkanen. (1984). Maanpinnan rikkomisen 10-vuotisvaikutus korvasienisatoon. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5211. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15390
English title: Ten-year effects of breaking the soil surface on the yield of Gyromitra esculenta.

The yield of Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. was surveyed during 1973–82 in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stand in Central Finland. The soil surface was treated with different light methods, mainly removing the vegetation and humus layer.

It was shown that is possible to improve the natural yield of G. esculenta by breaking the soil surface. In the 286 m2 of treated the yield could be improved over 50 fold compared to the control area. In the untreated control area, the yield per hectare was 0.98 kg/yr. In treated plots the yield was 52.4 kg/yr (in the best year 191 kg/ha/yr). Fruit bodies of G. esculenta were found in treated plots every year after the soil treatment. The yield was at its best in the two first years declining later to the level of 10–20% of the first year’s yield.

The best natural yield was reached in the last year. The previous year’s precipitation was an important factor influencing the yield of the mushroom.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15384
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7051, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1920). Tutkimuksia kruununmetsätorppien taloudesta Kurun, Parkanon ja Ikaalisten pitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 7051. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7051
English title: Studies on the economic situation of tenants in the state lands in counties of Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen.
English keywords: tenants; state lands; farm; state forests

This study was conducted for the request of state forest committee. The aim was to study the economic situation of tenants of state lands in Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen, situated in Central Finland. The chosen 30 farms were located in relatively remote parts of the state forests in the area. Half of the farms were established already in 1800-1860 for shifting cultivation or fishing, and the land was not always suited for farming. The state forests were in general on the poorest lands of the areas. They were relatively small; third of them had less than 2 hectares of agricultural land. Household timber harvesting required a permission from a local forest officer of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The legal rights of the tenants were fairly secured, but many wished to get right to purchase the farm land. Due to the poor lands and insufficient fertilizing, the crops were lower than in small farms in average. The forests around the farms were mixed forests of poor quality, due to the wood utilization of the tenants.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5183, category Article
Risto Ojansuu, Helena Henttonen. (1983). Kuukauden keskilämpötilan, lämpösumman ja sademäärän paikallisten arvojen johtaminen Ilmatieteen laitoksen mittaustiedoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5183. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15099
English title: Estimation of the local values of monthly mean temperature, effective temperature sum and precipitation sum from the measurements made by the Finnish Meteorological Office.

Methods involving the use of moving averages, trend surfaces and their combination are compared in deriving local values of monthly mean temperatures and precipitation sums from the observations made by the Finnish Meteorological Office. Correlation between meteorological variables and sea index, lake index and height above sea level were used in the trend surface method and in the combined method. Combined method, with a trend surface calculated from means of a long time period, was the most reliable method to estimate long local time series.

A method to calculate unbiased estimates of effective temperature sums from monthly mean temperatures is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Henttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5127, category Article
Simo Kaila, Juhani Päivänen. (1981). Metsämaanmuokkauksen suoritemäärät ja konekalusto vuosina 1976-1979. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15068
English title: Forest soil cultivation areas and machinery in 1976–1979 in Finland.

The areas of soil cultivation in regeneration sites using different methods in 1976–1979 and the cultivation units in use in Finland in 1979 were studied by means of a questionnaire. Application of soil cultivation methods appears to have become strongly polarized: in Southern Finland disc plowing with wheel tractors are used, whilst in Northern Finland wing plowing with crawler tractors is the most popular method, each being practically the only alternative in the respective area.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5126, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Koneiden uppoaminen suometsien puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5126. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15067
English title: Sinkage of forest machines during harvesting operations on peatlands.

Questionnaires were sent out to determine the volume of wood harvested from peatlands during 1978 and the harvesting problems encountered. In total there were 110 responses which accounted for 8 million m3 of wood harvested, of which 1.0 million m3 (14%) was harvested from peatlands. The largest proportion of wood harvested from peatlands was during the winter. Most of the respondents reportet that they wait for the soil frost to set before harvesting is started on peatlands. Respondents indicated a total of 263 machines bogging down in to the soil or, for 1978, a total for Finland of 750 to 1,000 machines.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kostamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kostamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

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  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

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  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

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  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7039, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1920). Pohjois-Suomen kuusimetsien esiintyminen, laajuus ja puuvarastot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 7039. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7039
English title: The distribution and volume of Norway spruce forests in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in Northern Finland are situated mainly in the state lands. The survey is based on silvicultural surveys made in the northernmost districts of the state forests. The quality of private lands of the area was deduced based on the adjacent state lands and specific observations. A map was drawn on the distribution of productive Norway spruce forest in the study area.

The continuous Norway spruce forest areas covered 1,112,000 hectares, of which 866,000 hectares were on the state lands. Especially in the northern parts of the area also more fragmented spruce forest could be found (130,000 hectares in the state lands). The estimated total volume of the wood in the forests in the state and private lands was 57.78 million m3 in the continuous spruce forest area. The spruce forests were often situated on hill and fell areas relatively high above the sea level. In the areas north of the 66th parallel, almost half of the forests were above 300 meters above the sea level. Because spruce forests of the state lands were concentrated near watershed areas, the wood harvesting was more expensive, and reduced the value of the state forests. The spruce forests grow usually on fresh mineral soil sites. However, towards north the species was found on drier sites. The stands were mostly pure spruce stands or mixed birch-spruce stands. The older age groups were the most common, but young stands were rare.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

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  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

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  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5031, category Article
Tom Simons. (1979). Arkkitehdit ja metsänhoitajat Suomen metsäisen maiseman muotoilijoina. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5031. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14888
English title: The role of architects and foresters in shaping the forest landscape of Finland.

The article describes the two approaches which are evident in planning and management of nature and landscape. One is based on traditional architectural thinking, emphasizing the significance of subjective intuition and practical creative work. The other has evolved from the study of the economic utilization of natural resources, emphasizing the significance of rational thinking and scientific analysis.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Simons, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5030, category Article
Camilla Rosengren. (1979). Luonnonkasvillisuus asuntoalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14886
English title: Natural vegetation within housing areas.

The article describes the results of the studies made in 24 Finnish housing areas. They show that the building density is not as important as the way of building and the site planning, in the view of preserving natural vegetation in the site. Building on slopes was difficult with modern building techniques because of the extensive earthwork required. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

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  • Rosengren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5029, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Metsän tarjoamat fyysiset hyödyt yhdyskuntasuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5029. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14885
English title: Benefits of forests in urban environment .

The potentials of forests in abatement of urban noise and air impurities are discussed based on literature and calculations. Excess attenuation of 6–7 dB seems to be possible in noise abatement applying Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantations. The potential in dust sedimentation is of 10,000–20,000 kg/ha/year and absorbtion to 7 kg/ha/yr. Forests seem also have considerable potential for control of climatic conditions in urban areas. Management of forests in urban environment is discussed. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5028, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). MAB 2-projekti metsäbiologisen tutkimustyön tulosten hyödyntäjänä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5028. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14884
English title: Benefits of MAB Project 2 by the research work on forest biology in Finland.

MAB Project 2 concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests with no special consideration to any particular research field. At the same time as the swift development of research methods has brought the natural sciences and forest biology very near to each other, the circle of users of research results in forest biology has widened to include area and city planners etc. In Finland, the main role of MAB Project 2 is to promote mutual exchange between the users and producers of research results in forest biology and to facilitate both national and international co-operation between all research workers and organizations interested in this field.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5027, category Article
Ossi Eskelinen. (1979). Pyynikin ulkoilualue. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5027. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14883
English title: The natural environmental welfare factors of forested outdoor recreation area Pyynikki.

The article examines the outdoor recreation area of Pyynikki in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland from the viewpoint of social sciences. It was demonstrated that sociological factors are connected with the physical environmental factors by the welfare factors.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Eskelinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Enivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5025, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1979). MAB 2 -projekti Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5025. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14879
English title: MAB 2 project in Finland.

The article examines the problems of interdisciplinary research and the Finnish participation in MAB Project 2, which concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests. From the Finnish point of view, the main research areas are the effects of forestry activities which affect large areas, multiple use of forests, forests and environmental pollution, and the effects of energy economy.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5024, category Article
Ossi V. Lindqvist. (1979). Pelastaako luonnon moninaiskäyttö luonnon? Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5024. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14878
English title: Will the multiple use of nature save nature?

The term ’multiple use’ was introduced in Finland in the late 1960’s as a planning principle for the use of natural resources. It was hoped that multiple use, in contrast to ’single use’, would be less destructive and more amenable to multiple interests and to more efficient planning. However, the term ’multiple use’ carries several hidden assumptions which superficially at least seem easy to handle but which may, at the very end, prove equally destructive to the planned object. This term generally lacks the dimensions of time and place. In reality, different uses follow in a definite sequence and in definite place. As a planning strategy, multiple use may lead, if carelessly applied, to quite unexpected results that run contrary to the intended purposes.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Lindqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5023, category Article
Anu Pärnänen. (1979). Erilaisten maankäyttötapojen ja hoitotoimenpiteiden ekologiset vaikutukset metsiin. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5023. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14877
English title: Ecological effects of different land uses and management practices on boreal landscapes – Man and the Biosphere Programme, seminar of Project 2.

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme of UNESCO was launched in 1970. This interdisciplinary programme represents a new integrated approach to research, training and action aimed at improving man’s partnership with the environment. It consists of 14 project areas.

The Academy of Finland and the Finnish Committee for the MAB, in cooperation with the University of Helsinki and the city of Tampere organized a seminar with an aim of reviewing the execution of the Finnish participation in the MAB project No. 2. The seminar took place at Hyytiälä, a forest research station of the University of Helsinki, on August 24–25 1978.

During the seminar, an excursion was made to Pyynikki esker, a unique natural park close to the centre of the city of Tamper. Eight papers were presented and discussed in the seminar. The papers are published in this issue of Silva Fennica.

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  • Pärnänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14870
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14870
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14870
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7030, category Article
Eino Saari. (1919). Itä-Suomen lahjoitusmailla noudatetusta metsäpolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 7030. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7030
English title: Forest policy associated to donated lands in Eastern Finland.

The article is a review on the lands that were donated to the Russian aristocracy in Eastern and Southeastern Finland in 1700s. The farmers in the area used to be tenants of state lands or independent land owners. The insufficient and diverse stipulation of the ownership of the lands in the donation documents caused later disputes between the landlords and the farmers. One of the issues was who had right to use the forests. For the farmers this meant significant reductions in their right to harvest timber and household wood, or practice shifting cultivation. There were attempts to improve the situation of the tenants, but the final solution came in the end of 1800s, when the parliament began to promote farmers’ right to purchase the lands. In the land reform, the state raised a loan to purchase the donated lands, and give them to the farmers, who would then pay back their share of the loan. Part of the forests remained state lands in the reform. Several jointly owned forests were also established using the state forests to give access to household wood for farms that had little own forests. The private forests on donated lands had larger standing crop than the private forests in general. Together with increasing demand of wood for the developing manufacturing industry, this gave possibility for abusive practices in timber trade. The timber prices were low, and farmers exchanged felling rights to loan.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7030, category Article
Eino Saari. (1919). Itä-Suomen lahjoitusmailla noudatetusta metsäpolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 7030. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7030
English title: Forest policy associated to donated lands in Eastern Finland.

The article is a review on the lands that were donated to the Russian aristocracy in Eastern and Southeastern Finland in 1700s. The farmers in the area used to be tenants of state lands or independent land owners. The insufficient and diverse stipulation of the ownership of the lands in the donation documents caused later disputes between the landlords and the farmers. One of the issues was who had right to use the forests. For the farmers this meant significant reductions in their right to harvest timber and household wood, or practice shifting cultivation. There were attempts to improve the situation of the tenants, but the final solution came in the end of 1800s, when the parliament began to promote farmers’ right to purchase the lands. In the land reform, the state raised a loan to purchase the donated lands, and give them to the farmers, who would then pay back their share of the loan. Part of the forests remained state lands in the reform. Several jointly owned forests were also established using the state forests to give access to household wood for farms that had little own forests. The private forests on donated lands had larger standing crop than the private forests in general. Together with increasing demand of wood for the developing manufacturing industry, this gave possibility for abusive practices in timber trade. The timber prices were low, and farmers exchanged felling rights to loan.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4975, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1977). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4975. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14826
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. III Variation in nutrient content of soil, vegetation and precipitation.

The study is part of a project designed to elucidate the nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Results of variation in the nutrient contents were compared with those obtained for the previous growing season.

The potassium and calcium contents varied the greatest in the humus layer. However, in the bottom and field layer vegetation and needles the variation in the nitrogen content was the greatest. The nutrient contents of the needles were affected by the physiological stage of development, needle age and the position in the crown of the tree. The nutrient content of the rainfall increased in the order: free rainfall, throughfall, and stem flow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4969, category Article
Robert J. Rainio. (1977). Tammen levinneisyydestä läntisellä Uudellamaalla ja Turunmaan itäisimmissä osissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4969. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14820
English title: On the distribution of oak (Quercus robur) in the southwest parts of Finland.

The maps concerning the natural distribution of oak (Quercus robur L.) have proved most unreliable in detailed examination. In this paper, the author has collected his observations on natural oak in the westernmost parts of the province of Uusimaa and the easternmost parts of province of Turunmaa, the islands included. Furthermore, the paper includes some viewpoints which must be considered as criteria when determining the naturality of the stand in question. Future borders of oak’s distribution range must be moved farther up north to replace the earlier views of the northern limit of natural oak in Finland.

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  • Rainio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14798
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4941, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pirkko Pohjapelto. (1976). Metsikkösadannan määrä ja vaihtelu eräässä luonnontilaisessa kuusikossa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4941. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14787
English title: The distribution of throughfall in a virgin spruce stand.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsikkösadanta; sademäärä

The aim of the paper was to study the amount and distribution of rainfall in a virgin Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand. Special attention has been paid to the dependence of throughfall on the characteristics of the precipitation falling on an open area and the stand.

The throughfall was 62% of the precipitation in the open. The best independent variable as regards the throughfall was the amount of precipitation falling in the open. The heaviness of precipitation in the open gave no meaningful correlation. Horizontal layout of the stand was found to have some effect on the throughfall. The throughfall was also influenced by the tree species composition of the stand. Only 52% of the total variance of the amount of water caught by the rain gauges could be predicted with the characteristics of the precipitation in the open and the stand.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjapelto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4926, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1975). Metsänomistuksen muutokset ja aluepolitiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4926. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14768
English title: Forest ownership changes and regional development in Finland.

The study sought to establish, whether a connection between forest ownership changes and regional differentiation process exists. Data were collected by interviewing fifty persons representing regional planning and forestry. In 1969–72 forest land area owned by the farmers decreased by some 600,000–700,000 hectares. The new owners were non-farmers (400,000–500,000 ha) and the State and forest industry companies (200,000 ha). These figures indicate a possibility for a reduction in the livelihood of rural developing regions in three ways: money incomes with their multiplier effects decrease, possibilities of the rationalization of farming decrease and the population confidence in the future diminishes.

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  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

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  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

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  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4919, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1975). Thaimaalaisten metsänhoitajien yliopistokoulutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14775

Since the year 1966, fourteen specialists, most of them forestry graduates from Kasetsari University in Bangkok, have studied or will start studying in Finland. The visiting graduate students have completed their program successfully, and are interested, as well as the Thai authorities, in continuing the educational cooperation. However, the Finnish Government now seems to have changed the list of countries which are included in this kind of program. The Thai authorities will possibly grant a limited number of scholarships for studies carried out in Finland. The possible need to develop the study program further is discussed if the educational cooperation with Thailand will continue.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4919, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1975). Thaimaalaisten metsänhoitajien yliopistokoulutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14775

Since the year 1966, fourteen specialists, most of them forestry graduates from Kasetsari University in Bangkok, have studied or will start studying in Finland. The visiting graduate students have completed their program successfully, and are interested, as well as the Thai authorities, in continuing the educational cooperation. However, the Finnish Government now seems to have changed the list of countries which are included in this kind of program. The Thai authorities will possibly grant a limited number of scholarships for studies carried out in Finland. The possible need to develop the study program further is discussed if the educational cooperation with Thailand will continue.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7019
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

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  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

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  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7018, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1917). Metsänhävityksen ja polton vaikutuksesta metsämaahan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 7018. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7018
English title: Effects of forest devastation and shifting cultivation on forest soil.
Original keywords: kaskeaminen; metsittyminen; maaperä

Soil of open and forest covered lands have different properties. Forest devastation has negative effect on forest soil, for instance, through leaching of nutrients. There are different views on how forest fire influences chemical properties of the soil. Burning of forests can have both positive and negative consequences.

The article publishes partial results from a study that aimed to find out how shifting cultivation affects the soil, and how it may change natural regeneration and forest growth of the stands. Soil samples were collected from four burnt-over sites. Of the samples, size classes of the soil particles, volatile solids and nutrient contents were determined. According to the results, the burning increased soluble nutrients, but the effect was not long-lasting. However, more sample sites would be needed to give definitive results of the differences.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

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  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

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  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4895, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1974). Metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4895. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14739
English title: The relation between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of forest stand.

The possibilities of using results of coverage analyses for estimating the dry matter content of the ground vegetation has been examined in this study. The material covers 150 sample areas, 400 m2 large, which represent ground vegetation of Myrtillus type in the final succession stage. When the material was subjected to linear regression analysis, the amount of dry matter in the field and ground layer has been used as dependant variables and the results of the coverage analysis as the independent variable.

The study shows that it is possible to predict satisfactorily the dry matter content of the ground vegetation by grouping the coverage, according to the coverage weight, into parts of equal size and the using them as independent explaining variables. In particular, the value of the prediction equation for the dry matter content of the field layer could be improved by using the height and density characteristics of the vegetation as explaining variables in addition to the coverage figures. Thus, slightly over 80% of the total variation of the dry matter content of the field layer could be predicted. In the case of the ground layer vegetation, the explaining power rose slightly above 70%.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4891, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1973). Metsäojitustoiminta ja toimenpideraja. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4891. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14729
English title: The profitability limit in forest drainage.

The study describes the relationships between a method developed by the author for the calculation of the profitability of forest drainage and the old biological method. The calculations were based on empirical data, and they aimed at finding out the effect of a variation in the profitability limit in the areas in hectares to be drained, and on the profitability of drainage. The study deals also with the profitability of present-day drainage activities. The results showed that the profitability coefficient (the ratio between the discounted increase in returns and the costs of drainage) averages 3.04 for the whole country. The corresponding value was 5.68 for Southern Finland, 3.19 for Central Finland and 1.67 for Northern Finland.

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  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14723
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

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  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4881, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Harvennuksen vaikutus lumi- ja routasuhteisiin nuoressa turvemaan männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4881. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14717
English title: The effect of thinning on the snow cover and soil frost conditions in a young Scots pine stand on drained peatland.

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of thinning of different intensity and fertilization on the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover as well as on the depth of the soil frost in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on drained peatland in Central Finland. Thinnings and fertilization was carried out in 1968, and the snow cover was followed in the winters 1970/71 and 1971/72.

Only extremely heavy thinnings (60% of the volume) seemed to increase the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover. The indirect effect of fertilization on the snow cover was insignificant. In the clear-cut sample plot of the study, soil frost was either not found at all or the depths of the frozen soil layer was smaller than in the other plots. When deciding the silvicultural measures to be taken in the case of tree stands growing on drained peatlands, there seems to be reason to avoid radical thinnings. Otherwise, the favourable influence of the trees on a site on its water relationships will be diminished.

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  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4880, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1973). Tallaamisen vaikutus mustikkatyypin kuusikon pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4880. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14716
English title: Ground cover response to trampling in a spruce stand of Myrtillus type.

The study deals with the trampling tolerance of forest vegetation in a Myrtillus type closed forest of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), based on the effects of simulated trampling on the coverage and biomass on the field and between layers of the vegetation. The reliability of the results from the simulated trampling was tested by comparing them with those obtained from real trampling.

According to the results, the trampling tolerance of the bottom layers is greater than that of the field layer. The trampling tolerance of different species varies, so that grasses and dwarf shrubs have a higher tolerance capacity than herbs. Even light trampling of short duration caused noticeable changes in the coverage and biomass of the ground vegetation. Despite certain deficiencies, the simulated trampling gave parallel results of those obtained for real trampling.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4876, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi, Juhani Sarasto. (1973). Kokemuksia rauduksen istutuksesta ojitetuille soille. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14706
English title: Betula verrucosa plantations on peat.

The aim of the present study was to assess whether two-year old Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (now Betula pendula Roth.) transplants can be used in afforestation of drained peatlands and what factors affect the development of the young trees. The seedlings were planted in 1967. The site was repair planted next spring due to mortality caused by a undefined fungal disease, and the plantations were fertilized with NPK fertilizer (soil application. The seedlings were measured twice a year until the autumn 1970.

Only 28% of the original transplants, and 73.4% of the repair plantations were alive in 1970. In some cases, fertilization improved the results, while in others it was detrimental to the trees or had no effect on survival. According to peat analysis, the poor survival and development of the plants could be due to the too high ratios of N/Ca and N/P. Stunted or dead trees displayed often necrosis caused by Godronia multispora. According to the experiences, Betula verrucosa plantations are inferior to those obtained with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In addition, the results indicate that in old draining areas calcium and phosphorus are often too low in comparison to nitrogen.

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  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

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  • Erjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

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  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

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  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14643
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4839, category Article
Erkki Timonen. (1971). Auraus- ja kaivuriojien koon ja muodon muutoksista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4839. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14641
English title: The changes of the size and shape of ditches made by plows and tractor diggers.

The changed in size and shape of ditches made by draining plows and tractor diggers were followed over a one-year period after the draining in four different peatland types. The material consists of 51 ditches made with each method in dwarf-shrub pine bog, herb-rich spruce swamp, in herb-rich sedge bog and sedge pine bog. The measurements were made immediately after the digging, and one month and a year later.

Ditches made by plowing and surrounded by peat became shallower quickly during the first 2–3 days after plowing due to the pressure of the surrounding peat. Ditches made with tractor diggers did not become shallower as fast, and their bottom did not widen to the same extent than plown ditched. During the first year, machine-made ditches change in a same way as handmade ditches, especially when compared to ditches made by tractor digger.

Immediately after digging the ditches made by tractor digger were 10 cm deeper and 0.13 m3 larger than plown ditches. One year later the values were 7,5 cm and 0.09 m3, respectively. Plown ditches made in the peat were 14.4 cm deeper than ditches that penetrated into the subsoil, for tractor digger the value was 13.2 cm. Ditches made with a tractor digger were deeper than plown ditches both in soils with deep and shallow peat layer.

The changes were largest and fastest in the wettest peatland type herb-rich sedge bog. In herb-rich spruce swamps, which have a shallow peat layer, the shallower plown ditches kept their form better than ditches dug by tractor digger.

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  • Timonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

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  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14625
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4828, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Pellonvaraussopimusten alaisten peltojen metsitys. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4828. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14617
English title: Afforestation of agricultural land under soil bank contracts.

Under the soil bank act, which took effect in 1969, 85,000 hectares of agricultural land were withdrawn from agricultural production in order to cut down the heavy surpluses of grain and butter in Finland. The farmers have a possibility to afforest their soil bank land partly on public funds, and if they choose to do so they receive a compensation of 250 Fmk for 15 years, instead of the nine years which is the maximum duration of a soil bank contract.

The study involved interviewing of 136 farmers sampled from the total of 13,368. The farmers were planning to afforest a total of 18,600 ha by the end of 1972. The main species were birch (Betula sp.) 40%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both 30%. The main reasons (mentioned by 65% of the farmers) for afforestating the soil bank land were the unfavourable conditions for agriculture. On the other hand, 43% of those who had decided not to afforest felt that their land is too good to be planted with trees. One fifth of those not afforesting said that they themselves would not benefit from the afforestation and therefore were not interested in investing in forestry. The attitudes of the farmers seem to have also influenced their decision on afforestation. Those who had taken a positive decision on afforestation appeared to take more positive attitude in regard to forestry than other farmers.

The soil bank act does not seem to solve permanently Finland’s problem of the surpluses of agricultural products since the soil bank farmers planned to revert two thirds of the soil bank land under cultivation on the expiration of the soil bank act.

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  • Numminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7534, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Kaskiviljelyksen vaikutus Suomen metsiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 7534. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7534
English title: The effect of shifting cultivation on forests in Finland.

The article is a review on shifting cultivation, its methods and use in Finland, and its effect on the condition of forests. Shifting cultivation decreases forest reserves not only by burning large amounts of wood. Of the area used for shifting cultivation, 10-50% can be open land. The older age classes of forests are often missing, and range of tree species shift towards deciduous trees. This causes lack of large timber. The shorter the rotation, the less well the most valuable trees survive on the area. One reason is lack of seed trees. Of the coniferous trees, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is able to survive in the burnt-over lands better than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), because it can produce seeds at a relatively young age. Betula sp. and especially grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) regenerate well on burnt-over lands. Also the frequency of good seed years determine which tree species become the dominant species on a burnt-over site.

When shifting cultivation is abandoned, deciduous trees keep their advantage over coniferous trees, because the wood of coniferous trees is used more in the surrounding villages. Pine and spruce spread to the burnt-over areas from the poorer sites that often had remained unburned. In densely populated areas in some counties in Savo in eastern Finland, where shifting cultivation was practiced intensively, Norway spruce became rare. Dominant tree species in the burnt-over areas became birch and pine.

The article is divided in two parts. A German summary is included in a separate PDF
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ouni, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindroos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pesonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4743, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Metsämaaston luokittelun yhtenäistämispyrkimyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14453
English title: Attempts to unify the classification of forest terrain.

The article is a report from the meeting of the Section 32 of the IUFRO in Canada on September 15.–25. 1964, which three Finnish forestry experts participated. The theme of the meeting was classification of forest terrain.

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  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4743, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Metsämaaston luokittelun yhtenäistämispyrkimyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14453
English title: Attempts to unify the classification of forest terrain.

The article is a report from the meeting of the Section 32 of the IUFRO in Canada on September 15.–25. 1964, which three Finnish forestry experts participated. The theme of the meeting was classification of forest terrain.

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  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7635, category Article
Reino Pulkki. (1984). A spatial database - heuristic programming system for aiding decision-making in long-distance transport of wood. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 188 article id 7635. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7635

The applicability of operations research, database management systems and geographic information systems for decision-making in long-distance transport of wood in the Saimaa area in Central Finland were reviewed. Due to the complexity of the transport problem a geographic information system is the most applicable. However, investment in such a system for only long-distance transport decision-making is unjustified. A spatial database – heuristic programming system was developed. It was applied to studying the competitiveness and search for possible areas for rationalization of water transport in particular and long-distance transport in general. The system proved to be a useful aid in long-distance transport research. Also, with the increased use of computers for planning at the field level, a system similar to that described could be a powerful managerial aid.

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  • Pulkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

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  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7630, category Article
Esko Mikkonen. (1983). Eräiden matemaattisen ohjelmoinnin menetelmien käyttö puun korjuun ja kuljetuksen sekä tehdaskäsittelyn menetelmävalinnan apuvälineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 183 article id 7630. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7630
English title: The usefulness of some techniques of the mathematical programming as a tool for the choice of timber harvesting system.

The applicability of five mathematical programming methods, namely standard linear programming, parametric programming, goal programming, mixed integer programming and integer programming is discussed as a planning tool for the choice of wood procurement method.

Theoretically, the goal programming approach seems to be the best routine for mathematical handling of problems related to wood procurement. The parametric approach must include enough large post-optimality analysis routine. If the effect of the variables expressed with different measures is to be studied, interpretation of the economic information given by the approach becomes a problem. The other drawback is that the approach does not allow determination of the hierarchy of the goals objectively as they depend on the subjective preferences of the decision maker.

From the practical point of view, standard linear programming is the best method if the objective function can be formulated in economic terms, for instance. If there are several goals to be attained or satisfied the best method is goal programming.

According to the sub-studies, every method under consideration can be used as a solution routine for the minimization of wood procurement costs. In cost minimization the best methods are goal programming and standard linear programming. The best method for harvesting system evaluation purposes is parametric because it allows varied cost calculations within a certain cost range. The best method for harvesting equipment investment planning is mixed integer programming with binary decision variables.

The more complicated and restricted the problem environment is, the better the mathematical programming approach will be, also in harvesting related problems.

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  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 176 article id 7623. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7623
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

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  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 176 article id 7623. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7623
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

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  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7587, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1976). The economic transport unit size in roundwood towing on Lake Iso-Saimaa [in eastern Finland]. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 153 article id 7587. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7587

The transport unit in roundwood towing on Lake Iso-Saimaa in Central Finland comprises a tug and a raft of bundled wood with a towline between them. There are several factors influencing the economic size of the transport unit in roundwood towing. These are changing with the enterprises and along with general developments. In this paper these factors or factor groups are seen from the point of view of the enterprise. The main question is to determine the most economic combination of tug and raft size.

From the point of view of the towing enterprises the unit costs of transport are the most decisive factor. Both the size of the raft as well as the power of the tug influence strongly the unit costs. As a long-term goal a raft of about 35,000 m3 and a tug of 550 kW or more is considered to be advisable. The width of channels and sounds then allow a free passage for rafts being 36–40 m wide.

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  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

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  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7553, category Article
Leo Ahonen. (1971). Diskonttausarvo ja hakkuitten ajallinen tahdistus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 119 article id 7553. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7553
English title: Discount value and time sequence of fellings.

The aim of the study was to discover a model by which the determination of the discount value of a woodlot can be simplified so as to make it possible to avoid both the computation of a cutting budget and the customary discount procedure itself. The regression analysis of the cutting budget data that indicates the discounted amount of the fellings to be expected and the assortment composition can be discovered rather accurately as a function of the measured stand characteristics only.

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  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7542, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1970). Metsiköiden luontainen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyky Pohjois-Lapin kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 108 article id 7542. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7542
English title: Natural development and yield capacity of forest stands on mineral soils in Northern Lapland.

The article is fifth part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies the stands in Northern Lapland, dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). This investigation was concerned mainly with Scotch pine stands, using Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands for comparison only. 107 sample plots were measured.

The most common forest types in the area are Empetrum-Myrtillus-(Cladina) type, EM(C1), Ericacea-Cladinae type, ErCIT, P-L, and Cladina type, C1T. Stand development is more rapid and wood production greater in EM(C1) type than ErCIT, while the C1T stands are further behind in all respects. The average differences in stand characteristics between forest types are roughly similar, but for cubic volume and total production less, than between the more southerly forest types. Measurements made from increment cores taken at breast height have confirmed that variation of the pine annual ring width has on average been very considerable, in accordance with the climatic, mainly temperature, variations, in the investigation area close to the north pine forest limit.

The few plots from birch and spruce stands measured as samples in the northern Lapland investigation area indicate the generally poor development and wood production of these stands by comparison with pine stands.

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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7539, category Article
Leo Ahonen. (1970). Diskonttausarvo metsän hinnoitusinformaationa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 105 article id 7539. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7539
English title: Discount value as a basis for valuation of woodlots.

This methodical study aims at assessing discount value and its nature and function in setting a price for a forest holding. The aim is to study how the subject interested in buying or selling a woodlot could in the most meaningful way use discount value to prepare the sale and aid the decision making, taking account his personal interests. The paper includes a literature review on the determination of value.

It is concluded that woodlots have no «correct and real» values and, therefore, they cannot be calculated. Value is formed for the woodlots only in connection to the subject running the household, and his environment and actions. A discount value can be defined as a discount value of future net incomes. In the study different ways to calculate discount value are analysed.

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  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9132
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

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  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jukola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7605, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Pohjanmaan kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 96 article id 7605. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7605
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands on mineral soils in Ostrobothnia in Finland.

The article is third part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies area between the ca. 62nd and 66nd parallels of the strip of land on the Gulf of Bothnia stretching from the coast to an altitude of 150 m above the sea level. The material consists of 121 sample plots in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 36 sample plots in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 22 sample plots in birch (Betula sp.) stands.

Since the vegetation gradually changes from south to north, it was considered necessary to separate sub-types (marked s.) for certain southern-central forest types; these are poorer in vegetation but obviously more generally found than the main types. The Myrtillus s. sub-type shows slower development of pine stands than the Myrtillus type. The number of stems on the former is greater, owing to the slow initial development, but the mean diameter and height are smaller than on the latter. The difference in volume and growth increases with age. The slower the rate of self-thinning on the sub-type has the effect that the differences in total production are small.

The Vaccinium sub-type s. (VTs.) is poorer in vegetation than the southern-central type, differs from VT less than was the difference in the MT sub-types. The Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT) in general differs considerably from the VT but less from the VTs., in relation to which the difference shows mainly in the volume and total production. The EVT differs from the Calluna type as regards in all stand characteristics.

The results of this study suggest that the s.c. sub-type MT could be placed between the types MT and VT. This has significance especially in forest mensuration. However, in practical forest inventories it would seem possible to combine MT and MTs. to avoid having too many site classes. The types VT and VTs. can generally be considered nearly as one type. Similarly, CT and ECT (Empetrum-Calluna type) may be regarded as one site group. The differences may also partly be due to differences in early treatment of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7605, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Pohjanmaan kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 96 article id 7605. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7605
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands on mineral soils in Ostrobothnia in Finland.

The article is third part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies area between the ca. 62nd and 66nd parallels of the strip of land on the Gulf of Bothnia stretching from the coast to an altitude of 150 m above the sea level. The material consists of 121 sample plots in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 36 sample plots in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 22 sample plots in birch (Betula sp.) stands.

Since the vegetation gradually changes from south to north, it was considered necessary to separate sub-types (marked s.) for certain southern-central forest types; these are poorer in vegetation but obviously more generally found than the main types. The Myrtillus s. sub-type shows slower development of pine stands than the Myrtillus type. The number of stems on the former is greater, owing to the slow initial development, but the mean diameter and height are smaller than on the latter. The difference in volume and growth increases with age. The slower the rate of self-thinning on the sub-type has the effect that the differences in total production are small.

The Vaccinium sub-type s. (VTs.) is poorer in vegetation than the southern-central type, differs from VT less than was the difference in the MT sub-types. The Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT) in general differs considerably from the VT but less from the VTs., in relation to which the difference shows mainly in the volume and total production. The EVT differs from the Calluna type as regards in all stand characteristics.

The results of this study suggest that the s.c. sub-type MT could be placed between the types MT and VT. This has significance especially in forest mensuration. However, in practical forest inventories it would seem possible to combine MT and MTs. to avoid having too many site classes. The types VT and VTs. can generally be considered nearly as one type. Similarly, CT and ECT (Empetrum-Calluna type) may be regarded as one site group. The differences may also partly be due to differences in early treatment of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7189, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1968). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan metsien käytön kehitys ja sen vaikutus metsien tilaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 89 article id 7189. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7189
English title: Utilization of forests in north Ostrobothnia and its effect on their condition.

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent of human interference with the forests of different epochs in the district of north Ostrobothnia in Northern Finland, and its effect on the condition of the forests.

The study revealed that the quantities of wood removed were not most detrimental to the condition of the forest; the regionally irregular loggings and the logging methods employed were the most harmful. The old forms of wood utilization, tar industry, shipbuilding, sawmill industry and timber exports, were characterized by timber selection. Public opinion considered it the only recognized cutting method long after the conditions had changed and silvicultural methods should have been used.

The spread and abandonment of selection cuttings are illustrated in the results of first National Forest Surveys in Finland. According to the first survey (1921–1924), nearly half of the loggings in the province of Oulu were based on selection, which spoiled and devastated 41% of the forests. In the 1930s one-fifth of the North Ostrobothnian forests were weakened by selection cuttings, in 1960s the figure was 6%. The article also summarises the extent of tar and pitch production, sawmill industry, shipbuilding and household wood consumption of wood in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4452, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Ehdotus puun käyttöä osottavan jatkuvan tilaston järjestämisestä Suomeen. Silva Fennica no. 11 article id 4452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8985
English title: A proposal to introduce permanent statistics of wood consumption in Finland.

The Forest Research Institute made an investigation on the wood consumption in Finland in 1927. This work brought up a need to organize continuous collection of statistics of wood consumption. Three kinds of existing statistics can be used: statistics of wood consumption, statistic of the fellings, and statistics of transport of wood.

Statistics on wood consumption, such as the fuel used by the industry and State railways are collected annually. The fellings in state forests are published annually, and also the wood manufacturing companies publish statistics of their forests. Furthermore, all fellings on sale, and use of own wood in wood manufacturing industry have to be reported to the forestry committees. These statistics are published annually. Railroads and floating are the main means of long distance transport of wood. These statistics give additional information of wood consumption. Further studies are needed to combine and standardize the statistics collected from different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4434, category Article
Kaarlo Linkola. (1926). Suunnitelma luonnonsuojelualueiden erottamiseksi Pohjois-Suomen valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 1 article id 4434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8382
English title: Plan for establishment of protected areas in state-owned lands of Northern Finland.

The article gives a proposal for areas that would be suitable for protected areas, situated in state-owned lands in Northern Finland. Eight areas are described in the article, namely Oulankajoki area in Northern Kuusamo, Kutsajoki area in Kuolajärvi, Pyhätunturi in Kemijärvi, Pisavaara in Rovaniemi, Pallastunturi and Ounastunturi area, Malla fells in Kilpisjärvi, Pääskyspahta area in Petsamo and Heinäsaari in Petsamo.

Each of the areas possess special features in Finnish nature, samples of which should be reserved in pristine state. Furthermore, costs of the protection are small. The resident population is, however, in general against protection. The protection should therefore be organized in a way that minimizes the disadvantages caused by limitations to land use, for example grazing, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting.

According to Finnish Nature Conservation Act, all wildlife in the conservation areas should be protected. Protection of wolverine and wolf is, however, difficult because of the damages they cause for domestic animals. Protection of bear is regarded to be possible in most of the proposed protected areas.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4730, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Kokeita selluloosan hajaantumisnopeudesta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4730. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14288
English title: Experiments on the decomposition rate of cellulose in different stands.

The aim of this project was to investigate the cellulose decomposition rate in the soil on the ecological conditions created by different tree species, particularly birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Therefore, comparable sample plots were established in adjoining birch and spruce stands. Data on the stands, the vegetation, and the soil in the sample plots were collected. The experiment was carried out in the Ruotsinkylä Experimental Forest near Helsinki in Southern Finland.

Five pieces (3x5x0.15 cm) of cellulose (bleached sulphite pulp) were dried, weighed, and fastened in a row into a nylon bag. The bags were placed into the soil at a slant so that the upmost piece of cellulose was in the depth of 0–1.5 cm and the bottom one 6–7.5 cm. The weight losses of the pieces were measured after periods ranging from 6 to 12 months.

The results show that even within the same forest type, decomposition is much more rapid in birch stands than in spruce stands. In all the stands the decomposition rate decreased rapidly with increasing depth. The difference between birch and spruce stand, as well as the decrease with increasing depth, was probably mainly due to different thermal conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1963). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4721. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14276

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4666, category Article
Eero Nieminen. (1957). Matkalaskut, päivärahat ja palkkiot asutustoimikuntatöissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4666. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14067
English title: Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Finnish Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation decribes how the personnel of settlement commissions are to arrange travelling on settlement business, how travel claims should be written, and how daily allowances and fees should be paid and accounted for.

  • Nieminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4665, category Article
Pentti K. Leino. (1957). Asutustoimikuntatoimistot, niiden toimihenkilöt ja kenttätöiden järjestely. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14066
English title: Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the administration and work of four settlement board offices, established in 1956 in Oulu, Kajaani, Rovaniemi and Kittilä in Northern Finland. The new offices were established to dissolve the waiting list of petitions, due to Second World War and increasing settlement activities.

  • Leino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4664, category Article
Veli-Kustavi Klemetti. (1957). Puuston arviointi tilan hinnoittelussa ja hinnan muodostus tilakokonaisuutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14065
English title: Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm.

 

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses different ways to determine the price of growing forest stock in settlement farms. The Settlement Act describes the main principles for the evaluation of forests. The growing stock of forest land has been devided into valueable and small timber. Construction timber and valuable trees are marked separately, and small timber is estimated by line survey. According to the act, the total price of a farm should be only what a sensible buyer would pay for it. Therefore, the value must be reduced to a reasonable price if the added value of the different parts is too high considering, for instance, the location of the farm and construction and clearing costs.

  • Klemetti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4664, category Article
Veli-Kustavi Klemetti. (1957). Puuston arviointi tilan hinnoittelussa ja hinnan muodostus tilakokonaisuutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14065
English title: Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm.

 

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses different ways to determine the price of growing forest stock in settlement farms. The Settlement Act describes the main principles for the evaluation of forests. The growing stock of forest land has been devided into valueable and small timber. Construction timber and valuable trees are marked separately, and small timber is estimated by line survey. According to the act, the total price of a farm should be only what a sensible buyer would pay for it. Therefore, the value must be reduced to a reasonable price if the added value of the different parts is too high considering, for instance, the location of the farm and construction and clearing costs.

  • Klemetti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4663, category Article
E. Johansson. (1957). Tilan hinnoittelussa huomioonotettavista näkökohdista. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14064
English title: Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the directions of Ministry of Agriculture in Finland, issued in 1947, concerning evaluation of settlement farms and supplementary lots. The new direction differs from the old ones especially in the evaluation of small timber. Arable land has to be valued at a price corresponding to its forest yield value. As it is a prequisite for the profitability of a new farm, the writer points out that such land should be valued at higher price than a corresponding forest land. A way to count out the price is presented.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4660, category Article
A. Kotiaho. (1957). Viljelyskelpoisuustutkimukset, niiden suoritus ja tulosten tiedoittaminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14061
English title: Arability research, its execution and information of the results.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1925-1944 the Finnish Swamp Cultivation Association (now Finnish Peatland Society, Suoseura) carried out research on the arability of peatlands, mostly on state lands that were the main object of settlement work and the arability of which had been little explored. Later the work has been transferred to the Settlement Department of the Ministry of Agriculture (ASO) and some other authorities. ASO has prepared arability maps based on the nutrient analysis of the lands.

  • Kotiaho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4660, category Article
A. Kotiaho. (1957). Viljelyskelpoisuustutkimukset, niiden suoritus ja tulosten tiedoittaminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14061
English title: Arability research, its execution and information of the results.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1925-1944 the Finnish Swamp Cultivation Association (now Finnish Peatland Society, Suoseura) carried out research on the arability of peatlands, mostly on state lands that were the main object of settlement work and the arability of which had been little explored. Later the work has been transferred to the Settlement Department of the Ministry of Agriculture (ASO) and some other authorities. ASO has prepared arability maps based on the nutrient analysis of the lands.

  • Kotiaho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4654, category Article
T. Marjanen. (1957). Tilojen ja lisämaiden perustaminen valtion maille. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4654. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14055
English title: Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The Land Settlement Act gives the landless population of Finland right to apply resettlement farms or supplementary state lands from Forest Service that manages state lands. After the Second World War the settlement work intensified markedly. This presentation describes guidelines for establishing holdings and supplementary lots on state lands.

  • Marjanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4670, category Article
Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea. (1957). Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävän komitean mietintö. 2. Käsittelee pääasiassa metsä- ja sivuansiotuloja. Silva Fennica no. 91 article id 4670. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9117
English title: Proceedings of the committee on economic status of the Finnish agricultural population.

The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1955 to analyse the economic status of the population living from agriculture. The present paper contains Part II of the proceedings of this committee. It discusses the earnings of the agricultural population from forestry and occasional work.

Agricultural population was defined as all people living from holdings of at least 2 hectares of agricultural land. Forestry income includes, besides the value of stumpage sold, earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts. Earnings from occasional work include wages for logging made to the account of someone else, as well as wages for agricultural work, floating, carpentry, road construction and maintenance work etc.

In 1951–1954, the farms in Finland received an average aggregate of 29 milliard Fmk for stumpage, 10 milliard Fmk of which consists of the value assigned to the timber consumed by the farms themselves. The average income from stumpage was 110,000 Fmk per farm. The earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts amounted to 3.3 milliard Fmk, and the earnings from occasional work to 6.7 milliard Fmk. The income from stumpage together with the earnings from delivery loggings amounted to 123,000 Fmk per farm. Adding the earnings from occasional forest work, an aggregate forestry income of 150,000 Fmk per farm has been obtained, 70–75% of which accounts for stumpage price.

The occasional earnings from sources other than forestry were on average 12–13 milliard Fmk, or 45,000–50,000 Fmk per farm. The agricultural income of the farms was 60.4 milliard Fmk, or 230,000 Fmk per farm. Thus, the aggregate income of the farms was 110 milliard Fmk, or 420,000 Fmk per farm.

The financial surplus from forestry per farm for the farms included in the study in 1951–1954 was on average 21, and the income from forestry 18 times as high as in 1934–39. The income from stumpage at the end of the same period was 18, and the earnings from occasional work 27 times as high as at the beginning of the period.

The agricultural income has the greatest relative importance in Southern Finland and Eastern Bothnia. The income from stumpage, in turn, has the greatest relative significance in supporting agriculture in the inner part of Finland, while the occasional income plays its most vital role in northeast Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4648, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Männyn kylvötaimistojen hirvivahingoista Pohjanmaalla. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9111
English title: Elk damage in seedling stands of Scots pine in Ostrobothnia.

The article reviews the occurrence of damage causes by elk (Alces alces L.) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands established by direct seeding in the Ostrobothia region in Finland. The data was collected by random sampling, and consists of 110 sample plots in pine stands, established in 1930-1944.

Signs of elk damages could be observed in 20% of the stands. In more than half of the damaged stands pine seedlings were damaged by elk, on the rest of the stands the damage was targeted to hardwood saplings only. With the present density of elk population, the damage has an insignificant bearing upon the development of pine seedling stands in Ostrobothnia. The weaknesses of silvicultural state of the stands have been caused by other factors than elk.

Silviculturally weak stands were more liable to elk damage than strong ones. The occurrence of elk damage was more usual in stands with hardwood mixture than in pure pine stands. Especially goat willow, mountain ash and aspen, but also to some decree birch, seem to attract elk. Those factors that promote hardwood growth: fertility of the site, swampiness and the presence of seeding hardwoods in the area, increase the stand’s liability to elk damage.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4636, category Article
Tauno Hautamäki. (1953). Metsämaan laikutuksen koneellistamiskokeiluista. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4636. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14052
English title: Mechanization of ground preparation.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Soil preparation improves formation of seedlings in natural regeneration sites. This presentation describes mechanization of the work using four different machines. According to the study, the effectiveness and quality of the work has improved compared to the earlier machines, and the method is becoming a competitive alternative to slash burning.

  • Hautamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4639, category Article
Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea. (1953). Uusien luonnon- ja kansallispuistojen perustaminen valtion maille : luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 79 article id 4639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9101
English title: Establishment of new nature parks and national parks on the state-owned lands in Finland.

The article is report of the Nature Park and National Park Committee appointed by the Government of Finland in 1950. It contains a proposal for establishment of new nature parks and natural parks on state-owned lands in Finland. The article also includes a draft of act and decree for establishment of the new nature parks and national parks.

In order to replace the nature reserves lost through the 1944 Armistice with new areas and to create a comprehensive network of nature and national parks, including Southern Finland, the committee proposes new protected areas. The proposal includes the following nature parks: Jussaari, Vaskijärvi, Vesijako, Sinivuori, Häädetkeidas, Salamajärvi, Ulvinsalo, Paljakka, Runkaus, Maltio, Sompio, and Kevo. National parks include Liesjärvi, Linnansaari, Petkeljärvi, Pyhähäkki, Rokua, Oulanka-Juuma, and Lemmenjoki. The total area of the suggested new 23 nature reserves is 1,425 km2. The committee suggets that the administration of the new nature parks and national parks should remain in the responsibility of Forest Service and Forest Research Institute.

The article contains a summary in English

  • Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4620, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1951). Eräs suokasvillisuuden analysoimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica no. 70 article id 4620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9092
English title: Determination method for peatland vegetation.

The aim of the study was to develop an determination method to define vegetation type of fen-like pine swamps, which are combinations of two peatland types, quagmire and pine swamp. Typical for this peatland type is that the vegetation is very heterogenous. Patches of different types of plant communities are found within a small area, but in a large scale, there are only few main types of plant communities. The commonly used way to use sample plots to study tree stands suit poorly to determine the type of this kind of heterogenous ground vegetation. The article compares strip survey and circular plot survey, of which circular plot survey is determined to be less time consuming. The article describes a way to choose the locations of sample points to achieve most correct areas for different plant communities.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4606, category Article
Antti A. Aho. (1951). Metsähallituksen osuus Pohjois-Suomen jälleenrakennuksessa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4606. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14002
English title: Contribution of Forest Service to the reconstruction of Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.

  • Aho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4594, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1948). Maanhankintalaki ja sen metsäkysymykset. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13996
English title: Forest related issues of land acquisition act.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes execution of land acquisition act that came into effect in 1945. The act gave principles of transfer of state forest land for settlement.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4587, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1948). Metsänhoitotyöt sotavuosien hakkuiden jäljillä. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4587. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13989
English title: Forest management after loggings during the years of World War II.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the state of state forests after the World War II. The area of the forests had decreased and the loggings to cover the needs of war years had influenced the silvicultural state of the forests. The article lists the forest management work that needs to be done in the state forests in the coming years.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4581, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1945). Metsäteollisuusyhtiöiden metsistä ja niiden hakkuista. Silva Fennica no. 61 article id 4581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9085
English title: Forests of woodworking industry and the fellings carried out in them.

The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.

Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.

During the war  the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.

During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4575, category Article
Eino Saari. (1940). Suurten metsäalojen arvon määrääminen. Silva Fennica no. 55 article id 4575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9079
English title: Evaluation of large forest areas.

The Moscow Peace Treaty created a need to calculate values of large forest areas in Finland, such as the value of the private and state forests lost in the Second World War, or value of the remaining forests and the value of forests to be assigned to the evacuees. The article describes principles of evaluation of large forest areas. It concludes that use of felling value of the trees is the right method only if felling of the whole tree stand and sale of the wood is actually possible. If these prequisites cannot be fulfilled, the right method to evaluate the forest area is yield in terms of value. When calculating the yield in terms of value, also other incomes and costs related to fellings should be included.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4573, category Article
Metsäopetuskomitea. (1939). Maalaisväestön metsäopetus. Silva Fennica no. 54 article id 4573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9078
English title: Forest education of rural population.

The article is a proposal of a committee, appointed by the government of Finland, to expand the forest education of landowners, concerning use and management of forests. The proposal also outlines a program for a youth association dedicated to forests. The committee proposes that present organizations are used as a basis for the expanding education. The main forms of education suggested were education in public and agricultural colleges, education in forest colleges, forest clubs, forestry study groups and self-study, courses, excursions, exhibitions, competitions and rising of general awareness. Different age groups would be given education adapted to their needs.

The report includes statistics about rural population of Finland in 1938 and detailed description of how the education would be arranged in different parts of the country.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsäopetuskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4574, category Article
Kurt Enkola. (1940). Tyrnipensas (Hippophaës rhamnoides L.) Rauman saaristossa : kasvimaantieteellinen tutkielma. Silva Fennica no. 53 article id 4574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9077
English title: Occurence of buckthorn in the coast of Rauma, Western Finland.

Occurence of buckthorn (Hippophaës rhamnoides L.) in the mainland coast and archipelago of Rauma in the Southwestern Finland was surveyed during 1934-1936. The species is coastal, growing most prominent in the islands of central zone of the archipelago, while it is rare in the outermost archipelago and loses competition to other vegetation in mainland. The main competitors in the innermost islands are black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in the outermost islands black alder and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.). Seawater and ice can cause damage to buckthorn, but it resists wind well. The species grows well both on fine and coarse gravel.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Enkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4559, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1939). Metsien uudistamisesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13966
English title: Forest regeneration in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the state of forests in Northern Finland, and suggests that fellings are targeted at the oldest forests until the over-presented over-aged forest are harvested. The preferred regeneration method is natural regeneration in most forest types.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4572, category Article
Arvo Lähde. (1940). Metsä- ja uittotyöläisten asunto- ja ravinto-oloista. Silva Fennica no. 51 article id 4572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13954
English title: Housing and nourishment of forest workers and log floaters.

Due to constantly changing working sites often in remote places the working conditions of forest workers and log floaters have been inadequate. The article discusses the requirements of the act on the housing of forest workers and log floaters that came into force in 1928, and assesses how it affected the working conditions of the laborers. 

The employers had positive attitude towards the new legislation and they had improved the housing conditions to match the requirements. Most complaints in the inspections of the working conditions were found in Eastern Finland. The shortages were considered to be mostly minor ones. Even if the act concerned only housing, it improved indirectly also nourishment in the working sites. Other factors affecting the working conditions were shelters for the draught horses, health care, and newspapers and other spare-time activities available for the workers. 

The article includes a German summary. 

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4531, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1938). Asutuslain mukaisesta asutustyöstä valtion mailla ja metsänhoitajan tehtävistä tässä asutustyössä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13940
English title: Execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in state lands and role of a forest officer in managing the work.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands, and the role of a forest officer in managing the settlement. 

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4527, category Article
R. Tuhti. (1938). Suomen valtion toiminta maa- ja metsätalouden edistämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13936
English title: Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 
This presentation discusses the means Finland has used to promote agriculture and forestry in the country. 

  • Tuhti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4514, category Article
Antti Kilpiö. (1937). Maalaiskuntien tuloista ja menoista. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14092
English title: Revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities and the impact of forestry in their economy.

  • Kilpiö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4509, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1937). Maa- ja metsätalouden välisistä vuorosuhteista Suomen kansantaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14087
English title: Interaction of forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the relationships between forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4508, category Article
J. Koivisto. (1937). Maalaiskuntien kunnallishallinnon pääkohdat. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4508. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14086
English title: Administration in the rural municipalities in Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the administration of rural municipalities in Finland.

  • Koivisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4495, category Article
Mauno J. Kotilainen. (1937). Soiden viljelyskelpoisuuteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä ja valtionmaiden soiden viljelyskelpoisuudesta lähinnä niiden asutusmahdollisuuksia silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4495. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13905
English title: Peatlands suitable for agriculture in state lands, and the factors affecting drainability of the peatlands.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation discusses the use of peatlands in agriculture and peatlands' suitability to farming.

  • Kotilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4495, category Article
Mauno J. Kotilainen. (1937). Soiden viljelyskelpoisuuteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä ja valtionmaiden soiden viljelyskelpoisuudesta lähinnä niiden asutusmahdollisuuksia silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4495. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13905
English title: Peatlands suitable for agriculture in state lands, and the factors affecting drainability of the peatlands.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation discusses the use of peatlands in agriculture and peatlands' suitability to farming.

  • Kotilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4487, category Article
Erkki J. Kinnunen. (1937). Metsäseutujen työläisten omavaraistuttaminen elintarvikkeisiin nähden. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4487. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13897
English title: Promoting self-sufficiency in food supply of the farms in the remote areas of Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation studies the food supply and economic situation of the farmers in the remote parts of Finland.

  • Kinnunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4481, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1937). Metsähallinnon tulo- ja menoarvion laatiminen ja käsittely. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13891
English title: Preparation of national budget in forestry administration.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the peparation of national budget in forestry administration.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4475, category Article
Olavi Cajander. (1934). Viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta sekä lehtokasvillisuudesta ja -kasvistosta keskisen Längelmäveden seudulla. Silva Fennica no. 34 article id 4475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9047
English title: Distribution of fertile lands and vegetation indicative for herb-rich forest sites in Längelmävesi area in Southern Finland.

Typical for the area of Längälmävesi, in Satakunta in Southern Finland, are densely populated fertile lowland areas near the waterways and poorer sparcely populated upland areas. The changes in fertility of the land influence the vegetation, and has directed where the population has settled. A vegetation survey was made using specific plant species as indication to fertility. A detailed description of the species composition and distribution of the plant species indicative for fertile land is presented in the article.

Analyzing the fertility only based on the plant species indicative for rich soils underestimates the proportion of fertile lands. Farmlands, on the other hand, have been cleared also on less fertile soils, which would give an overestimate of the fertile lands. A map of fertile lands was drawn based on both vegetation and location of the fields. The changes in fertility influenced also bird species observed in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica no. 25 article id 4466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9022
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica no. 25 article id 4466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9022
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica no. 25 article id 4466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9022
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4459, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Tieteellinen tutkimustyö sekä korkein opetus maatalouden ja metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica no. 18 article id 4459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9000
English title: Research and higher education of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Applied research in the fields of agriculture and forestry is as demanding as theoretical research. The perception that it could be less exact is incorrect. Different variables have to be accounted for, for instance in cultivation of cereals. To define the effect of one variable, the scientist has to know and take account of the combined effect of the all the variables influencing the growth of the species. Results that can be put into practice are often demanded quickly, and the they should be broadly applicable. The research and education in the fields of agriculture and forestry have to respond to domestic needs. It is therefore necessary to secure that the research has sufficient equipment and premises.

The higher education and research of agriculture and forestry should be organized in the capital of the country, where the main organizations of the field are located. The present buildings of the faculty are, however, not adequate for teaching and research. The applied sciences need also connections to practice. Forest education has a forest experimental area, but agricultural education has no experimental fields in its use. The best location would be in Wiik area near the capital Helsinki. In addition, the teaching staff in the faculty is insufficient. New professorships should be established both in agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4459, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Tieteellinen tutkimustyö sekä korkein opetus maatalouden ja metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica no. 18 article id 4459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9000
English title: Research and higher education of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Applied research in the fields of agriculture and forestry is as demanding as theoretical research. The perception that it could be less exact is incorrect. Different variables have to be accounted for, for instance in cultivation of cereals. To define the effect of one variable, the scientist has to know and take account of the combined effect of the all the variables influencing the growth of the species. Results that can be put into practice are often demanded quickly, and the they should be broadly applicable. The research and education in the fields of agriculture and forestry have to respond to domestic needs. It is therefore necessary to secure that the research has sufficient equipment and premises.

The higher education and research of agriculture and forestry should be organized in the capital of the country, where the main organizations of the field are located. The present buildings of the faculty are, however, not adequate for teaching and research. The applied sciences need also connections to practice. Forest education has a forest experimental area, but agricultural education has no experimental fields in its use. The best location would be in Wiik area near the capital Helsinki. In addition, the teaching staff in the faculty is insufficient. New professorships should be established both in agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4457, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1930). Korkeimman maa- ja metsätalousopetuksen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica no. 16 article id 4457. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8998
English title: Development of higher education on agriculture and forestry in Finland.

The article is a proposal for organizing higher education on agriculture and forestry in Finland. The committee assessed that the best location for both forestry and agriculture education is the capital of Helsinki, where are situated the University of Helsinki, the College of Technology, the College of Commerce, most scientific institutions of the country, and the central government departments. Because the degree programs cannot be extended to include all the subjects of the developing fields of agriculture and forestry, it is suggested that the studies of agriculture will have four, and the studies of forestry three disciplines. The students would specialize in one main subject. The faculty should be divided into agricultural science and forest science sections.

The present teaching staff is considered insufficient. Thus, the committee proposes several new posts of professors, lecturers and teachers. Another problem is shortage of suitable premises. Therefore, new buildings should be constructed for the education of agriculture and forestry, and the Forest Research Institute. Agricultural experimental estates are proposed to be established in the Wiik estate and in the Malmgård estate. Accordingly, forest experimental station would be established at Korkeakoski. To enable the education of scientifically schooled personnel, grants should be provided for both studies abroad and for scientific work in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4457, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1930). Korkeimman maa- ja metsätalousopetuksen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica no. 16 article id 4457. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8998
English title: Development of higher education on agriculture and forestry in Finland.

The article is a proposal for organizing higher education on agriculture and forestry in Finland. The committee assessed that the best location for both forestry and agriculture education is the capital of Helsinki, where are situated the University of Helsinki, the College of Technology, the College of Commerce, most scientific institutions of the country, and the central government departments. Because the degree programs cannot be extended to include all the subjects of the developing fields of agriculture and forestry, it is suggested that the studies of agriculture will have four, and the studies of forestry three disciplines. The students would specialize in one main subject. The faculty should be divided into agricultural science and forest science sections.

The present teaching staff is considered insufficient. Thus, the committee proposes several new posts of professors, lecturers and teachers. Another problem is shortage of suitable premises. Therefore, new buildings should be constructed for the education of agriculture and forestry, and the Forest Research Institute. Agricultural experimental estates are proposed to be established in the Wiik estate and in the Malmgård estate. Accordingly, forest experimental station would be established at Korkeakoski. To enable the education of scientifically schooled personnel, grants should be provided for both studies abroad and for scientific work in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4454, category Article
C. C. Böcker. (1929). Om skogars skötsel i Norden. Silva Fennica no. 13 article id 4454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8987
English title: Silviculture in the Northern countries.

The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.

  • Böcker, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4449, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1928). Metsähallinnon suonkuivatustoiminnassa saavutettuja kokemuksia sekä suuntaviivoja suonkuivausta koskevan tutkimustyön kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 8 article id 4449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8397
English title: Experiences on draining of peatlands in the State forests in Finland by Forest Service and lines along which research on the draining of peatlands should proceed.

Systematic draining of peatlands begun in the state forests of Finland in 1908. It was considered necessary, because 41.4% of the state forests, 5.6 million hectares, consist of peatlands. Of the peatlands, 1.9 million hectares was estimated to be suitable for draining. Furthermore, paludification still continues in the forest lands. By the year 1926, a total of 52,275 hectares of peatland had been drained in the state lands.

Certain factors decide whether the peatland is suitable for draining: the growth increment capacity after draining, technical difficulties in draining, and difficulties in regeneration. Peatland type indicates the growth capacity of the drained peatland. The peatland should turn at least to Vaccinum forest site type or better type to be worth of draining. If the peat layer is thin, the quality of peat is an important deciding factor. The peatland may also be too expensive to drain due to, for instance, long ditches, main ditches difficult to dig, small inclination, uneven surface, and deep cavities at the bottom. The younger the trees of the stand, the faster the growth of the stand revives. The peatlands usually regenerate naturally provided there is sufficient seed trees, and there is seldom need for artificial regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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