Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'maatila'.

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindroos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pesonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4531, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1938). Asutuslain mukaisesta asutustyöstä valtion mailla ja metsänhoitajan tehtävistä tässä asutustyössä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13940
English title: Execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in state lands and role of a forest officer in managing the work.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands, and the role of a forest officer in managing the settlement. 

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4495, category Article
Mauno J. Kotilainen. (1937). Soiden viljelyskelpoisuuteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä ja valtionmaiden soiden viljelyskelpoisuudesta lähinnä niiden asutusmahdollisuuksia silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4495. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13905
English title: Peatlands suitable for agriculture in state lands, and the factors affecting drainability of the peatlands.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation discusses the use of peatlands in agriculture and peatlands' suitability to farming.

  • Kotilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive