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Articles containing the keyword 'managed forest'.

Category: Research article

article id 166, category Research article
Kim Pingoud, Johanna Pohjola, Lauri Valsta. (2010). Assessing the integrated climatic impacts of forestry and wood products. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 166. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.166
Managed forests serve as a store of carbon (C) and a renewable source of energy and materials. By using forest products as substitutes for fossil fuels or non-renewable materials, emissions from fossil C sources can be displaced. The efficiency of emissions displacement depends on the product, its lifecycle and the fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted. Forest management practices have an impact on C stocks in biomass and on the annual supply of products and their mix. There are trade-offs between sequestering C stocks in forests and the climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and using wood products to displace fossil C emissions. This article presents an integrated, steady-state analysis comparing various equilibrium states of managed forests and wood product pools that represent sustainable long-term forestry and wood-use strategies. Two climatic indicators are used: the combined C stock in forests and wood products and the fossil C emissions displaced annually by harvested wood products. The study indicates that long-term strategies could be available that are better according to both indicators than forestry practices based on the existing silvicultural guidelines in Finland. These strategies would involve increasing the basal area and prolonging rotations to produce more sawlogs. Further, the climate benefits appear to be highest in case the sawlog supply is directed to production of long-lived materials substituting for fossil-emission and energy intensive materials and recycled after their useful life to bioenergy.
  • Pingoud, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi (email)
  • Pohjola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Valsta, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 250, category Research article
Saara Lilja-Rothsten, Michelle de Chantal, Chris Peterson, Timo Kuuluvainen, Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa, Pasi Puttonen. (2008). Microsites before and after restoration in managed Picea abies stands in southern Finland: effects of fire and partial cutting with dead wood creation. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 250. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.250
Different types of microsites, e.g. CWD (coarse woody debris), mounds, and uprooting pits, are important for tree regeneration and biodiversity. However, microsite diversity is greatly reduced in managed stands. We studied how restoration treatments changed microsite distribution in mature managed Picea abies stands. Four cutting treatments were used: uncut, low-CWD (5 m3 ha–1 of down retention trees, DRT, and 50 m3 ha–1 of standing retention trees), intermediate-CWD (as previous but leaving 30 m3 ha–1 of DRT), and high-CWD (as previous but with 60 m3 ha–1 of DRT). Timber harvested from stands ranged from 108–168 m3 ha–1. Half of the stands were burned, and half remained unburned. Sampling was stratified into upland and paludified biotopes within each stand. The pre-treatment microsite distributions were dominated by level ground in both biotopes; mounds and microsites on or next to CWD or a stump were slightly more abundant in the paludified than in the upland biotopes. Microsites were more diverse after cutting, with and without fire. The cutting treatment increased the relative abundances of microsites on or next to CWD. Fire consumed small diameter dead wood and flattened mounds. Microsites were more diverse in paludified than in upland biotopes. The results demonstrate that microsite diversity can rapidly be restored to structurally impoverished managed Picea stands despite a large portion of wood volume being harvested.
  • Lilja-Rothsten, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: saara.lilja@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Chantal, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peterson, Dept. of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuuluvainen, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanha-Majamaa, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Unit, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Unit, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 377, category Research article
Saara Lilja, Timo Kuuluvainen. (2005). Structure of old Pinus sylvestris dominated forest stands along a geographic and human impact gradient in mid-boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 377. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.377
Stand structural characteristics were examined in old Pinus sylvestris dominated sites in three regions along a broad geographic and human impact gradient in mid-boreal Fennoscandia. The study regions were: 1) Häme in south-western Finland, with a long history of forest utilization, 2) Kuhmo in north-eastern Finland, with a more recent history of intensive forest utilization, and 3) Vienansalo in Russian Karelia, still characterized by a large near-natural forest landscape. Within each region the sampled sites were divided into three human impact classes: 1) near-natural stands, 2) stands selectively logged in the past, and 3) managed stands treated with thinnings. The near-natural and selectively logged stands in Häme and Kuhmo had a significantly higher Picea proportion compared to stands in Vienansalo. In comparison, the proportions of deciduous tree volumes were higher in near-natural stands in Vienansalo compared to near-natural stands in Häme. The pooled tree diameter distributions, both in near-natural and selectively logged stands, were descending whereas managed stands had a bimodal diameter distribution. Structural diversity characteristics such as broken trunks were most common in near-natural stands and in stands selectively logged in the past. The results demonstrate the higher structural complexity of near-natural stands and stands selectively logged in the past compared to managed stands, and highlight that old near-natural stands and stands selectively logged in the past vary widely in their structures. This obviously reflects both their natural variability but also various combinations of pre-industrial land use and human impact on fire disturbance. These factors need to be acknowledged when using “natural” forest structures as a reference in developing strategies for forest management, restoration and nature conservation.
  • Lilja, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: saara.lilja@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kuuluvainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1321, category Research note
Sofia Bäcklund, Mari T. Jönsson, Joachim Strengbom, Göran Thor. (2015). Composition of functional groups of ground vegetation differ between planted stands of non-native Pinus contorta and native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1321. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1321
Highlights: Differences in ground vegetation patterns can be linked to tree species, forest stand age and differences in canopy cover; Vascular plant cover was higher in stands of P. contorta than in stands of both native tree species; The overall differences and similarities between P. contorta and the two native conifers were not consistent over the different age classes.
Intensified forestry increases the interest in replacing native tree species with fast growing non-native species. However, consequences for native biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. We compared cover and composition of major functional groups of ground vegetation between planted stands of non-native Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm. and native conifers Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in northern boreal Sweden. We quantified the ground cover of lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants and ground without vegetation (bare ground) in 96 stands covering three different age classes (15, 30 and 85 years old). Our study revealed differences in ground vegetation patterns between non-native and native managed forests, and that these differences are linked to stand age and differences in canopy cover. Total vascular plant cover increased with increasing stand age for all tree species, with P. contorta stands having higher cover than both native conifers. The ground cover of lichens was, although generally low, highest in stands of Pinus sylvestris. P. abies stands had a lower cover of vascular plants, but bare ground was more common compared with P. contorta. Our results suggest that the use of P. contorta as an alternative tree species in Fennoscandian forestry will influence native ground vegetation patterns. This influence is likely to change with time and future research should consider both temporal and landscape-scale effects from shifting tree-species dominance to Pinus contorta and other non-native tree species.
  • Bäcklund, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: sofia.backlund@slu.se (email)
  • Jönsson,  The Swedish Species Information Centre, P.O. Box 7007, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.jonsson@slu.se
  • Strengbom, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: joachim.strengbom@slu.se
  • Thor, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.thor@slu.se

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