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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'metsä'.

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7159, category Article
Seppo E. Mustonen. (1965). Ilmasto- ja maastotekijöiden vaikutuksesta lumen vesiarvoon ja roudan syvyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 1 article id 7159. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7159
English title: Effect of meteorological and terrain factors in water equivalent of snow cover and frost depth.

The aim of the investigation was to obtain by snow and soil frost observations sufficient material for determination of regional springtime snow and soil frost values, because the water equivalent of snow and the frost depth affect runoff. The present paper elaborates a method by which the observations along a survey line can be corrected to be valid for a basin. Along the line 50 measurement points were arranged at specific intervals. Snow depth was recorded at each point, and snow density and frost depth at every fifth point. The terrain was studied along the line and the terrain of the survey points were classified in eight classes depending on the vegetation. The classes ranged from cultivated lands and open bogs to wooded areas according to volume of the growing stock and tree species composition.

The mean snow depth was 51.9 cm and mean snow density 0.235 g/m2. Water equivalent of snow in class 4 terrain (forest with small growing stock) was 30% higher than in class 8 (forest with high growing stock). An ample stand increases evaporation in wintertime. The difference can be partly caused by the different accumulation of snow in the different types of stands.

Soil type was not found to have any distinct influence on the frost depth in the present material. On cultivated lands the soil frost clearly penetrates to greater depth than in the forest. The growing stock of wooded areas influences the snow depth

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mustonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7158
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7152, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1964). Yksityismetsätaloudelliset vaihtoehtolaskelmat. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 4 article id 7152. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7152
English title: Alternative calculations in private forestry.

The purpose of this theoretical study was to define the factors related to wood production that affect the financial result of private forestry in Finland on the viewpoint of alternative calculation. The paper introduces the main concepts, analyses the outturn factors and discusses feasibility of some calculation methods, and finally draws up a business plan for a forest holding based on the chosen method.

In forestry, the quantitative and sustainability objectives for yield, the difference between annual proceeds and costs, and the capital value of the costs affect which factors are included in the calculation of profitability of forestry. The base-line situation for the alternative calculations is defined by an inventory. The future proceeds and costs are valuated and procedural models are formulated for the most advantageous alternatives. The main goal in private forestry is profit.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7122, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Pinotavaraleimikon taksatoriset tunnukset ja niiden vaikutus leimikkoarvioinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 5 article id 7122. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7122
English title: Mensurational characteristics of cordwood stock market for felling and their effect on the precision of stock estimation.

The annual fellings and sales of pulpwood from the State Forests of Finland comprised 4.0–4.6 million m3 in 1955–1959. In order to improve the accuracy of the methods used in estimating the pulpwood stocks marked for felling, a pilot survey of 18 marked stocks was carried out in 1959. The stock area, average plot volume, variation of the plot volumes, size and shape of the plot and the distribution of the trees by diameter classes as factors affecting the precision have been studied in this paper.

The greater the mean volume of a plot the more homogenous is the structure of the marked stock. The same number of plots gives a better relative precision for the south Finnish marked stock than for the north Finnish ones, which are heterogenous and less valuable. Stocks smaller than 50 ha can often be estimated more advantageously by the strip method or visually than by the plot method. The proper size of plot in Southern Finland is 0.02–0.03 ha. In Northern Finland the plots should be larger due to the heterogenous stocks, about 0.05 ha. The shape can be either circular or rectangular. The former may be more practical and reliable in the field. The minimum number of sample trees is considered to be about 200 per 100 sample plots 0.03 ha in size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7117, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1961). Metsäojituksen vaikutuksesta puuston kasvuun ja poistumaan hakkuusuunnitteiden laskemista varten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 8 article id 7117. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7117
English title: The influence of forest drainage on growth and removal in Finland. For estimations of allowable cut.

The Finnish forest industry is undergoing a vast expansion, which has raised questions of forest balance. This paper studies the possibilities to increase the amount available timber by means of forest drainage. About third of the Finnish land area is peatlands. The calculations of the investigation are based on Forestry Board districts. Based on earlier studies, there is estimated to be 3,042,000 ha of true drainable swamps, 973,000 ha of poor swamps, 1,381,000 ha of uplands in need of drainage, and 1,205,000 ha of drained peatlands. Therefore, the area of drainable and drained lands totals 6,6 million ha, and requirement of forest drainage 5,4 million ha. The drainage hardly reaches this extent, however. It can be assumed that part of the poor swamps is uneconomical to drain. In addition, a half of the paludified forest land will probably not be drained. Thus, it can be estimated that the area to be drained in the future is about 5 million ha. It seems possible that this area could be drained within about 50 years with the present draining capacity.

Draining of all objects of forests would increase the annual increment of our forests, in time, by about 10.5 million m3. This would signify an increase of 23% compared to the present growth of the forests. The increase in the growth consists mainly of softwood: 16% is birch, and the remaining 84% almost equally of Scots pine and Norway spruce. The increase of growth is relatively slow. Depending on the rate of the drainage program, the mean increase of growth will be reached in about 25–35 years. The increase in removal indicated by the increase in the mean increment will be reached in only 50–60 years.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7110, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Suurin kestävä hakkuusuunnite ja sen metsätaloudellinen merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 1 article id 7110. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7110
English title: Largest permanent allowable cut and a method for its calculation.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the factors which determine the amount of the largest permanent allowable cut and to work out a method to estimate it. There is a need to have a ’short cut’ formula for rough preliminary estimates. The preliminary estimates will be checked by stock development forecasts. The largest allowable cut and its sustained basis are only guaranteed by a forecast through a period during which all the present tree stands have reached maturity and exploited.

Estimations of the largest permanent allowable cut are based on the data of the present and desirable growing stock. The present stock was a growing stock of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands on Vaccinium type forests in Southern Finland. The connected Austrian formula is a simple way for preliminary estimation of the largest cut but its sustained basis must be checked by a stock development forecast.

In a stock development forecast the future increment and cut are calculated. For this purpose, the average site quality, tree species, age class and average volume in each class seem to be sufficient variables. The forecast is carried out within the limiting data of the present and desirable stock.

If there is an abundance of mature and over-mature stands, the largest permanent allowable cut is greater than the present increment, provided, however, that bulk of the cut is drawn by determined generation measures. Measured in solid cubic meters, the sustained cut from the Southern Finnish pine stock exceeds the present increment by 11%. With regard to the sustained saw timber production the cut can exceed the present increment by 5–7%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7501, category Article
Eric Appelroth. (1959). Käytännön metsämiehen ajatuksia metsätieteestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 11 article id 7501. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7501
English title: Practice and science of forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomi
English keywords: forest research; Finland

This article is a discusses development of forest research to its present stage. The writer points out that of all different branches of industry, forestry is probably the one most based on practical experience, as it is not until recently implied in discriminate exploitation of available natural resources. In addition, until recently job performances in forestry were essentially based on the muscular strength and acquired skills of the individual worker. Until the eighteenth century the tenor of scientific thought was alien to a domain like forestry. Prior to that time, science meant jurisprudence, theology and philosophy. After Linnaeus science experienced a time of expansion. Since then, the contact between science and forestry has developed along two different lines. First, forest has attracted the interest of biologists. Second, where forestry has been unsuccessful in solving its own problems, the need has arisen for theoretical investigations.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 12.

  • Appelroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7497, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Metsäteknologinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 7 article id 7497. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7497
English title: Survey of forest technology research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 8.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7497, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Metsäteknologinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 7 article id 7497. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7497
English title: Survey of forest technology research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 8.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7493, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Metsänhoitotieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1901-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 3 article id 7493. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7493
English title: Silvicultural research in Finland from 1901 to 1959 .
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomi

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.  

Forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management. 

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 4. 

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7493, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Metsänhoitotieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1901-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 3 article id 7493. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7493
English title: Silvicultural research in Finland from 1901 to 1959 .
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomi

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.  

Forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management. 

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 4. 

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7491, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran ensimmäinen puolivuosisata. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 1 article id 7491. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7491
English title: The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland .

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.  

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 Finnish marks. 

The history of the the Finnish Society of Forest Science is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 2.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7491, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran ensimmäinen puolivuosisata. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 1 article id 7491. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7491
English title: The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland .

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.  

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 Finnish marks. 

The history of the the Finnish Society of Forest Science is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 2.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7486, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). Siemensiipien hankaajista ja niiden vaikutuksesta siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7486
English title: On machines for abrading seed wings and their influence on the germinative capacity of the seed.

This paper deals with two machines designed for abrading seed wings, and their influence on the germinative capacity of seed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Both machines are commonly used in Finland.

The results of the study indicate that the act of abrading may cause slight or even serious injuries to the seed. Slight injuries of about 3% are probably not easily avoided if mechanical abrading is resorted to. It must be noted, however, that even this reduction in germinative capacity causes significant yearly loss. If the reduction in germinative capacity is greater, which seems to be possible, it is advisable to test the mechanism of the machine and its method of abrading. As the clearance of the machines can affect the extent of injuries, all machines should be tested. If possible, a continual operation control should be arranged. It could, at the same time, to supply material for improving the abrading method and equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7483, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1958). Tutkimuksia hakkauslaskelmasta ja siihen perustuvasta metsän tuottoarvosta. 1. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 1 article id 7483. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7483
English title: Studies on cutting budget and yield in terms of value based on the cutting budget. I.

An estimate of value of a forest holding is needed, for instance, when the holding is sold. There is, however, no standard method for forest valuation. This paper describes a method based on yield in terms of value that is estimated on the basis of cutting budget. The first, mensurational part of the investigation concentrates on calculation of cutting budget that can be used in forest valuation. Second part studies how chronological order of fellings changes allowable cut in forests that differ by age-class distribution and other structural properties. Structure and variation in the structure of silviculturally different forests are determined for the forests that form the data for the investigation.

According to the study, even if the forests studied in the investigation included forests which structure differed in their age-class distribution from normal forests, they could be managed in a such way that in 5-6 decades the age-class distribution resemble that of a normal forest, and have growing stock that correspond the stock of forests in Southern Finland, about 80-110 m3/ha. Based on this, the cutting budgets of the later decades of the first rotation can be assumed to be nearly even. The original age-class distribution of the forest affects, however, allowable cut of the forests during the first decade. The revenues of the first decade have small impact on the value, the later decades strong. Consequently, development of the most valuable part of the allowable cut, timber trees, has big impact on the value. The results show that in young forests the planned cut including the proportion of timber trees increases, in middle-aged forest it is relatively even, and in old forest declining. The results indicate the order of magnitude the planned cut can be in near future in diferent kinds of forests, and when different felling regimes are used to reach different goals.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7483, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1958). Tutkimuksia hakkauslaskelmasta ja siihen perustuvasta metsän tuottoarvosta. 1. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 1 article id 7483. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7483
English title: Studies on cutting budget and yield in terms of value based on the cutting budget. I.

An estimate of value of a forest holding is needed, for instance, when the holding is sold. There is, however, no standard method for forest valuation. This paper describes a method based on yield in terms of value that is estimated on the basis of cutting budget. The first, mensurational part of the investigation concentrates on calculation of cutting budget that can be used in forest valuation. Second part studies how chronological order of fellings changes allowable cut in forests that differ by age-class distribution and other structural properties. Structure and variation in the structure of silviculturally different forests are determined for the forests that form the data for the investigation.

According to the study, even if the forests studied in the investigation included forests which structure differed in their age-class distribution from normal forests, they could be managed in a such way that in 5-6 decades the age-class distribution resemble that of a normal forest, and have growing stock that correspond the stock of forests in Southern Finland, about 80-110 m3/ha. Based on this, the cutting budgets of the later decades of the first rotation can be assumed to be nearly even. The original age-class distribution of the forest affects, however, allowable cut of the forests during the first decade. The revenues of the first decade have small impact on the value, the later decades strong. Consequently, development of the most valuable part of the allowable cut, timber trees, has big impact on the value. The results show that in young forests the planned cut including the proportion of timber trees increases, in middle-aged forest it is relatively even, and in old forest declining. The results indicate the order of magnitude the planned cut can be in near future in diferent kinds of forests, and when different felling regimes are used to reach different goals.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7479, category Article
Matti Franssila. (1958). Kulovaaran ja säätekijöiden välisestä riippuvuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 5 article id 7479. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7479
English title: The dependence of forest fire danger on meteorological factors.
Original keywords: metsäpalot; ilmasto; kuivuus; maan kuivuus

The investigation is divided into statistical and experimental sections, the latter of which were conducted in a Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand with the aim of elucidating the interdependence of soil humidity and meteorological factors. The moisture content of pine needles and moss and wooden cylinders placed on the soil or slightly over the ground was determined by weighing. The results showed that there is correlation between the moisture content of the wooden cylinders and the relative humidity of air during the days without rain. Correlation between moisture content of pine needles and moss with the air was slightly poorer.

In the statistical section, based on meteorological observations made in the geophysical observatory at Sodankylä in Northern Finland in 1920-1943, and forest fire statistics of the area, forest fire days and days without forest fires were divided into 40 temperature-humidity groups. Of the 391 forest fires observed in the area, the cause of the fire was known in 353 cases, and 69% of these were caused by lightning. A forest fire danger index was calculated using the data. A sharp increase in the burned area when the index exceeded the limit k=0.3 seem to be explained by thunderstorms, which are the most notable cause of forest fires in the Sodankylä area.

The forest fire index was calculated also at four meteorological stations in different parts of the country using weather observations in 1927-1936. It appears that the number of days in which the k>0.1 decreases when proceeding northwards, obviously because of the shortening of the summer. On the other hand, the number of days in which k>0.3 increases towards the north.

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  • Franssila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7473, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1957). Käenkaali-mustikkatyypin kuusikoiden kehityksestä Suomen lounaisosassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 3 article id 7473. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7473
English title: On the development of spruce forests of the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type in the south-west of Finland.

In this investigation was studied 1) Volume growth and yield of timber in managed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests under different rotations. 2) Value growth, net forest income and soil expectation value of managed forests under different rotations, and 3) The rotations of spruce forests managed on different rotation principles. The data was collected from Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests in South-West Finland.

Two developmental series of stands were constructed for the research, one of which were of better sites than the other. Sample plots were pure, even-aged spruce stands in well-managed forests. The stands had been thinned from below. The age varied from 25-30 years to the age of final cutting.

According to the study, in the artificially regenerated spruce stands the highest mean annual volume growth, 9.7 m3/ha, and also the highest net annual income of 14,50 Finnish marks/ha (calculated from average stumpages) was reached in rotation of 70 years. In the other managed spruce forests a mean annual volume growth of 6.6-8.8 m3/ha and the net annual income of 10,500-14,500 Finnish marks/ha were reached in the rotation of 70-100 years. The rotation for the maximum mean annual volume growth varied in the different series between 67-92 years. The maximum mean annual forest rent was only achieved in series B in a rotation of about 100 years, and in a naturally normal stand in a rotation of about 120 years. The intensity of thinnings and silviculture had a greater effect on value growth and on net income than on volume growth.

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  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

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  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

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  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7468, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1957). Metsäojien syvyyden ja pintaleveyden muuttuminen sekä ojien kunnon säilyminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 5 article id 7468. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7468
English title: Changes in depth and top width of forest ditches and the maintaining of their repair.

The article deals with forest ditches dug by manual labour in drained peatlands in Central and Southern Finland, ranging in age from 16 to 25 years. The ditches have been allowed to develop in a natural state. A total 1,160 of randomly selected sample plots were studied.

The results show that the originally dug ditch depth has not been the decisive factor from the viewpoint of maintaining the ditch repair. Ditches dug in thick peat layer have maintained their repair better than those dug in thin peat layer. Apparently, the influencing factor is the type of soil, to a certain extent parallel to the thickness of peat layer. In ditches dug mainly in mineral soil, the type of soil has essentially contributed to maintaining the ditch repair. Ditches in coarse-grained soils maintained a better repair than those in fine-grained soils. Also, the steeper the gradient of the ditch the better the ditch repair has been maintained. There was no relationship between the thickness of peat and the filling up of ditch bottom, because of the influence of mineral soil. Filling up of a ditch seems to be mainly due to the sinking of peat. The filling up of ditch bottom was more pronounced in clay-silt soil than in other soil types. The filling up of ditch bottom by varying gradient is due to the fact that with a small gradient the speed of water is so slow as to permit the soil particles to sink to the bottom. Another factor affecting filling up of the ditches is wetness of the peatland. Deepening of ditches happens mainly through erosion, if the gradient is large enough. The study suggests that a 50-m spacing with about 60-cm ditchc depth would be most profitable.

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  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7467, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1956). Hakkuiden vaikutuksesta kaarnakuoriaisten esiintymiseen eräällä metsäalueella Etelä-Hämeessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7467
English title: Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in a forest area in Southern Finland.

Bark beetle populations live usually in a balance in natural forests, and outbreaks occur seldom. The populations have been found to increase in managed forests. Fellings affect the structure of the forests, which influence the living conditions of the insects, and produce material for reproduction. In this study the occurrence of bark beetles was studied in a forest area in Etelä-Häme in Southern Finland using line plot survey.

The forests in the area were Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated. Over third of the 140 sample plots studied were in forests which had never been cut or it was over ten years to the last logging. Bark beetles of 26 different species were found in 66 of the sample plots. The most common species was six-toothed spruce bark beetle (Pityogenes chalcographus L.), which was due to the abundance of growth material suitable for the species in the area. New species in the area were common double-eyed spruce bark beetle (Polygraphus polygraphus L.), Pityophthorus micrographus L., and Dryocetes-beetle (either Dryocetes autographus or D. hectographus). The fellings increased the occurrence of beetles. The amount and quality of logging residue affected the abundance of the insects.

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  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7461, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsäteollisuuden metsäosastojen henkilöorganisaation rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 1 article id 7461. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7461
English title: Studied concerning the structure of personnel organization in the forestry department of the forest industry.

This paper aims at creating a picture of the tasks of forestry departments of those enterprises engaged in the wood working industry in Southern Finland, to analyse tasks performed by them and to discover the details from which the tasks have been built. In the first part of the work a general theory of organization study is dealt with from the point of view of structural research, and in the second part the results obtained are applied to the forestry departments.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7461, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsäteollisuuden metsäosastojen henkilöorganisaation rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 1 article id 7461. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7461
English title: Studied concerning the structure of personnel organization in the forestry department of the forest industry.

This paper aims at creating a picture of the tasks of forestry departments of those enterprises engaged in the wood working industry in Southern Finland, to analyse tasks performed by them and to discover the details from which the tasks have been built. In the first part of the work a general theory of organization study is dealt with from the point of view of structural research, and in the second part the results obtained are applied to the forestry departments.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7460, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Toini Ristimäki. (1956). Metsä- ja uittotyövoiman määrä ja rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 7 article id 7460. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7460
English title: Size and structure of forest and log-floating labour force in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; uitto; työvoima; maataloustyö

The investigation is based mainly on the material collected for Finnish rural labour force study in connection with the 1950 Population Census. A total of 44,667 men, aged 15-64, were interviewed in connection of the census, and a sub-group consisting of a sample of the forest and floating labour, 28,850 men, was formed for this study. Finnish rural population typically cultivates the land, tends cattle, works in the forest, builds roads and houses and floats timber without specializing in any of these jobs. The work done in the own farms is called unpaid work in this study in contrast to paid work outside the farm.

The paid forest and floating labour force (308,600 men) includes all forest and floating workers who reported that they have worked for a minimum of one day. Forest work is heavily winter-dominated. Only in the floating work there was a declining trend in the time series of 1933-1934 and 1942-1955. The average forest and floating labour input per man was small, 40-70 days depending on the occupational group. Only 13,000 workers worked over 200 days, and 32,000 worked 150 days. 44% of the paid forest and floating workers were members of families cultivating small farms, 26% had larger farms, and the remaining 30% were farmless or members of a family holding a building lot.

The main difficulty in finding manpower for summertime forest work seems not to be the lack of time for paid work because of the men’s unpaid work. They seem to prefer other, more attractive paid work.

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  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7459
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

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  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7458, category Article
Sulo Väänänen. (1955). Ammattimaisten metsätyömiesten asunto-olot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 5 article id 7458. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7458
English title: Housing conditions of professional forest workers in Finland.

The data on housing conditions presented in this study derives from the general population census of Finland of 1950. The sub-sample of professional forest workers was taken from the sample collected for the larger investigation of rural labour force. The housing density of professional forest workers was considerably higher than the average for the population in general. The total population of the country, according to the 1950 Census, showed a ratio of 154 persons to 100 rooms, while the average weighted with the number of rooms for forest workers was 237:100, and the unweighted 340:100. If three per room is taken as the limit of crowded housing, nearly half of the professional forest workers lived in crowded conditions. Over two-thirds of them owned their dwellings, and only 2% of them lived in dwellings owned by the employer. Three quarters of all the men belonged to the holder-family of small farms. About three quarters of them lived in dwellings of one or two rooms. Also, the size of the family and household affected the housing density. The housing density exceeds the average in the youngest age classes. This is probably because the sons of families with poor economic standing must start work young in forestry, and those families have a high housing density. A quarter of the families had electricity in their dwellings. Few had running water or sewage in their houses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7458, category Article
Sulo Väänänen. (1955). Ammattimaisten metsätyömiesten asunto-olot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 5 article id 7458. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7458
English title: Housing conditions of professional forest workers in Finland.

The data on housing conditions presented in this study derives from the general population census of Finland of 1950. The sub-sample of professional forest workers was taken from the sample collected for the larger investigation of rural labour force. The housing density of professional forest workers was considerably higher than the average for the population in general. The total population of the country, according to the 1950 Census, showed a ratio of 154 persons to 100 rooms, while the average weighted with the number of rooms for forest workers was 237:100, and the unweighted 340:100. If three per room is taken as the limit of crowded housing, nearly half of the professional forest workers lived in crowded conditions. Over two-thirds of them owned their dwellings, and only 2% of them lived in dwellings owned by the employer. Three quarters of all the men belonged to the holder-family of small farms. About three quarters of them lived in dwellings of one or two rooms. Also, the size of the family and household affected the housing density. The housing density exceeds the average in the youngest age classes. This is probably because the sons of families with poor economic standing must start work young in forestry, and those families have a high housing density. A quarter of the families had electricity in their dwellings. Few had running water or sewage in their houses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7457, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Kääpiöviljelmien miestyövoiman käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 4 article id 7457. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7457
English title: Use of workforce of small farms.

The investigation into the manpower of small farms is a part of the 1950 rural labour force survey. The purpose of this work was to study the use of manpower of small farms, that have 0.25-0.499 ha under plough. The manpower of the farms refers to men of 15-64 years of age, members of the family, whose input of unpaid labour to farming was not less than 21 days in 1950. The aim was to find out the extent to which the labour input was to farming and to what extent to paid work outside the farm. The data was collected in connection to the census of Finland as a sample.

The men of small farms are primarily temporal workers in the different occupations. Their labour input in the own farms per hectare under plough increased as the size of the farms decreased. This seemingly contradictory result is due to a low decree of mechanization, the organization of work, the quality of the labour force and the great relative importance of maintenance work in small farms. Also, especially in the remote areas there is not available enough paid work for the men living in small farms. Farms in Lapland and the county of Oulu had most forest land, which increased the unpaid work on forestry. Forestry in small farms tends to require more unpaid work, because they use less hired labour and make less sales of standing timber.

This is the workforce in forest and construction industry, that are sensitive to business cycles, and draw additional manpower during boom of trends without affecting unemployment figures. Agricultural income of the men of small farms was estimated by comparing it with wages of a worker. Their income per day for unpaid labour was lower than the daily wage of a farm worker. High number of small farms is a result of agricultural policy in Finland. The aim has been to keep the proportion of agricultural population high since it is considered to be best able to provide work and a decent living. The farms, established in connection with the abolition of tenant farming and through colonization, were mostly small.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7456, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Nuorukaisten ja täysi-ikäisten miesten arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 3 article id 7456. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7456
English title: Annual round of activity of youths and adult men.

The study is a part of the investigation of the rural labour force in Finland in 1950. The data was collected in the form of a sample in connection with the census of Finland, and covers the rural male population of the age of 15-64. In this study the men in the age group of 15-19 are classified as youths and the 20-64 as adult men.

Youths in rural districts participated in production, calculated in man-days, to almost at the same extent as adult men. The total labour input of the youths was 78% of the total activity, and that of adult men 85%. About 75% of the men or their families owned a farm. The main activity, 151 days a year, of 47% of the youths and 51% of the adult men was in work on their own family farms. The input of paid labour of youths was smaller than that of adult men.

In rural districts 37% of the youths and 47% of the adult men spent the main part of the annual round of activity in paid work. However, in Lapland only quarter of the youths and half of the adult men was in paid work. Forest and agricultural work seem to have a greater meaning for youths, and construction of houses and industrial work for adult men. Only 12% of the youths and 13% of the men were employed principally as professional workers in forestry, agriculture or construction of houses. Jobs in industry, commerce, transport and communication had little significance.

About 36% of the youths had no permanent occupation. This figure includes, however, also those who were studying, or were at home at least for the greater part of the year. About 12% of the total activity of the youths was studying.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7454
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.

In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7451
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hanioja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vartiovaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7451
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hanioja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vartiovaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7412, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1954). Professori Eino Saari 60-vuotias. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. I article id 7412. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7412
English title: Commemorative publication to celebrate the 60th anniversary of professor Eino Saari.

The article summarises the career of Eino Saari, professor of forest economics at the University of Helsinki on his 60th anniversary. He is the founder of forest economics research in Finland, and has developed the theory of forest balance. He abandoned the traditional static view of the forest balance and developed a new dynamic conception.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday. 

The PDF includes a summary in English and Swedish.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7412, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1954). Professori Eino Saari 60-vuotias. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. I article id 7412. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7412
English title: Commemorative publication to celebrate the 60th anniversary of professor Eino Saari.

The article summarises the career of Eino Saari, professor of forest economics at the University of Helsinki on his 60th anniversary. He is the founder of forest economics research in Finland, and has developed the theory of forest balance. He abandoned the traditional static view of the forest balance and developed a new dynamic conception.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday. 

The PDF includes a summary in English and Swedish.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.

Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.

Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.

Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7445, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1954). Puutavaran valmistuksen keskityötulosten määrittäminen tilastoteitse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 33 article id 7445. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7445
English title: Statistical determination of the average work performance in the preparation of timber.

Work studies conducted in Finland and Sweden on forest work have shown that the performance of different workers or even of a same worker vary greatly, although external conditions such as the size and other properties of the trees, weather etc. are similar. It has been decided in the Northern Countries that as it is impossible to assess the working speed of a man, it is not possible to find out the average work performances, not even from long term time studies. The only way is to collect performance statistics.

Metsäteho (Forest Work Studies Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries) has collected since 1946 statistics on the working sites of forest industry companies in different parts of Finland on the preparation on timber. To make it comparable the material has been converted to uniform values by using the ratios given by the work time studies of various forest jobs conducted by Metsäteho. The ratios are necessary in trying to determine average performances by statistical means. The actual length of time each man is at work on different days and the actual number of days is needed, because in Finland the workers can themselves decide fairly freely the length of a working day. In forest work, wages are paid for the quantity prepared, not for time. The statistics collected by Metsäteho include information on the length of the working days, and conditions in each forest, such as the size of the trees, form of stem, branchiness, bark thickness, terrain, density of the forest, weather conditions etc.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vöry, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7444, category Article
Lauri Selin. (1954). Metsätaloutemme verotetut tulot vuosina 1950-53 erään laskelman valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 32 article id 7444. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7444
English title: Forestry income taxed in Finland in 1950-1953 in the light of a calculation.

Due to the nature of forest taxation in Finland, there has been no information available on the amount of tax paid by forestry or of taxable forestry income. The main reason for this is the close connection of taxation of forestry and agriculture, which has made it difficult and expensive to separate the information of the sectors. This study determined the amount of taxable forestry mathematically based on statistics on the taxable forest areas in each tax zone on a county level.

The article concludes that the stumpage has been considerably higher than the taxable income in 1950-1953. In 1951 only 18.5% of the income received as stumpage was taxed, but in 1953 the proportion was 82.8%. In average 45% of the stumpage amount had become subject to taxation.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7444, category Article
Lauri Selin. (1954). Metsätaloutemme verotetut tulot vuosina 1950-53 erään laskelman valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 32 article id 7444. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7444
English title: Forestry income taxed in Finland in 1950-1953 in the light of a calculation.

Due to the nature of forest taxation in Finland, there has been no information available on the amount of tax paid by forestry or of taxable forestry income. The main reason for this is the close connection of taxation of forestry and agriculture, which has made it difficult and expensive to separate the information of the sectors. This study determined the amount of taxable forestry mathematically based on statistics on the taxable forest areas in each tax zone on a county level.

The article concludes that the stumpage has been considerably higher than the taxable income in 1950-1953. In 1951 only 18.5% of the income received as stumpage was taxed, but in 1953 the proportion was 82.8%. In average 45% of the stumpage amount had become subject to taxation.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7444, category Article
Lauri Selin. (1954). Metsätaloutemme verotetut tulot vuosina 1950-53 erään laskelman valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 32 article id 7444. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7444
English title: Forestry income taxed in Finland in 1950-1953 in the light of a calculation.

Due to the nature of forest taxation in Finland, there has been no information available on the amount of tax paid by forestry or of taxable forestry income. The main reason for this is the close connection of taxation of forestry and agriculture, which has made it difficult and expensive to separate the information of the sectors. This study determined the amount of taxable forestry mathematically based on statistics on the taxable forest areas in each tax zone on a county level.

The article concludes that the stumpage has been considerably higher than the taxable income in 1950-1953. In 1951 only 18.5% of the income received as stumpage was taxed, but in 1953 the proportion was 82.8%. In average 45% of the stumpage amount had become subject to taxation.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7442, category Article
Esko Hellén. (1954). Sosiaaliministeriön tilasto metsätyöntekijäin ansioista ja palkoista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 30 article id 7442. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7442
English title: Statistics of the wages and earnings of forest workers prepared by the Ministry of Social Affairs.

The wage problems of forest workers were first studied in 1931-1932, when the depression compelled the enforcement of a wage control system in forestry, and thus produced statistics on the earnings of forest workers. When the wage controls were introduced in 1934, it was necessary to determine wage norms on which to base the assessment on working results.

Three different norms were defined. The norm of daily earnings means the amount an adult, able-bodied, skilled forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at piece work. The norm of daily salary is the amount of a forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at time rates, and the wage norm per hour for floating workers is the amount a floating worker should receive per hour. The wages are controlled by special inspectors, and statistics on wages are collected by reports of the inspectors.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7442, category Article
Esko Hellén. (1954). Sosiaaliministeriön tilasto metsätyöntekijäin ansioista ja palkoista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 30 article id 7442. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7442
English title: Statistics of the wages and earnings of forest workers prepared by the Ministry of Social Affairs.

The wage problems of forest workers were first studied in 1931-1932, when the depression compelled the enforcement of a wage control system in forestry, and thus produced statistics on the earnings of forest workers. When the wage controls were introduced in 1934, it was necessary to determine wage norms on which to base the assessment on working results.

Three different norms were defined. The norm of daily earnings means the amount an adult, able-bodied, skilled forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at piece work. The norm of daily salary is the amount of a forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at time rates, and the wage norm per hour for floating workers is the amount a floating worker should receive per hour. The wages are controlled by special inspectors, and statistics on wages are collected by reports of the inspectors.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7427, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1954). Metsänhoitolain kaavailua sotatalvena 1944. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 15 article id 7427. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7427
English title: Draft proposals for a forest management act in Finland drawn up in the wartime winter of 1944.

A state committee report proposing the enactment of a Forest Management Act has recently been published in Finland. The act is intended to be considerably more binding on forest owners than the present law concerning private forests which it would replace. The author assumes that the publication will raise a keen discussion that will ensue pro and contra the proposed law. The article includes a review of the first draft for a Forest Management Act prepared in the wartime winter of 1944. At that time the then minister of forestry N.A. Osara and professor Eino Saari had studied the draft. The former commented the act to the author by saying that after the return of peace the forests would have to be prepared to be restored to good condition, using radical measures if necessary. He foresaw that a proposal for the forest management law might meet with some resistance, but thought it was important enough to be forced through nevertheless. Professor Saari pointed out that bearing in mind that hardly any other country in the world is dependent upon her forests to such a decree as Finland, the requirement expressed in the draft (forests must be managed with a view to the most advantageous return as regards tree species, quality and quantity) must be considered justified. The author hopes that despite the prevailing resistance foreseen by Osara, a law will be enacted to correct the situation under the present law which tends to leave the management of our forests to the mercy of arbitrary decisions.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Komsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7427, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1954). Metsänhoitolain kaavailua sotatalvena 1944. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 15 article id 7427. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7427
English title: Draft proposals for a forest management act in Finland drawn up in the wartime winter of 1944.

A state committee report proposing the enactment of a Forest Management Act has recently been published in Finland. The act is intended to be considerably more binding on forest owners than the present law concerning private forests which it would replace. The author assumes that the publication will raise a keen discussion that will ensue pro and contra the proposed law. The article includes a review of the first draft for a Forest Management Act prepared in the wartime winter of 1944. At that time the then minister of forestry N.A. Osara and professor Eino Saari had studied the draft. The former commented the act to the author by saying that after the return of peace the forests would have to be prepared to be restored to good condition, using radical measures if necessary. He foresaw that a proposal for the forest management law might meet with some resistance, but thought it was important enough to be forced through nevertheless. Professor Saari pointed out that bearing in mind that hardly any other country in the world is dependent upon her forests to such a decree as Finland, the requirement expressed in the draft (forests must be managed with a view to the most advantageous return as regards tree species, quality and quantity) must be considered justified. The author hopes that despite the prevailing resistance foreseen by Osara, a law will be enacted to correct the situation under the present law which tends to leave the management of our forests to the mercy of arbitrary decisions.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Komsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7427, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1954). Metsänhoitolain kaavailua sotatalvena 1944. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 15 article id 7427. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7427
English title: Draft proposals for a forest management act in Finland drawn up in the wartime winter of 1944.

A state committee report proposing the enactment of a Forest Management Act has recently been published in Finland. The act is intended to be considerably more binding on forest owners than the present law concerning private forests which it would replace. The author assumes that the publication will raise a keen discussion that will ensue pro and contra the proposed law. The article includes a review of the first draft for a Forest Management Act prepared in the wartime winter of 1944. At that time the then minister of forestry N.A. Osara and professor Eino Saari had studied the draft. The former commented the act to the author by saying that after the return of peace the forests would have to be prepared to be restored to good condition, using radical measures if necessary. He foresaw that a proposal for the forest management law might meet with some resistance, but thought it was important enough to be forced through nevertheless. Professor Saari pointed out that bearing in mind that hardly any other country in the world is dependent upon her forests to such a decree as Finland, the requirement expressed in the draft (forests must be managed with a view to the most advantageous return as regards tree species, quality and quantity) must be considered justified. The author hopes that despite the prevailing resistance foreseen by Osara, a law will be enacted to correct the situation under the present law which tends to leave the management of our forests to the mercy of arbitrary decisions.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Komsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7427, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1954). Metsänhoitolain kaavailua sotatalvena 1944. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 15 article id 7427. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7427
English title: Draft proposals for a forest management act in Finland drawn up in the wartime winter of 1944.

A state committee report proposing the enactment of a Forest Management Act has recently been published in Finland. The act is intended to be considerably more binding on forest owners than the present law concerning private forests which it would replace. The author assumes that the publication will raise a keen discussion that will ensue pro and contra the proposed law. The article includes a review of the first draft for a Forest Management Act prepared in the wartime winter of 1944. At that time the then minister of forestry N.A. Osara and professor Eino Saari had studied the draft. The former commented the act to the author by saying that after the return of peace the forests would have to be prepared to be restored to good condition, using radical measures if necessary. He foresaw that a proposal for the forest management law might meet with some resistance, but thought it was important enough to be forced through nevertheless. Professor Saari pointed out that bearing in mind that hardly any other country in the world is dependent upon her forests to such a decree as Finland, the requirement expressed in the draft (forests must be managed with a view to the most advantageous return as regards tree species, quality and quantity) must be considered justified. The author hopes that despite the prevailing resistance foreseen by Osara, a law will be enacted to correct the situation under the present law which tends to leave the management of our forests to the mercy of arbitrary decisions.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Komsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7426, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1954). Metsätöiden vertailevan aikatutkimuksen periaate. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 14 article id 7426. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7426
English title: The principle of comparative time studies in forest work.

The origins of time study has been in the need to streamline industrial work. One of the differences between industrial and forest work is that in forest work the working conditions are subject to continuous changes. The work is also strenuous, and physical strength may come into its own in addition to skill. For these reasons, the product of a worker per time unit varies in forest work much more than in industrial work.

In industrial time studies, determination of working tempo is, besides measurement of working time, vital when calculating the normal work performance. In the Northern Countries, it has been concluded that it is impossible to determine the working tempo of a forest worker. A so-called comparative time study in which a study is made of the work performances of the same workers at different jobs and in different conditions so that the measured working times are directly comparative. Also, the requirements made for the extension of time study material are considerably greater than in Central European time studies. It is believed that the workers subjected to time studies must be observed for at least a week in each kind of work studied if the results are to be considered reliable.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7425, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1954). Metsämainostuksen rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 13 article id 7425. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7425
English title: The structure of promotion of forestry.

The goal of improving forest management and doubling the yield of forests in Finland is a great task that requires law, encouragement, written propaganda, practical advice and purposeful work in the forests. In addition, it requires idealistic promotion and education of the citizens. The article discusses the nature and scope of forest propaganda. Different means of forest propaganda and promotion, such as lectures, films, newspapers, magazines, forest literature, stamps, placards and posters, excursions, exhibitions, fairs, forests along the main roads, competitions, education of youth etc are discussed, and their usefulness assessed.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7425, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1954). Metsämainostuksen rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 13 article id 7425. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7425
English title: The structure of promotion of forestry.

The goal of improving forest management and doubling the yield of forests in Finland is a great task that requires law, encouragement, written propaganda, practical advice and purposeful work in the forests. In addition, it requires idealistic promotion and education of the citizens. The article discusses the nature and scope of forest propaganda. Different means of forest propaganda and promotion, such as lectures, films, newspapers, magazines, forest literature, stamps, placards and posters, excursions, exhibitions, fairs, forests along the main roads, competitions, education of youth etc are discussed, and their usefulness assessed.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7425, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1954). Metsämainostuksen rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 13 article id 7425. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7425
English title: The structure of promotion of forestry.

The goal of improving forest management and doubling the yield of forests in Finland is a great task that requires law, encouragement, written propaganda, practical advice and purposeful work in the forests. In addition, it requires idealistic promotion and education of the citizens. The article discusses the nature and scope of forest propaganda. Different means of forest propaganda and promotion, such as lectures, films, newspapers, magazines, forest literature, stamps, placards and posters, excursions, exhibitions, fairs, forests along the main roads, competitions, education of youth etc are discussed, and their usefulness assessed.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7418, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Neuvontajärjestöjen ammattimiesten suorittamista leimauksista varsinaisissa yksityismetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 6 article id 7418. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7418
English title: Marking trees for cutting by professionals of advisory organizations in private forest in Finland.

The archives of the advisory organizations for private forest owners in Finland, Regional Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations, include statistics of fellings in private forests. This investigation assesses felling areas and proportion of different kinds of fellings in 1945-1952 based on the statistics. The statistics does not include fellings where the trees have been marked by a forest owner.

The total area marked annually for cutting was in average 498,300 ha. As there is 1,24 million ha of private forests in Finland, the marking gives opportunity to improve the silvicultural state of private forest relatively quickly. The share of regeneration fellings has increased after the Second World War in many parts of the country. The result indicates that the annual cuttings in private forests have corresponded the amount of fellings that has been estimated necessary according to the National Forest Inventory. There are, however, big differences between different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7418, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Neuvontajärjestöjen ammattimiesten suorittamista leimauksista varsinaisissa yksityismetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 6 article id 7418. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7418
English title: Marking trees for cutting by professionals of advisory organizations in private forest in Finland.

The archives of the advisory organizations for private forest owners in Finland, Regional Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations, include statistics of fellings in private forests. This investigation assesses felling areas and proportion of different kinds of fellings in 1945-1952 based on the statistics. The statistics does not include fellings where the trees have been marked by a forest owner.

The total area marked annually for cutting was in average 498,300 ha. As there is 1,24 million ha of private forests in Finland, the marking gives opportunity to improve the silvicultural state of private forest relatively quickly. The share of regeneration fellings has increased after the Second World War in many parts of the country. The result indicates that the annual cuttings in private forests have corresponded the amount of fellings that has been estimated necessary according to the National Forest Inventory. There are, however, big differences between different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7418, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Neuvontajärjestöjen ammattimiesten suorittamista leimauksista varsinaisissa yksityismetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 6 article id 7418. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7418
English title: Marking trees for cutting by professionals of advisory organizations in private forest in Finland.

The archives of the advisory organizations for private forest owners in Finland, Regional Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations, include statistics of fellings in private forests. This investigation assesses felling areas and proportion of different kinds of fellings in 1945-1952 based on the statistics. The statistics does not include fellings where the trees have been marked by a forest owner.

The total area marked annually for cutting was in average 498,300 ha. As there is 1,24 million ha of private forests in Finland, the marking gives opportunity to improve the silvicultural state of private forest relatively quickly. The share of regeneration fellings has increased after the Second World War in many parts of the country. The result indicates that the annual cuttings in private forests have corresponded the amount of fellings that has been estimated necessary according to the National Forest Inventory. There are, however, big differences between different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7416, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1954). Nuori Hannikainen metsäpoliitikkona. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 4 article id 7416. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7416
English title: The young Hannikainen as a forest politician.
English keywords: biography; forestry

The article revises the accomplishments of professor Peter Woldemar Hannikainen, the former director of Forest Service of Finland, in the development of forest sector in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7400, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1949). Perä-Pohjolan koivikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 4 article id 7400. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7400
English title: Quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in the northernmost Finland.

The quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland is low due to the harsh environment, unsuitable sites for the species and unsatisfactory silvicultural state. A total of 236 sample trees were felled and measured in 8 sample plots. The trees were over 80 years old.

Only third of the stand volume of birch in the stands had adequate quality for merchantable timber. This is due to birch growing often in sites unsuitable for the species, the low density of the stands, the small average size of stems, and the low amount of large sized trees. These problems may contribute to the fact that birch seem to be susceptible to decay. The trees have often grown from sprouts, which leads often to poor stem form and decay. The volume and quality of both pure and mixed birch stands was sufficient only in the most fertile sites. Also, decay was more common in poor sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7389, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1947). Perä-Pohjolan kuusikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7389
English title: Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola in Northern Finland.

The different kinds of injuries in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands was studied in 52 sample plots in Peräpohjola in the northernmost Finland. The age classes of the stands varied from 100 years to over 220 years. Most of the stands were unevenaged, as is usual in the area.

In the younger age classes (121-160 years) majority of the trees were of normal quality or had smaller injuries in all forest types. In age classes over 160 years the trees of merchantable quality decreased markedly in all forest types. The quality of the trees decreases with the age especially because of butt rot, braking of trees and crooks, forks and heart and top decay caused by the injuries. To ensure future quality it would be important that the stand is healthy from the beginning. When old spruce stands of the area are in large extent diseased by the root rot, it is questionable if they can be regenerated using natural regeneration. The spruce stands of the area are also relatively branchy. This could be prevented by growing the young stands dense. Changing the dominant tree species to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the dry upland forest sites could be a way to improve the quality of the forests in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7388, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1946). Yksityismetsälain vastaiset hakkuut ja tämän lain valvonnan tehokkuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 7388. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7388
English title: Fellings not meeting the requirements of the Private Forest Act and of supervision of the law.

The Private Forest Act came into force in 1928 in Finland. According to the act, felling of a mature stand should not endanger natural regeneration of the site, and an intermediate felling should not conflict with justifiable thinnings. 18 District Forestry Boards were appointed to enforce the compliance of the act. The aim of this investigation was to study what kinds of violations against the Private Forest Act were found in the fellings, what were the consequences, and how the fellings were overseen.

The investigation is based on 2,477 felling inspections made by the District Forestry Boards in cases where forest devastation was suspected. The report divides the different kinds of violations by the different District Forestry Boards, years, the size of forest holdings, ownership of the forest holdings and by executor of the felling. Over half of the inspections were held on fellings done by the forest owner, 14% by the forest industry, and 11% by a broker of timber. Neglecting the obligation to give a notification of felling had increased in the period of 1929-1938. Also, the cases of forest devastation increased slightly. The report suggests some improvements in the act that would, for instance, increase activity of the forest owners to give the required notification of fellings before the felling takes place.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7388, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1946). Yksityismetsälain vastaiset hakkuut ja tämän lain valvonnan tehokkuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 7388. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7388
English title: Fellings not meeting the requirements of the Private Forest Act and of supervision of the law.

The Private Forest Act came into force in 1928 in Finland. According to the act, felling of a mature stand should not endanger natural regeneration of the site, and an intermediate felling should not conflict with justifiable thinnings. 18 District Forestry Boards were appointed to enforce the compliance of the act. The aim of this investigation was to study what kinds of violations against the Private Forest Act were found in the fellings, what were the consequences, and how the fellings were overseen.

The investigation is based on 2,477 felling inspections made by the District Forestry Boards in cases where forest devastation was suspected. The report divides the different kinds of violations by the different District Forestry Boards, years, the size of forest holdings, ownership of the forest holdings and by executor of the felling. Over half of the inspections were held on fellings done by the forest owner, 14% by the forest industry, and 11% by a broker of timber. Neglecting the obligation to give a notification of felling had increased in the period of 1929-1938. Also, the cases of forest devastation increased slightly. The report suggests some improvements in the act that would, for instance, increase activity of the forest owners to give the required notification of fellings before the felling takes place.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7388, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1946). Yksityismetsälain vastaiset hakkuut ja tämän lain valvonnan tehokkuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 7388. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7388
English title: Fellings not meeting the requirements of the Private Forest Act and of supervision of the law.

The Private Forest Act came into force in 1928 in Finland. According to the act, felling of a mature stand should not endanger natural regeneration of the site, and an intermediate felling should not conflict with justifiable thinnings. 18 District Forestry Boards were appointed to enforce the compliance of the act. The aim of this investigation was to study what kinds of violations against the Private Forest Act were found in the fellings, what were the consequences, and how the fellings were overseen.

The investigation is based on 2,477 felling inspections made by the District Forestry Boards in cases where forest devastation was suspected. The report divides the different kinds of violations by the different District Forestry Boards, years, the size of forest holdings, ownership of the forest holdings and by executor of the felling. Over half of the inspections were held on fellings done by the forest owner, 14% by the forest industry, and 11% by a broker of timber. Neglecting the obligation to give a notification of felling had increased in the period of 1929-1938. Also, the cases of forest devastation increased slightly. The report suggests some improvements in the act that would, for instance, increase activity of the forest owners to give the required notification of fellings before the felling takes place.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7388, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1946). Yksityismetsälain vastaiset hakkuut ja tämän lain valvonnan tehokkuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 7388. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7388
English title: Fellings not meeting the requirements of the Private Forest Act and of supervision of the law.

The Private Forest Act came into force in 1928 in Finland. According to the act, felling of a mature stand should not endanger natural regeneration of the site, and an intermediate felling should not conflict with justifiable thinnings. 18 District Forestry Boards were appointed to enforce the compliance of the act. The aim of this investigation was to study what kinds of violations against the Private Forest Act were found in the fellings, what were the consequences, and how the fellings were overseen.

The investigation is based on 2,477 felling inspections made by the District Forestry Boards in cases where forest devastation was suspected. The report divides the different kinds of violations by the different District Forestry Boards, years, the size of forest holdings, ownership of the forest holdings and by executor of the felling. Over half of the inspections were held on fellings done by the forest owner, 14% by the forest industry, and 11% by a broker of timber. Neglecting the obligation to give a notification of felling had increased in the period of 1929-1938. Also, the cases of forest devastation increased slightly. The report suggests some improvements in the act that would, for instance, increase activity of the forest owners to give the required notification of fellings before the felling takes place.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7385, category Article
August Jäntti. (1945). Suomen laidunolot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 7385. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7385
English title: Conditions of pastures in Finland.

The aim of the study was to collect the first complete statistics on pastures and grazing of cattle in Finland. The data was collected in connection with an investigation of wood utilization in 1937-1938. Overall trend in grazing is that forest pastures are being replaced with restricted forest pastures and those further with hay meadows. This development is proceeding in the whole country, and it is almost completed in Western Finland. Grazing will probably be transferred completely to cultivated lands in the coming decades. This is important question also for the forestry, because of the damage grazing causes for forest.

Forest pastures are, however, still very important in animal husbandry. They produce over 500 million forage units. It would require 400,000 ha of hay meadows to produce corresponding amount of fodder. To sustain the present number of cattle, a third of all arable land in Finland should be hay meadows. The main goal for development of pastural agriculture is improving the effectivity of grazing and productivity of the pastures.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jäntti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7384, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1945). Ojitettujen soitten viljavuus eli puuntuottokyky metsätyyppiteorian valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 7384. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7384
English title: Fertility of drained bogs and their production capacity in relation to the theory of forest types.

According to the theory of peatland types, particular peatland types, after sufficient drainage, change into certain forest types. It has been found, that the range of forest types in peatlands in different stages of draining is as large as on mineral soil; and comprise Cladina, Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus Oxalis-myrtillus and grove types. Poor peatland types change into poor forest types, better for better types. However, a Swedish scientist Mellin suggested that after effective drainage especially oligotrophic bogs, when well drained, change usually into Myrtillus type.

The different conclusions are due to the fact that the same bog type may develop into different forest types according to the effectiveness and duration of the drainage. Greater the decay of the peat bog layer, the more exacting is the type of vegetation which appears. Bog types of classes V, IV and III (Finnish classification of site quality) change into a Myrtillus type, as do the poorer peatland types of class II. The types vary, however, in their economical drainage value. The fact that bogs which in their natural stage are clearly different in their site quality change after through drainage into the same forest type, is explained by the chemical quality of the peat. However, class I and the best types of class II bogs change into better forest types because they as eutropchic bogs are richer in nitrogen and lime. This difference persists despite of effective draining.

It has been shown that the development of eutrophic peatland types at the forest type stage also differs clearly from the development of oligotrophic peatland types. The Finnish classification of drainage value shows correctly the relative drainability when using normal spacing of ditches. The notes on forest types on mineral soil should, however, be replaced by corresponding notes on the transitive types between bog and forest types.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7382, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1944). Piirteitä metsätalouden järjestelyn rakennusmuodoista Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7382. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7382
English title: Review on forest management in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; forestry

The article gives a detailed review on the history and principles of forest management in Finland from the 19th century to the beginning of 21th century. Organized forest management begun in Finland in the middle of 19th century. The first method applied in Finland was based on annual cutting area and mainly used in state forests. By the beginning of 20th century saw-timber selection became the most usual felling method. Gradually the main principle changed to forest management by stands and revision of forest working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7382, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1944). Piirteitä metsätalouden järjestelyn rakennusmuodoista Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7382. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7382
English title: Review on forest management in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; forestry

The article gives a detailed review on the history and principles of forest management in Finland from the 19th century to the beginning of 21th century. Organized forest management begun in Finland in the middle of 19th century. The first method applied in Finland was based on annual cutting area and mainly used in state forests. By the beginning of 20th century saw-timber selection became the most usual felling method. Gradually the main principle changed to forest management by stands and revision of forest working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7379, category Article
Paavo Harve. (1947). Puunjalostusteollisuutta ja puutavarakauppaa harjoittavien yhtiöiden maan hankinta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7379. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7379
English title: Land purchases of wood manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales in Finland.

The article is a report of land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland in 1935. Second World War postponed publishing of the report. The land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, especially farms with agricultural land, was considered a concern in the end of 19th century, because it caused social problems related to landless people. To solve the problem, the government of Finland enacted in 1915 an act that restricted land purchase of the companies. The aim of this report was to collect statistics on the extent of the land purchases.

According to the investigation, forest manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales intensified land purchases in 1890s. After 1894 the companies purchased 80,000-100,000 ha land yearly. When the regulations restricting purchases of land came into act in 1915, the companies evaded the regulations by using private people or other companies to buy the land. Still, the annual purchases decreased to in average 21,000 ha in 1915-1936. The companies were still allowed to buy forest land when it did not affect agriculture in the farm. During and after the war the land purchases were interrupted. The report concludes that the regulations have worked as expected, and suggests some improvements in the legislation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Harve, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7377, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1942). Kuusen taimien paleltuminen ja sen vaikutus ojitettujen soiden metsittymiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 7377. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7377
English title: Frost injuries of Norway spruce seedlings and their effect on afforestation of drained peatlands .

The aim of the investigation was to study natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in drained peatlands and frost injuries in seedlings, and to compare microclimates of the regeneration areas. The experiments included peatlands in Satakunta in Western Finland. Restocking of the areas with seedlings and their survival was followed in 1935-40 at sample plots that were mainly 1 are large.

Susceptibility to freezing was shown to be dependent on the stage of development of the shoots. Shoots that have just begun to grow contain little water, and withstand better freezing temperatures than shoots in later stages of growth. Damages to the seedlings were observed when the temperatures decreased to -2.8–-4.3 °C. The most severe damage to a seedling was caused by the death of the leading shoot by spring frost.

Norway spruce regenerates easily on moist peatlands, but peatlands with dry surface tend to have little or no seedlings. The species regenerated better in marshy sites than correspondingly fertile mineral soil sites. However, it needs shelter to avoid frost damage. On clear cut spruce swamp the undergrowth spruce seedlings that were left in the site got severe frost damage. If the site had birch (Betula sp.) coppice or undergrowth, spruce seedlings survived in their shelter depending on the height and density of the birch trees. To be effective, the protective forest should have relatively even crown cover. Young spruce seedlings could grow well even under relatively dense birch stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7366, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1942). Metsäretkeilystä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 13 article id 7366. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7366
English title: Hiking in forests.

Walking in forests, hiking, is considered to be necessary for healt in many countries. In United States national parks cover 1.8% of total forest area. In addition, 25% of the forests are so called national forests, which have paths, campsites, wells, beaches, cottages etc. for hikers. In Finland, 20% of the population lives in towns and cities. Also in Finland the people living in cities and towns would need areas that resemble national forests of United states for recreation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7362, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1942). Metsätalouskartaston soveltaminen sotilastarkoituksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 9 article id 7362. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7362
English title: Use of forest maps in military purposes in Finland.

The Second World War revealed some weaknesses that affect also peacetime planning of military defence in Finland. One of the shortages were lack of maps applicable in military purposes in Northern Finland.

The state forests are mainly situated in the north. Consequently, cartographic material of Finnish Forest Service may be modified with little extra work for military purposes. Best suited for the purpose are forestry maps of different forest districts that have scales ranging from 1:20,000 to 1:100,000. In addition, general maps in the scale of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 are available. The article discusses further the additions that can be made in the maps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7362, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1942). Metsätalouskartaston soveltaminen sotilastarkoituksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 9 article id 7362. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7362
English title: Use of forest maps in military purposes in Finland.

The Second World War revealed some weaknesses that affect also peacetime planning of military defence in Finland. One of the shortages were lack of maps applicable in military purposes in Northern Finland.

The state forests are mainly situated in the north. Consequently, cartographic material of Finnish Forest Service may be modified with little extra work for military purposes. Best suited for the purpose are forestry maps of different forest districts that have scales ranging from 1:20,000 to 1:100,000. In addition, general maps in the scale of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 are available. The article discusses further the additions that can be made in the maps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7351, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1940). Tuloksia Pohjankankaan ja Hämeenkankaan metsänviljelyksistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 7351. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7351
English title: Studies on artificial regeneration in Pohjankangas and Hämeenkangas in Southern Finland.

The regeneration of forests in Hämeenkangas area in Southern Finland has been difficult due to various damages from the middle of the 1800s. Few seed trees were left in the area, and artificial regeneration has been used since 1880s. The area became an experimental area of the Forest Research Institute in 1924. The aim of the study was to survey the area before it was transferred to the Finnish Defense Forces.

The original Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest of the esker area suffered from many forest fires. The total area is 13,000-14,000 ha, of which the experimental forests of Forest Research Institute cover 6,000 ha. The area is dry upland forest, and drought affects the survival of germlings. Soil frost is a major cause of loss of young seedlings. Sowing method affects the early development of the seedlings. Band sowing proved to be the best method regarding the soil frost. A total of 39 different harmful insect species, 8 pathogen species and 7 other causes of damages have been detected in the area.

The development of seedling stands follow a certain pattern, reported also in other studies. Many of the pine seedling stands develop well until they reach a certain height. After that seedlings begin to suffer from damages, but after reaching another stage develop normally. The damages affect the height growth of the seedlings. Some common damages are caused by Pissoides weevils, needle damages caused by certain beetles, shoot damages by Evetria resinella, and pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum).

The PDF includes a summary in German
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7351, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1940). Tuloksia Pohjankankaan ja Hämeenkankaan metsänviljelyksistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 7351. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7351
English title: Studies on artificial regeneration in Pohjankangas and Hämeenkangas in Southern Finland.

The regeneration of forests in Hämeenkangas area in Southern Finland has been difficult due to various damages from the middle of the 1800s. Few seed trees were left in the area, and artificial regeneration has been used since 1880s. The area became an experimental area of the Forest Research Institute in 1924. The aim of the study was to survey the area before it was transferred to the Finnish Defense Forces.

The original Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest of the esker area suffered from many forest fires. The total area is 13,000-14,000 ha, of which the experimental forests of Forest Research Institute cover 6,000 ha. The area is dry upland forest, and drought affects the survival of germlings. Soil frost is a major cause of loss of young seedlings. Sowing method affects the early development of the seedlings. Band sowing proved to be the best method regarding the soil frost. A total of 39 different harmful insect species, 8 pathogen species and 7 other causes of damages have been detected in the area.

The development of seedling stands follow a certain pattern, reported also in other studies. Many of the pine seedling stands develop well until they reach a certain height. After that seedlings begin to suffer from damages, but after reaching another stage develop normally. The damages affect the height growth of the seedlings. Some common damages are caused by Pissoides weevils, needle damages caused by certain beetles, shoot damages by Evetria resinella, and pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum).

The PDF includes a summary in German
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7348, category Article
E. E. Metsäpelto. (1940). Suomen yhteismetsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 7348. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7348
English title: Jointly owned forests in Finland.

The shared forests of the villages were generally parceled out to farms in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Finland, that begun in 1775. The state established also jointly owned forests, mostly in the beginning of 2000th century when land was donated for landless population. Some have been established voluntarily. Act on Jointly Owned Forests was enacted in 1925 to ensure proper management of the forests. It contains instructions of administration of the forests.

A survey was conducted to study the conditions of the jointly owned forests. The forests, a total of 37,843 ha, are distributed evenly over the country. Average size of settlement jointly owned forests in Southern Finland are 314 ha, initial jointly owned forests in Southern Finland 1,726 ha, settlement joined forests in the county of Oulu in Northern Finland 592 ha, and initial joined forests in Northern Finland 1,268 ha. The forest lands are poorer than in other private forests. The most common age class is 41-80 years in Southern Finland and 61-120 years in the north. The forests resources were larger in the initial joined forests than in the settlement joined forests when the joined forests were established. In settlement joined forests fellings were smaller than the increment, while in initial joined forests fellings were slightly larger than the increment. Joined forests have given the owners rather good and regular income, which has probably been larger than if the forests had been managed as farm forests. Joined forests have, therefore, met their objectives.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Metsäpelto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7344, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1939). Maan arvo metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 7344. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7344
English title: Value of forest land in the financial accounting of forestry.
English keywords: forest site type

The valuation of forest land for financial accounting purposes is usually performed only when using methods that are based on wood resources. In the yield based methods, the book value of forest land and wood resources form one totality. In the first case, forest land in a separate land account usually has same value in the beginning and end of the accounting year. For instance, the costs of forest improvement are considered capital costs. Forest land can be valued either by multiplying the average hectare price of land with the hectares, or using separate unit prices for the different forest site types. Different ways to value forest land are presented, comparing the forest site type classification developed in Finland and the traditional method based on average height of the trees used in Central Europe. The study shows that values of forest land has relative nature.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7344, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1939). Maan arvo metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 7344. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7344
English title: Value of forest land in the financial accounting of forestry.
English keywords: forest site type

The valuation of forest land for financial accounting purposes is usually performed only when using methods that are based on wood resources. In the yield based methods, the book value of forest land and wood resources form one totality. In the first case, forest land in a separate land account usually has same value in the beginning and end of the accounting year. For instance, the costs of forest improvement are considered capital costs. Forest land can be valued either by multiplying the average hectare price of land with the hectares, or using separate unit prices for the different forest site types. Different ways to value forest land are presented, comparing the forest site type classification developed in Finland and the traditional method based on average height of the trees used in Central Europe. The study shows that values of forest land has relative nature.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7344, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1939). Maan arvo metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 7344. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7344
English title: Value of forest land in the financial accounting of forestry.
English keywords: forest site type

The valuation of forest land for financial accounting purposes is usually performed only when using methods that are based on wood resources. In the yield based methods, the book value of forest land and wood resources form one totality. In the first case, forest land in a separate land account usually has same value in the beginning and end of the accounting year. For instance, the costs of forest improvement are considered capital costs. Forest land can be valued either by multiplying the average hectare price of land with the hectares, or using separate unit prices for the different forest site types. Different ways to value forest land are presented, comparing the forest site type classification developed in Finland and the traditional method based on average height of the trees used in Central Europe. The study shows that values of forest land has relative nature.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7341, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1938). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1934-1937. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 7341. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7341
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937. In the meetings of the society were held 30 presentations which are listed and shortly summarized in the article.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7341, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1938). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1934-1937. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 7341. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7341
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937. In the meetings of the society were held 30 presentations which are listed and shortly summarized in the article.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7337, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1937). Vakuutetuissa metsissä vuosina 1925-34 sattuneista kuloista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 7337. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7337
English title: Forest fires in the insured forests in Finland in 1925-1934.
Original keywords: metsäpalo; metsäpalovakuutus; kulo
English keywords: forest fire insucance

Total of 1,305 forest fires was ignited in 1925-1934 in the forests insured by the Metsänomistajain Keskinäinen Metsäpaloapuyhdistys (The Forest Owners' Mutual Forest Fire Insurance Company and the Keskinäinen Vakuutusyhtiö Sampo (The Sampo Mutual Insurance Company). The variation was large: from 34 fires in 1928 to 362 fires in 1933. The forest fires were most abundant in the county of Oulu and Häme. The average size of the burned areas varied from 2.4 hectares to 30.5 hectares. The area of forests that had forest fire insurance increased steadily from 2.2 million hectares in 1925 to 3,7 million hectares in 1934.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7337, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1937). Vakuutetuissa metsissä vuosina 1925-34 sattuneista kuloista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 7337. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7337
English title: Forest fires in the insured forests in Finland in 1925-1934.
Original keywords: metsäpalo; metsäpalovakuutus; kulo
English keywords: forest fire insucance

Total of 1,305 forest fires was ignited in 1925-1934 in the forests insured by the Metsänomistajain Keskinäinen Metsäpaloapuyhdistys (The Forest Owners' Mutual Forest Fire Insurance Company and the Keskinäinen Vakuutusyhtiö Sampo (The Sampo Mutual Insurance Company). The variation was large: from 34 fires in 1928 to 362 fires in 1933. The forest fires were most abundant in the county of Oulu and Häme. The average size of the burned areas varied from 2.4 hectares to 30.5 hectares. The area of forests that had forest fire insurance increased steadily from 2.2 million hectares in 1925 to 3,7 million hectares in 1934.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7336, category Article
R. Sarvas. (1937). Kuloalojen luontaisesta metsittymisestä : Pohjois-Suomen kuivilla kankailla suoritettu metsäbiologinen tutkielma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 7336. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7336
English title: Natural regeneration of burned areas. Forest biological study in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Natural regeneration has been common in Northern Finland, where forest fires have been usual, and the large areas make artificial regeneration expensive. The regeneration, and for instance tree species composition and density of the stand, cannot been controlled. In Northern Finland there is little demand for Betula sp. which is often abundant in the burnt areas. The unburned forests are generally Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated mixed forests with single Betula sp. trees.

The fire destroys birch for the most part in the Vaccinium site type, but the surviving trees produce enough seeds to regenerate the areas. The largest trees of Scots pine usually survive the fires. Pine has good seed years in the north only every 8th or 10th year. Spruce is totally destroyed in the forest fire and the seedlings grow poorly as primary species. The seedling stands are usually dominated by Scots pine and birch, but birch seedlings grow in batches, and do not hinder growth of pine. The drier Calluna site type stands are dominated by Scots pine. Birch seedlings may be abundant in the beginning, but most of them do not survive. Abundant emergent pine trees prevent the growth of seedlings especially in the dry site types, and they should be thinned to guarantee regeneration. Sowing results are better few years after the fire. The birch seedling should be removed from the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7333, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1938). Puutase metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa : tulosbilanssioppiin (dynaamiseen bilanssiteoriaan) perustuva tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 7333. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7333
English title: Timber balance in the financial accounting of forestry.

The financial accounting of the forestry needs redefining in Finland due to the effect of forest improvement, especially peatland drainage, on timber balance and valuation of forest land. The aim of the study was to develop methods to determine the timber balance using a separate forest land account. The problems of timber balance are related to the technical methods to assess timber balance and the cost of the work, quantitative determination of the profit, and qualitative determination of the profit. One main problem is to whether to define the quantitative profit as a sustainability of timber resources or difference in the allowable cut and outturn. The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, and concludes that regardless of the method that is used to calculate the timber balance, profit or loss accounts have less exact nature in forestry than in other sectors. Replacing reliably calculated revenue surplus with operating result based on timber account would lead to tentative results.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7330, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330
English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland.

Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7330, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330
English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland.

Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7328, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1936). Anton Gabriel Blomqvist ja hänen aikalaisensa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 7328. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7328
English title: Anton Gabriel Blomqvist and his contemporaries.

The article is a biography of Dr. Anton Gabriel Blomqvist, who was the head of Evo Forest Institute in Southern Finland in 1874‒1903. He developed higher forest education in Finland, and continued his career as forest scientist alongside his work in the forest institute. His works include growth and yield tables for the main tree species of Finland. His had also big influence in the development of forest management in the country. The article describes also the work of several of his colleague.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7328, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1936). Anton Gabriel Blomqvist ja hänen aikalaisensa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 7328. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7328
English title: Anton Gabriel Blomqvist and his contemporaries.

The article is a biography of Dr. Anton Gabriel Blomqvist, who was the head of Evo Forest Institute in Southern Finland in 1874‒1903. He developed higher forest education in Finland, and continued his career as forest scientist alongside his work in the forest institute. His works include growth and yield tables for the main tree species of Finland. His had also big influence in the development of forest management in the country. The article describes also the work of several of his colleague.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7328, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1936). Anton Gabriel Blomqvist ja hänen aikalaisensa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 7328. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7328
English title: Anton Gabriel Blomqvist and his contemporaries.

The article is a biography of Dr. Anton Gabriel Blomqvist, who was the head of Evo Forest Institute in Southern Finland in 1874‒1903. He developed higher forest education in Finland, and continued his career as forest scientist alongside his work in the forest institute. His works include growth and yield tables for the main tree species of Finland. His had also big influence in the development of forest management in the country. The article describes also the work of several of his colleague.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7327, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1934). Metsähallitus 1859-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 7327. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7327
English title: Forest Sercvice of Finland in 1859‒1934.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; valtion metsät
English keywords: Forest Service; state forest

The article is a history of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) compiled on the organizations 75th anniversary. In 1859 a declaration was signed on the founding of a forest management institution in The Grand Duchy of Finland, then an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. The article follows the changes in the organization, administration and policies concerning the state forests. The development of forest resources and the use of state forests is discussed. In the early stages of the organization, the main concern in Finnish forests was forest devastation, and one task of the officers was to prevent unauthorized use of forests. in a decree, Metsähallitus was designated a central agency under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and was given the task of “managing, monitoring and promoting Finnish forestry”.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7327, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1934). Metsähallitus 1859-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 7327. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7327
English title: Forest Sercvice of Finland in 1859‒1934.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; valtion metsät
English keywords: Forest Service; state forest

The article is a history of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) compiled on the organizations 75th anniversary. In 1859 a declaration was signed on the founding of a forest management institution in The Grand Duchy of Finland, then an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. The article follows the changes in the organization, administration and policies concerning the state forests. The development of forest resources and the use of state forests is discussed. In the early stages of the organization, the main concern in Finnish forests was forest devastation, and one task of the officers was to prevent unauthorized use of forests. in a decree, Metsähallitus was designated a central agency under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and was given the task of “managing, monitoring and promoting Finnish forestry”.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7326, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Metsän hakkuun ja ajon sekä puutavaran uiton työn kysynnästä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 9 article id 7326. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7326
English title: The demand of forest work and floating work in Finland.

Forestry has been almost the sole source of employment during winter in the forested areas of Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of men and horses working in logging and haulage in different times of year in 1933‒1934. The felling and haulage of household timber was not included in the study. The amount of work days was calculated using the statistics of wood consumption. The work days in logging was 10.0 million days in 1933 and 11.9 million days in 1934. Accordingly, approximately 3.6 million work days was done in horse-haulage in 1933 and 4.3 million in 1934. The forest companies and Metsähallitus (Forest Service) employed most employees in wood harvesting in January‒March, in average 14,300‒25,700 men and 3,300‒9,300 horses per month. The number of employees was lowest in August.

In floating, 1 million work days was done in 1934 and 1,1 million in 1934. Most employees were hired in April‒June. Floating is an important source of employment for the landless people when the fellings stop in the spring. The farmers working in wood harvesting can move to work in their farms.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7322, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1935). Työennätykset tukkien teossa ja ajossa Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 7322. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7322
English title: Working efficiency in timber cutting and hauling in Northern Ostrobothnia.

The aim of the study was to determine how different factors in the stand influence working efficiency in felling. In the eight cutting areas in Northern Finland was harvested a total of 745,200 cubic feet of timber. The factors recorded from the cutting areas were the number of stems per hectare, volume of the stems, quality of the logs (proportion of decayed trees and knottiness of the trees), topography of the site and efficiency of the workers in a team.

The bigger the stems were, the better the result of the workers was. When the size of the stem increased by one cubic ft., the efficiency of the work increased by 2 cubic ft. When knottiness and defects in the stem changed the class describing the quality of a tree by one class, the efficiency decreased by 4.5 cubic ft. The density of the forest affected the time used for loading the timber for hauling. The hauling distance affected the efficiency of the team, which was usually either 2 men and one horse, or 3 men and one horse. If the hauling distance was long, hauling impaired the efficiency. If the distance was short, logging impaired the efficiency of the work. The result show that efficiency of forest work is greatly influenced by the quality of the forest, the trees and the workers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7318, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1932-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 7318. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7318
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934. In the meetings of the society were held four presentations which are shortly summarized in the article.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7318, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1932-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 7318. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7318
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934. In the meetings of the society were held four presentations which are shortly summarized in the article.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7315, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Koivun juuristo. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 7315. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7315
English title: The root system of birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa).
English keywords: mixed stand; forest site type

About 40% forest in Finland are mixed stands that have birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa) as one of the species. The aim of this research was to study the structure of root system of birch and compare it to the other main tree species in Finland.

The root systems were dug out and measured in 28 sample plots in Southern and Central Finland, representing different forest site types. Birch roots correspond 30‒100% of the volume of the stem, the largest root systems being in the sandy soils or peatlands. Also the longest lateral roots can be found at these sites. The size variation of root system of birch is larger than in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and the vertical root system is in general smaller in birch. Birch seems to be better than pine able to adapt its root system to the existing conditions. The smallest root systems were found in the good forest site types, but the roots grow in the good sites denser than in the poor sites. The lateral roots of the main tree species in Finland, birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grow in different depths, which decreases the competition between the species. This finding gives support to cultivation of mixed stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7315, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Koivun juuristo. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 7315. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7315
English title: The root system of birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa).
English keywords: mixed stand; forest site type

About 40% forest in Finland are mixed stands that have birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa) as one of the species. The aim of this research was to study the structure of root system of birch and compare it to the other main tree species in Finland.

The root systems were dug out and measured in 28 sample plots in Southern and Central Finland, representing different forest site types. Birch roots correspond 30‒100% of the volume of the stem, the largest root systems being in the sandy soils or peatlands. Also the longest lateral roots can be found at these sites. The size variation of root system of birch is larger than in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and the vertical root system is in general smaller in birch. Birch seems to be better than pine able to adapt its root system to the existing conditions. The smallest root systems were found in the good forest site types, but the roots grow in the good sites denser than in the poor sites. The lateral roots of the main tree species in Finland, birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grow in different depths, which decreases the competition between the species. This finding gives support to cultivation of mixed stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7314, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1935). Puiden vikanaisuuksista Pohjois-Suomen metsissä: tilastollis-metsäpatologinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 7314. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7314
English title: Injuries in different tree species in Northern Finland: A statistical-forest pathological study.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in different parts of the trees and the frequency of different kinds of injuries. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old forests in mineral soil sites and peatlands. All the trees over 1.5 m high were felled in the sample plots and the stem injuries were studied. The structure of the stand and the crown classes were recorded. The proportion of undamaged trees was largest in in dominant and codominant trees and increased towards the better forest site types. The typical injuries are listed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). H. Karst.) and Betula sp. stands. The injuries were divided in inner and outer form defects and injuries, and defined in more detail by the part of the stem and tree species. Defects caused by decay were analyzed separately.

Healing over of injuries was faster in the better sites. Form defects and other injuries were more common in birch stands than in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Decay was most common in birch stands. The pine stands were the healthiest, followed by spruce stands. Fire wound were most usual in pine, butt rot for spruce, and crooks and general decay for birch.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7311, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1934). Metsäojien mittojen ja muodon muuttumisesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 34 article id 7311. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7311
English title: Changing of dimensions and form of forest ditches after the drainage in Finland.

The aim of the study was to investigate how the drain network and dimensions of ditches change after the drainage. The studied drained peatlands were situated in the municipalities of Parkano and Virrat in Central Finland. The ditches were in average 15 and 17 years old. The depth and width in the surface of the peatland were in average one quarter smaller than after the drainage. The width at the bottom of the ditch has, however, almost doubled. Peat had sunken more in peatlands with thick peat layer and higher humidity. Sinking of peat influenced the depth of the ditches. The volume of the ditches decreased about 30%. The decrease of the ditches by the drying and sinking of the peat was greater than the increase caused by erosion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7308, category Article
U. Metsänheimo. (1934). Havaintoja metsäojituksen kivitöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 31 article id 7308. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7308
English title: Observations on the removal of stones in drain digging of peatlands.

Stones can be removed in drain digging of peatlands by using explosives or hoisting devices. The report is based on observations, and time and motion studies on drainage sites in the state forests in Northern Finland in 1931‒1933. Dynamite has been previously the most common explosive used in drainage sites. The new explosives containing potassium chloride proved to be cheaper, and safer to handle and transport than dynamite. According to the time and motion studies, the use of hoisting devices to lift stones that are removable, was significantly cheaper than explosives.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7305, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1934). Maanjakotoimituksessa syntyvien palstojen muodosta metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 28 article id 7305. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7305
English title: Conditions of forestry in land plots formed in the parceling of land.

The shape of land lots formed in parceling of land has been affected by many variables. It is an important economic factor when the land is used in forestry or agriculture. The report concentrates on the larger farms with relatively large forest holdings. In the general parceling of the land that started in the middle of 1700s, the allotted plots were often long and narrow, and the width of the plot could be 20‒50 meters. Later these farms may have been further parceled.

Narrow plots are difficult to manage from the forestry point of view. For example, it is not possible to build a forest road in the plot, and wood harvesting is difficult. To use natural regeneration for a specific tree species is impossible, because the seed trees in the adjacent plot are so near. When the boundaries are long and the properties narrow, there is bigger risk for felling trees on the land of the neighbour. The optimal form for a plot is rectangle which is 3‒6 times longer than its width. Local examples of parceling and the effects of the shape of the plots are given in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7305, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1934). Maanjakotoimituksessa syntyvien palstojen muodosta metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 28 article id 7305. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7305
English title: Conditions of forestry in land plots formed in the parceling of land.

The shape of land lots formed in parceling of land has been affected by many variables. It is an important economic factor when the land is used in forestry or agriculture. The report concentrates on the larger farms with relatively large forest holdings. In the general parceling of the land that started in the middle of 1700s, the allotted plots were often long and narrow, and the width of the plot could be 20‒50 meters. Later these farms may have been further parceled.

Narrow plots are difficult to manage from the forestry point of view. For example, it is not possible to build a forest road in the plot, and wood harvesting is difficult. To use natural regeneration for a specific tree species is impossible, because the seed trees in the adjacent plot are so near. When the boundaries are long and the properties narrow, there is bigger risk for felling trees on the land of the neighbour. The optimal form for a plot is rectangle which is 3‒6 times longer than its width. Local examples of parceling and the effects of the shape of the plots are given in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7304, category Article
Uunio Saalas. (1934). Suomalaisista hyönteisnimistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 27 article id 7304. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7304
English title: The Finnish nomenclature of insects.
English keywords: nomenclature; forest insects

The need for standard Finnish names for the harmful or beneficial insects in agriculture rose in the 1930s, and a committee was formed in 1932 to work out nomenclature for the insect species. In 1933, a similar committee was formed to compile a nomenclature for forest insects. The old popular names, if such names existed, were used primarily. Some of the insects had been named also in the earlier literature, even if all the names had not been taken in common use. Some names were translated from the scientific names. Emphasis was given to the habits or habitats of the insect. An attempt was made to shorten the former names if needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7300, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1934). Metsänviljelysmenetelmiä koskevista tutkimuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 23 article id 7300. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7300
English title: Research on forest regeneration methods.

The article is a review on the research about forest regeneration in Finland, executed in the Forest Research Institute. The climate affects the results of different regeneration methods. Thus, sample plots have been established in different parts of the country. In 1933 there was a total of 386 sample plots around the country. To compare the effect of weather conditions in the regeneration, sample plots have been established in successive years. Other conditions that affect forest regeneration are soil, forest site type, tree species, time from the felling of the stand, and tending of the seedling stand. Of the 386 sample plots 245 were planting experiments and 141 sowing experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7300, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1934). Metsänviljelysmenetelmiä koskevista tutkimuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 23 article id 7300. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7300
English title: Research on forest regeneration methods.

The article is a review on the research about forest regeneration in Finland, executed in the Forest Research Institute. The climate affects the results of different regeneration methods. Thus, sample plots have been established in different parts of the country. In 1933 there was a total of 386 sample plots around the country. To compare the effect of weather conditions in the regeneration, sample plots have been established in successive years. Other conditions that affect forest regeneration are soil, forest site type, tree species, time from the felling of the stand, and tending of the seedling stand. Of the 386 sample plots 245 were planting experiments and 141 sowing experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7300, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1934). Metsänviljelysmenetelmiä koskevista tutkimuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 23 article id 7300. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7300
English title: Research on forest regeneration methods.

The article is a review on the research about forest regeneration in Finland, executed in the Forest Research Institute. The climate affects the results of different regeneration methods. Thus, sample plots have been established in different parts of the country. In 1933 there was a total of 386 sample plots around the country. To compare the effect of weather conditions in the regeneration, sample plots have been established in successive years. Other conditions that affect forest regeneration are soil, forest site type, tree species, time from the felling of the stand, and tending of the seedling stand. Of the 386 sample plots 245 were planting experiments and 141 sowing experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7288, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1934). Metsä- ja suotyyppien esiintymisen keskinäisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 11 article id 7288. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7288
English title: The mutual relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.
English keywords: paludification; peatland; fertility

The relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types was studied using data collected in the national line survey of Finnish forests carried out in 1921‒1924. The majority of peatlands in Finland has been formed by forest land becoming paludificated. When the peat layer is thin, the fertility of the peatland depends on the underlying mineral soil, consequently, good swamp types occur on fertile subsoil and poor types on poor subsoil. When the peat layer becomes thicker, the relationship weakens. The surrounding mineral soils influence the quality of the peatland by the runoff from the catchment area. The direct comparison of forest site and swamp types is not possible, because for one forest site type there are several swamp types that have different levels of humidity. According to the study, a very distinct mutual relation can be seen between occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7281, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1934). Sotilaiden osanotto metsänviljelystyöhön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 7281. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7281
English title: The participation of troops in silvicultural work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; armeija; sotilas; istutus; kylvö
English keywords: forest work; army; solder; planting; sowing

Following the example of Norway, which was the first nation to employ regular troops in silvicultural work, sowing and planting courses were organized for the Finnish troops in 1931. The initiative was taken by the Forestry Instruction Bureau, and the work was organized by the forestry committees. During three years, total of 8,189 men was involved in the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7279, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1934). Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 7279. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7279
English title: Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus
English keywords: ; forest sciences; forest research

The article outlines the further development of forest research work in Finland. It was realized from the beginning that forest sciences in Finland should be grounded on own work, relying on other sciences that had similar objectives. For instance, silvicultural sciences can benefit from phytogeography, plant ecology and soil sciences.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7278, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Neljännesvuosisata Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toimintaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 7278. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7278
English title: A quarter of a century with the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences was established in 1908 to promote forest research in the country. It was deemed that the progress of Finnish forestry required forest research adapted to the local conditions. The article describes the establishment, first years of the society and the consolidation of its role and activities. The operation, finances and the society is described.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7278, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Neljännesvuosisata Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toimintaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 7278. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7278
English title: A quarter of a century with the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences was established in 1908 to promote forest research in the country. It was deemed that the progress of Finnish forestry required forest research adapted to the local conditions. The article describes the establishment, first years of the society and the consolidation of its role and activities. The operation, finances and the society is described.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7271, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1933). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1930-1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 5 article id 7271. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7271
English title: Activities of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932.
The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932. In the meetings of the society were held 32 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers.
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7271, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1933). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1930-1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 5 article id 7271. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7271
English title: Activities of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932.
The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932. In the meetings of the society were held 32 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers.
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7262, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1930). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1920-1930. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 7262. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7262
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930. In the meetings of the society were held 108 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers and by the topics.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7262, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1930). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1920-1930. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 7262. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7262
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930. In the meetings of the society were held 108 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers and by the topics.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7260, category Article
I. Lassila. (1930). Työtieteellisiä tutkimuksia metsätyöstä. 1. Pinopuun teko. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 7260. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7260
English title: Studies on efficiency of labour in forest work.

The article analyses the efficiency of forest work, and the use of time and motion study methods in forest work. Forest work can be characterized by little use of machinery. It cannot be repeated as orderly as industrial work. This affects also how the efficiency of the work can be measured. Only parts of the work can be timed. The study takes making of piled wood as an example. First are determined the standard times for the work moments. They include the time used to prepare the piled wood, and the waste time. It is concluded that forest work can be standardized with the methods of work analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7259, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsätyypin vaikutuksesta puun painoon. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 7259. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7259
English title: The influence of forest site type on the weight of wood.

Earlier research has presented contradictory results of the influence of forest site type on the weight of wood. In this study, dominant trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was chosen as sample trees on four forest site types: Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus and Oxalis site types. The trees were felled in autumn, when the water content of the wood is low. Weight of the test samples was measured weigh before and after drying. Undried wood, both sapwood and heartwood, is heavier in Myrtillus type than in Vaccinium type. The weight of the air-dried heartwood did not differ between the two forest site types. Air-dried- sapwood was heaviest in Myrtillus site type. Air-dried heartwood was heaviest in Vaccinium site type, and lightest in Oxalis type. Owen-dried sapwood was heaviest in Calluna site type, where the tree growth is slow, but weight differences were small in owen-dried heartwood. It can be claimed that forest type affects wood quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7256, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1929). Tutkimuksia kuusen esiintymisestä alikasvoksina Raja-Karjalan valtionmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 7256. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7256
English title: Studies on Norway spruce undergrowth in state forests in Karelia.

The abundance of Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth is common for the state forests in Karelia near the Russian border, in Finland. In the survey, the occurrence of the undergrowth was studied. The article includes a review on the ownership of the forest, forest soils in the area, and the state of forests in the area. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominative species in 67%, Norway spruce in 27% and Betula sp. 6% of the state forests. Only 2% of the forests are 1‒20 years of age. Stands in the age group of 61‒80 years are the most common (25%). Norway spruce undergrowth is most abundant in the municipality of Salmi. The forests are typically moist forest site types or grass-herb site types. If the stands are allowed to develop naturally, even the Vaccinium sites become Norway spruce dominated. Spruce undergrowth is formed seldom under a spruce forest unless the stand is thin or has openings. Because Norway spruce is often rare in the mineral soil sites, the undergrowth is often regenerated from seeds that spread from spruce swamps. Earlier practiced shifting cultivation and its frequent fires prevented regeneration of spruce undergrowth. Similarly, the common felling method used, clear felling in strips, does not promote spruce undergrowth. Consequently, their occurrence is likely to decrease in the future.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7256, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1929). Tutkimuksia kuusen esiintymisestä alikasvoksina Raja-Karjalan valtionmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 7256. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7256
English title: Studies on Norway spruce undergrowth in state forests in Karelia.

The abundance of Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth is common for the state forests in Karelia near the Russian border, in Finland. In the survey, the occurrence of the undergrowth was studied. The article includes a review on the ownership of the forest, forest soils in the area, and the state of forests in the area. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominative species in 67%, Norway spruce in 27% and Betula sp. 6% of the state forests. Only 2% of the forests are 1‒20 years of age. Stands in the age group of 61‒80 years are the most common (25%). Norway spruce undergrowth is most abundant in the municipality of Salmi. The forests are typically moist forest site types or grass-herb site types. If the stands are allowed to develop naturally, even the Vaccinium sites become Norway spruce dominated. Spruce undergrowth is formed seldom under a spruce forest unless the stand is thin or has openings. Because Norway spruce is often rare in the mineral soil sites, the undergrowth is often regenerated from seeds that spread from spruce swamps. Earlier practiced shifting cultivation and its frequent fires prevented regeneration of spruce undergrowth. Similarly, the common felling method used, clear felling in strips, does not promote spruce undergrowth. Consequently, their occurrence is likely to decrease in the future.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7248, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1929). Valtion metsätulot kunnallisverotuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 35 article id 7248. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7248
English title: Forestry income in the municipal taxation.

In 1926 the state of Finland payed taxes to the local municipalities from a half of the net returns the state forest and state owned wood manufacturing industry produced. The taxes payed by the forest administration to the municipalities totaled 4.75 million Finnish marks. The state forests are located mostly in Northern Finland, thus the relative amount of municipalities that get taxes from the state forestry were higher in the north. The municipalities that benefited most from the tax revenues from the state were Savukoski, Pudasjärvi, Suojärvi, Rovaniemi, Taivalkoski, Kuhmoniemi, Turtola, Pielisjärvi, Ilomantsi, Korpiselkä and Suistamo. About half of the municipalities (264) got tax revenues from state forestry. However, if this tax revenue was removed, it would raise local tax rate in relatively few municipalities. it has been proposed that state should pay taxes from the state forests on the same principles as the private forests. To move to area based taxation in the state forests would, however, increase the taxation of the state five-fold. The taxes from the state forests are not appropriate way to support the poorest municipalities. Better suited would be, for instance, state subsidies. Therefore, the taxes payed from the state forestry to municipalities should be abandoned.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7248, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1929). Valtion metsätulot kunnallisverotuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 35 article id 7248. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7248
English title: Forestry income in the municipal taxation.

In 1926 the state of Finland payed taxes to the local municipalities from a half of the net returns the state forest and state owned wood manufacturing industry produced. The taxes payed by the forest administration to the municipalities totaled 4.75 million Finnish marks. The state forests are located mostly in Northern Finland, thus the relative amount of municipalities that get taxes from the state forestry were higher in the north. The municipalities that benefited most from the tax revenues from the state were Savukoski, Pudasjärvi, Suojärvi, Rovaniemi, Taivalkoski, Kuhmoniemi, Turtola, Pielisjärvi, Ilomantsi, Korpiselkä and Suistamo. About half of the municipalities (264) got tax revenues from state forestry. However, if this tax revenue was removed, it would raise local tax rate in relatively few municipalities. it has been proposed that state should pay taxes from the state forests on the same principles as the private forests. To move to area based taxation in the state forests would, however, increase the taxation of the state five-fold. The taxes from the state forests are not appropriate way to support the poorest municipalities. Better suited would be, for instance, state subsidies. Therefore, the taxes payed from the state forestry to municipalities should be abandoned.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7096, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Tutkimuksia viemärien kuntoon vaikuttavista seikoista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 7096. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7096
English title: Studies on the factors affecting the condition of forest drainage system.
Original keywords: ojitus; metsäojitus; oja; ojaverkosto; suo

Approximately 320,000 hectares of peatlands and paludified lands had been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes in Finland by 1920. The ditch network was not optimal in the early drained areas, and the condition of the ditches declined over time. In this study, the condition of drainage system, and the natural processes that affect them, was inspected in 18 drained peatlands.

Several processes can reduce of the size of the ditches. The process of crumbling of soil in the sides of the diches can last up to three years after the draining. Erosion of the main drains, caused by water flow can, however, continue longer. The ditches also sink when the peat dries. Soil frost can affect the ditches, but as the vegetation grows its effect gradually decreases. The vegetation that grows in the ditches may finally block the ditch completely.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7090, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Tutkimuksia yksityismetsien tilasta Hämeen läänin keskiosissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 7090. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7090
English title: Studies on the condition of private forests in the central part of the Häme province.

A strip survey was performed in the counties of Sahalahti and Kuhmalahti in Häme, situated in Central Finland, to study the condition of the private forests. The forests cover 78% of the total land area of 37,420 hectares. The forest site types were relatively fertile. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest covered 43%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30% and Betula sp. 23% of the forest land. The productivity of the forests could be improved by changing the species so that they suit the site. The volume of the standing crop is 67.2 m3 per hectare. The volume of the growing stock in the area could be 1 million m3 larger if the forests were nearer to the natural state. The annual growth of the forests is low, and could be much improved by correct forest management.

One of the aims of the survey was to study how the distance between survey lines should be adjusted to give acceptably accurate results, in a way that the strip-survey method can be adapted to large areas. The largest distance between the lines that gave results that differed less than 10% from the correct results, varied between 10 and 1.5 kilometres depending on the variables. For instance, to get accurate results for the rarest forest site types required line distance of 1.5 kilometres, but accurate results for the most common forest site types could be achieves with line distance of 10 kilometres.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7090, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Tutkimuksia yksityismetsien tilasta Hämeen läänin keskiosissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 7090. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7090
English title: Studies on the condition of private forests in the central part of the Häme province.

A strip survey was performed in the counties of Sahalahti and Kuhmalahti in Häme, situated in Central Finland, to study the condition of the private forests. The forests cover 78% of the total land area of 37,420 hectares. The forest site types were relatively fertile. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest covered 43%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30% and Betula sp. 23% of the forest land. The productivity of the forests could be improved by changing the species so that they suit the site. The volume of the standing crop is 67.2 m3 per hectare. The volume of the growing stock in the area could be 1 million m3 larger if the forests were nearer to the natural state. The annual growth of the forests is low, and could be much improved by correct forest management.

One of the aims of the survey was to study how the distance between survey lines should be adjusted to give acceptably accurate results, in a way that the strip-survey method can be adapted to large areas. The largest distance between the lines that gave results that differed less than 10% from the correct results, varied between 10 and 1.5 kilometres depending on the variables. For instance, to get accurate results for the rarest forest site types required line distance of 1.5 kilometres, but accurate results for the most common forest site types could be achieves with line distance of 10 kilometres.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5445, category Article
Taneli Kolström. (1991). Kuusen kylvö- ja istutuskoe viljavilla kivennäismailla Pohjois-Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15599
English title: Results from the sowing and planting experiment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) on fertile sites in North Karelia, Finland.

Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.

Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.

Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5427, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1990). Salama puustokuolemien aiheuttajana. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5427. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15581
English title: Lightning as a cause of death of tree groups.
English keywords: lightning; forest damage

The writer reports in this discussion article of four stands in Finland that have died due to a bolt of lightning. A death of a group of trees because of lightning has been relatively uncommon for the forest professionals. The trees may not have no lightning marks. The four sites are presented in detail. Characteristic for this type of death of trees is, for instance, that trees have died within a circular area (of usually 30 m of diameter), only conifers have died, trees die from the top down, sometimes marks can be found in trees in the centre of the area, and under the bark may be brown patches or stripes.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5413, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1990). Metsän uudistuminen Kivalon vanhoilla kaistalehakkuualoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5413. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15565
English title: Forest regeneration of old strip cutting areas in Kivalo.

The results of regenerating 54 and 36–38-year old strip cuttings were surveyed in the Kivalo Research Forest (N 66°20’, E 26°40’). 15 measurement plots were placed on each strip. The most common forest type was Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type. Regeneration of the strips proved to be slow. Most of the spruces growing on the strips probably originated from the time before the cutting. The average number of stems was 1,155 per ha, of which one third consisted of broadleaved trees. The average volume increment of stem wood after cutting had been about 1 m3/ha/yr, but it was increasing at the time of the inventory. Both the reforestation of the strips and the development of the emergent stands were dependent on elevation and site fertility. Site fertility was indicated by the abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5412, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1990). Metsäpuiden paakkutaimituotannon nykynäkymät. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5412. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15564
English title: Future trends for containerized tree seedling production: A literature review.

Containerized tree seedlings will be used on an increasing scale in the future in different parts of the world. There are number of techniques for the production of small one-year-old seedlings but it has not been possible to develop a completely satisfactory methods for large containerized seedlings production. In the long-term development of pine plantations established with containerized seedlings the greatest problem has been deformation of the root system. With a new method, based on a sheet of peat and root pruning, it has been possible to produce conifer seedlings with a good root regeneration potential and favourable morphological root system development. The use of small containerized seedlings allows an increase in planting density without any marked increase in regeneration costs.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5396, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1989). Uuteen maatalous- ja metsäakatemiaan. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5396. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15554
English title: Towards new agriculture and forest academy .

This paper is a commentary which summarises the history of the Finnish Society of Forest Science and its connection to the corresponding society in the field of agriculture, the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland. The original idea when the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland was founded was that the society would function as a scientific society for both forest scientists and agronomists. However, A.K. Cajander founded a separate academy for forest sciences. The article discusses the implications of this decision. 

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5381, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen. (1989). Ajatuksia metsän arvon määrittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15538
English title: Thoughts about forest valuation.

In this article the methods of forest valuation, especially the sales value tables previously published in Finland are critically examined. In this connection attention is drawn to the rate of interest used in calculating the forest values.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5380, category Article
Arto Rummukainen. (1989). Moreenimurskeella pinnoitettujen metsäteiden kunnossapito maataloustraktorikalustolla. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15537
English title: Maintenance of crushed moraine paved forest roads with agricultural tractor implements.

The condition of forest road pavements was studied in spring, one week after maintenance and in autumn. The effect of vibrating blade was slightly better than that of pulled drag. Large loose stones couldn’t be pressed into pavement with either of the implements. The use of the vibrating blade was three times as expensive as the use of the pulled drag, however, the blade is suitable for other purposes as well.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15529
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15522
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15522
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7069, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1921). Verollepano- ja jakotoimituksista Kuusamon, Kemijärven ja Kuolajärven knihtikontrahtipitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 5 article id 7069. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7069
English title: Taxation and partitioning of land in counties of Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolajärvi.

The article is a detailed review on the problems in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi counties from the context of forest policy. The disputes about division of the land originate from military tenure contracts (knihtikohtrahti) made with the local tenants in 1700s. Later some counties got alleviations in the contracts concerning taxation and partition of land. These alleviations delayed the parceling out of land in the area. According to the article, from the forest policy point of view, the inhabitants in Kuusamo, Kemijärvi and Kuolanjärvi were conveyed disproportionately large forest properties from the state due to the military tenure contracts. This gave them undue benefits from the state compared to the neighbouring counties.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7068, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1921). Tilastoa Pohjois-Suomen metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 7068. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7068
English title: Statistics of forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; suotyyppi
English keywords: forest site type; peatland type

The vegetation of the forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland differ markedly from those in Southern Finland, also the vegetation of the subtypes in the north is distinctive. A line survey was conducted to study the distribution of forest and peatland site subtypes in Northern Finland.

The vegetation of rich grass-herb forest types differs little from the poorer grass-herb forest types in Northern Finland. They abundance decrease towards north. The main fresh mineral soil sites are Myrtillus site type, Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type and their paludified forms. The abundance of the fresh mineral soil sites decreased towards north so that in Kemi the proportion was 20.5 and in Lapland 12.0%. A transition from the fresh to the drier site types is gradual. The Vaccinium site type that is dominant in the south, is rare in the north, where it is replaced by Empetrum-Vaccinium type. The proportion of dry forest sites increase towards north, in average their distribution is 25% of the lands. There are numerous subtypes, which can be merged in to four main site types: Calluna, Cladina-Calluna, Myrtillus-Cladina and Cladina site type. The peatlands are more abundant in the southern part of the study area. The most common peatland types are pine swamps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5337, category Article
Pekka Hako. (1987). Musiikki, metsä ja ihminen. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5337. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15494
English title: Music, forest and man.
Original keywords: identiteetti; musiikki; metsä; kulttuuri

In Finnish music national forests and international urban culture meet in an original way. Around the last turn of century, composers believe they had discovered their spiritual roots in nature and especially in the forests. The universal musical language of Jean Sibelius, for example, is based on a deep Finnish identity, the atmosphere of Kalevala. Sibelius’ Tapiola is, thus, among our century’s most powerful musical interpretations of feelings about nature. Nature inspired music is, generally, associated with such positive qualities as beauty, peace, softness, light and joy. A great deal of forest music is based on literature, where natural images have almost always had a positive interpretation.
The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hako, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5336, category Article
Pekka Virtanen. (1987). Kansanperinteen metsäkuvia. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5336. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15493
English title: The forest in Finnish folk lore.

Several views to forest’s role in the Finnish folklore are presented. They clearly show how many important dimensions forests have had in Finnish life. Descriptions concentrate on forest-related traditions of ancient times. They give a basis to examining the role of forests in the modern Finnish mind.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar 'The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5336, category Article
Pekka Virtanen. (1987). Kansanperinteen metsäkuvia. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5336. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15493
English title: The forest in Finnish folk lore.

Several views to forest’s role in the Finnish folklore are presented. They clearly show how many important dimensions forests have had in Finnish life. Descriptions concentrate on forest-related traditions of ancient times. They give a basis to examining the role of forests in the modern Finnish mind.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar 'The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5335, category Article
Juhani Pallasmaa. (1987). Metsän arkkitehtuuri. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5335. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15492
English title: The architecture of the forest.

The paper presents aspects of town and forest architecture. A feature of the Finnish building tradition is that the forest is allowed to grow next to buildings. After the Second World War a new type of town was created in Finland, ”the forest town”. The most prominent feature of the history of Finnish architecture, from national romanticism to functionalism and up to the present day, is the modification of international ideals to a certain ”forest culture” style.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pallasmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5334, category Article
Aimo Reitala. (1987). Metsä suomalaisessa kuvataiteessa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5334. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15491
English title: Forests in Finnish art.

The Finnish forest was elevated into an appreciated artistic motif by Werner Holmberg with his picture ”The Finnish conifer forest” in 1858. The second significant period was during national romanticism in the 1980’s, when the decorative beauty of the winter forests was discovered. At the turn of the century, the forest obtained a central national symbolic significance, and many leading artists regarded increased cuttings as a rape of the forests. Since that period, individual artists have succeeded in bringing new features in the art history of our forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reitala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5333, category Article
Pekka Suhonen. (1987). Metsä ja kirjallisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5333. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15490
English title: Forest and literature.

In world literature, there are many forests of significance, e.g. oak forest of Mamre and in Dante’s Divine Comedy. Finnish literature has abounded with forest topics since ancient folkore. We have a literature of floaters, loggers and paper workers of industrialized Finland, not to speak of a hunting literature. A major theme is ”from forest to town”, where the first work, Aleksis Kivi’s ”Seven brothers”, is a landmark in Finnish literature. Forests of many other authors are also presented, as well as ancient chants and poems.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suhonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5333, category Article
Pekka Suhonen. (1987). Metsä ja kirjallisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5333. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15490
English title: Forest and literature.

In world literature, there are many forests of significance, e.g. oak forest of Mamre and in Dante’s Divine Comedy. Finnish literature has abounded with forest topics since ancient folkore. We have a literature of floaters, loggers and paper workers of industrialized Finland, not to speak of a hunting literature. A major theme is ”from forest to town”, where the first work, Aleksis Kivi’s ”Seven brothers”, is a landmark in Finnish literature. Forests of many other authors are also presented, as well as ancient chants and poems.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suhonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5333, catego