Current issue: 52(3)

Under compilation: 52(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'moose'.

Category: Research article

article id 1693, category Research article
Olalla Díaz-Yáñez, Blas Mola-Yudego, José Ramón González-Olabarria. (2017). What variables make a forest stand vulnerable to browsing damage occurrence? Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1693
Highlights: Stands more vulnerable to browsing damage are young with lower densities and dominated by birch, pine or mixed species; Stand size could play a role on forest susceptibility to browsing occurrence.

Ungulate browsing results in important damages on the forests, affecting their structure, composition and development. In the present paper, we examine the occurrence of browsing damage in Norwegian forests, using data provided by the National Forest Inventory along several consecutive measurements (entailing the period 1995–2014). A portfolio of variables describing the stand, site and silvicultural treatments are analyzed using classification trees to retrieve combinations related to browsing damage. Our results indicate that the most vulnerable forest stands are young with densities below 1400 trees ha–1 and dominated by birch, pine or mixed species. In addition, stand diversity and previous treatments (e.g. thinnings) increase the damage occurrence and other variables, like stand size, could play a role on forest susceptibility to browsing occurrence although the latter is based on weaker evidence. The methods and results of our study can be applied to implement management measures aiming at reducing the browsing damages of forests.

  • Díaz-Yáñez, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3829-5759 E-mail: olalla.diaz@gmail.com (email)
  • Mola-Yudego, Norwegian Institute of Bioenergy Research, P.O. Box, 115, 1431 Ås, Norway; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0286-0170 E-mail: blas.mola@uef.fi
  • González-Olabarria, Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia (CTFC-CEMFOR), Ctra. de St. Llorenç de Morunys, km 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5040-712X E-mail: jr.gonzalez@ctfc.es

Category: Review article

article id 550, category Review article
Lars Edenius, Margareta Bergman, Göran Ericsson, Kjell Danell. (2002). The role of moose as a disturbance factor in managed boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 550. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.550
We review the interactions between moose (Alces alces) and native tree species in Fennoscandia. The Fennoscandian boreal forests have been intensively managed for wood production over decades. Moose population density is also relatively high in these northern forests. Forest management affects habitat characteristics and food resources from regeneration to final harvest, with the most significant effects occurring early in the stand development. The plant-animal interactions found in such a situation may be different from what has been observed in natural boreal forests with low densities of moose (e.g. in North America). The strong focus on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in forest regeneration in conjunction with a homogenisation of the landscape structure by clear-cutting has favoured moose. Forest development is controlled by man from regeneration to final harvest, and in relation to human-induced disturbances the disturbance by moose is relatively small, but occurs on different spatial levels. At the landscape level, the most prominent effects of moose seem to be suppression and/or redistribution of preferred browse species. At the forest stand level moose primarily induce spatial heterogeneity by browsing patchily and exploiting existing gaps. At the tree level, moose damage trees and lower timber quality, but also create substrate types (e.g. dead and dying wood) valuable for many organisms. Co-management of moose and forest requires good monitoring programmes for both plants and animals, as well as extensive ecological knowledge on the relations between moose and their food plants on different spatial levels.
  • Edenius, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.edenius@szooek.slu.se (email)
  • Bergman, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ericsson, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Danell, SLU, Department of Animal Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7105, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Übersicht der Moose und Flechten von Torneå- (Muonio-) und den angrenzenden Teilen von Kemi-Lappmark. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 6 article id 7105. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7105
English title: Overview of moos and lichen in Tornio-Muonio and the bordering parts of Kemi-Lappmark in Finnish Lapland.

The article begins on the page 91/122 of the PDF file.

The data has been collected during summer 1867. It examines the moos and lichen species in for regions of Lapland: spruce region, pine region, birch region and fjeld region. The division of the regions is related to the climatic and biological conditions of areas, the first mentioned being the most southern and still suitable e.g. for many grasses. Respective regions have been presented with their general characters and list of species. Finally the findings of different regions are compared.   

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4648, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Männyn kylvötaimistojen hirvivahingoista Pohjanmaalla. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9111
English title: Elk damage in seedling stands of Scots pine in Ostrobothnia.

The article reviews the occurrence of damage causes by elk (Alces alces L.) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands established by direct seeding in the Ostrobothia region in Finland. The data was collected by random sampling, and consists of 110 sample plots in pine stands, established in 1930-1944.

Signs of elk damages could be observed in 20% of the stands. In more than half of the damaged stands pine seedlings were damaged by elk, on the rest of the stands the damage was targeted to hardwood saplings only. With the present density of elk population, the damage has an insignificant bearing upon the development of pine seedling stands in Ostrobothnia. The weaknesses of silvicultural state of the stands have been caused by other factors than elk.

Silviculturally weak stands were more liable to elk damage than strong ones. The occurrence of elk damage was more usual in stands with hardwood mixture than in pure pine stands. Especially goat willow, mountain ash and aspen, but also to some decree birch, seem to attract elk. Those factors that promote hardwood growth: fertility of the site, swampiness and the presence of seeding hardwoods in the area, increase the stand’s liability to elk damage.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4647, category Article
Pekka Sainio. (1955). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4647. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9109
English title: Winter nutrition of elk.

Increase in the elk (Alces alces L.) population and the problems of its grazing has called for detailed research. The present study concentrated on three observation areas representing northern, western and eastern parts of Finland. There were 28 field observers watching 68 elks.

Earlier investigations in Finland indicate that aspen (Populus tremula L.) is the staple diet of elk. This study reached different conclusions, probably largely because of aspen is gradually becoming an increasingly rare tree species in Finland. According to this study, the principal food of elk in the winter is willow (Salix sp.). In the whole country, willow accounts for about 70% of elk’s nutrition. In the Far North the percentage is approx. 90. Of the other tree species, the order of preference is: aspen, Scots pine, mountain ash, juniper and birch. In addition, in Western Finland where snow is less deep, lingonberry and blueberry shrubs are on the menu. Beard moss on the spruce was frequently eaten locally. Elk seems to have eaten mainly the last annual shoot of trees and bushes. In few cases it has gnawed the bark of Scots pine, aspen and willow. Elk consumes in average 340 twigs or terminal shoots per day in the winter. This corresponds to about 1.8 kg of food.

The problem of elks damaging Scots pine seedlings has been observed in Western Finland, were the elk population is higher. The article suggests that suitable feeding places would be left for elk in places that are unsuitable for agriculture or forestry. Leaving, for instance, birch seedlings in Scots pine stands has been noticed to attract elks and to increase the damage to pine.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Sainio, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive