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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'natural regeneration'.

Category: Research article

article id 1564, category Research article
Stanislav Vacek, Zdeněk Vacek, Lukáš Bílek, Jaroslav Simon, Jiří Remeš, Iva Hůnová, Jan Král, Tereza Putalová, Miroslav Mikeska. (2016). Structure, regeneration and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands with respect to changing climate and environmental pollution. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1564. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1564
Highlights: Pine forest stands showed positive development of stand structural characteristics related to their diversity, number of regeneration individuals and growth characteristics; Tree-ring width was positively correlated with precipitation, while it was negatively correlated with temperature in growing seasons; Mean NOx concentrations showed positive effect on radial growth of pine; Serious defoliation was caused by SO2 concentrations and N deposition in combination with extreme climate events.

Changes in the structure and development of managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands with respect to changing environmental conditions were set for the period 1979–2015. The study was conducted in conditions of natural pinewoods and pine-oak sites on five permanent research plots (0.25 ha) in Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic (CR). Studied forest stands showed positive development of stand structural characteristics related to their diversity, number of regeneration individuals and growth characteristics. The standing volume of regularly distributed tree layer in 2015 was in the range of 320–434 m3 ha–1, which indicates an increase by 5.9–20.0% over 10 years. Correlation between pine radial increment and the amount of precipitation was generally the strongest one. Positive statistically significant correlation between diameter increment and temperature was demonstrated only for the average March temperature of the current year. Within the CR, study site can be characterised as a medium polluted area both for sulphur and nitrogen, despite this SO2 concentrations and N deposition in combination with extreme climate events caused severe defoliation in pine stands. Conversely, radial growth was positively significantly correlated with mean NOx concentrations. Drought mainly in combination with even medium environmental pollution can further worsen the health status of pine stands in lowland areas of Central Europe. Thus, formulation of silvicultural techniques able to mitigate the impact of these stress factors is needed.

  • Vacek, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vacekstanislav@fld.czu.cz
  • Vacek, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vacekz@fld.czu.cz
  • Bílek, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: bilek@fld.czu.cz
  • Simon, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: jaroslav.simon@mendelu.cz
  • Remeš, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: remesj@email.cz (email)
  • Hůnová, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Šabatce 17 143 06 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: hunova@chmi.cz
  • Král, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: kraljan@fld.czu.cz
  • Putalová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: putalova@fld.czu.cz
  • Mikeska, University of Hradec Králové, Faculty of Science, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: Mikeska.Miroslav@uhul.cz
article id 920, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Jaakko Repola, Mikko Moilanen, Markku Saarinen. (2012). Seedling establishment on small cutting areas with or without site preparation in a drained spruce mire – a case study in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.920
A large proportion of drained spruce mire stands is currently approaching regeneration maturity in Finland. We studied the effect of cutting – small canopy openings (78, 177, and 314 m2) and small clear-cuts (0.25–0.37 ha) – with or without site preparation (scalping) on the establishment of natural Norway spruce seedlings in one experimental drained spruce mire stand in northern Finland. The cuttings were made in winter 2004–2005 and site preparation with scalping in early June 2005. The experimental design was composed of four blocks with altogether four clear-cuts and 33 canopy openings. The seedling establishment was surveyed annually (2006, 2008–2010) from five circular sample plots (one 10 m2 and four 5 m2 plots in size) located within the canopy openings and from 18 circular 5 m2 sample plots systematically located in the scalped and untreated halves of the clear-cuts. Site preparation was found unnecessary, because it resulted in a clearly lower number of seedlings in the openings. A slight negative effect was also found in the clear-cuts. In the two years following the cuttings, the number of seedlings increased quickly in the canopy openings, but more gradually in the clear-cut areas. In 2010, on average 15 500 new seedlings were observed in the canopy openings and 6700 in the clear-cut areas, of which 5050 and 1200, respectively, were >0.1 m tall spruces. The proportion of birch increased in the last two years, being ca. 22% in the openings and 45% in the clear-cuts in 2010. The spatial distribution of seedlings was more uneven in the clear-cuts than in the openings, with 41% and 20% of survey plots empty, respectively.
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@metla.fi (email)
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Oulu Unit, P.O. Box 413, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.fi
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.saarinen@metla.fi
article id 87, category Research article
Radek Bace, Miroslav Svoboda, Pavel Janda. (2011). Density and height structure of seedlings in subalpine spruce forests of Central Europe: logs vs. stumps as a favourable substrate. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 87. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.87
Decaying logs and stumps provide an important seedling substrate in natural subalpine forests. However, only stumps present such a role in managed forests. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the process of seedling colonization between logs and stumps. The study was carried out in the Czech Republic, in two old-growth subalpine spruce forests located in the Bohemian Forest and Ash Mts., dominated by Athyrium distentifolium Opiz and Vaccinium myrtillus L. undergrowth, respectively. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) regeneration growing on logs, stumps and non-coarse woody debris (CWD) microsites was surveyed. Regeneration (height 0–2.0 m) densities exceeded 5000 individuals per ha on both sites. The average density of P. abies regeneration per square meter of substrate was 0.3-5.7-19.6 and 0.5-3.8-11.0 on non-CWD microsites, logs and stumps, located in A. distentifolium and V. myrtillus undergrowth, respectively. Stumps and non-CWD microsites dominated by V. myrtillus, supported a higher proportion of taller seedlings per plot compared to the small seedlings growing on logs and non-CWD dominated by A. distentifolium ground-cover. The disproportion in regeneration densities between the stumps and the original logs decreased with increasing stages of decay. The tallest regeneration growing on stumps (root-soil plates) was significantly older than that growing on the logs (stems). Based on these two latter findings, the stumps appeared to provide suitable seedling substrates several years earlier than the logs did. Therefore, we conclude that the stumps play a more important role (relative to their covered area, 21–28 m2 ha–1) in terms of suitable microsites for regeneration, than the logs do.
  • Bace, Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: bace@fld.czu.cz (email)
  • Svoboda, Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Janda, Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 97, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Jaakko Repola, Mikko Moilanen, Markku Saarinen. (2011). Seedling survival and establishment in small canopy openings in drained spruce mires in Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 97. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.97
A large proportion of drained spruce mire stands is currently approaching regeneration maturity in Finland. Traditional regeneration methods with effective site preparation and planting generally result in satisfactory seedling stands also in spruce mires. However, natural regeneration methods may be more appropriate in protecting watercourses and minimizing regeneration costs. We studied the survival of advance growth and establishment of new seedlings in small canopy openings that were cut at three different diameters in two experimental drained spruce mire stands in Northern Finland (Tervola and Oulu) in 2004. The number of seedlings was repeatedly surveyed from five small circular plots (one 10 m2 and four 5 m2 plots in size) located within the opening. Advance growth which survived the cutting and new seedlings were separated in the surveys. The density of advance growth was on average 9000 ha–1 after cutting, and it decreased by 30% during the five-year monitoring period (2006–2010) due to natural mortality. The number of new seedlings increased rapidly within the three years after cutting the openings. In 2010, 11 000–26 000 new seedlings ha–1 in Tervola and 12 000–16 000 ha–1 in Oulu on average were observed. The size of the opening had no clear effect on the regeneration result. The proportion of birch of the new seedlings increased with time and opening size in Tervola. The results show that Norway spruce regenerates naturally in small canopy openings cut in mature drained spruce mire stands.
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@metla.fi (email)
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos Research Unit, Muhos, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 308, category Research article
Ville Hallikainen, Mikko Hyppönen, Juha Hyvönen, Juhani Niemelä. (2007). Establishment and height development of harvested and naturally regenerated Scots pine near the timberline in North-East Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 308. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.308
Researchers and professionals in practical forestry have faced problems concerning the regeneration success of Scots pine in natural regeneration near the timberline in North-East Lapland. The aim of the study was to analyze the seedling establishment and seedling height development of Scots pine in seed-tree stands in the area. The average number of living pine seedlings in the study stands was about 1000 ha–1, but there was considerable variation between the stands. The seedling density was modelled using a multinomial logistic regression with a random factor. Forest site type and the time since seed-tree cutting were the most significant explanatory variables in the model. The probability of reaching the acceptable seedling density was higher on dry site types than on the more fertile ones. The probability increased with the time elapsed since the regeneration activities. Effective temperature sum and the number of intermediate pines also positively affected the probability, but the presence of residual trees negatively. On northern and eastern slopes the probability was lower than on southern and western ones. Seedling height was modelled using a linear mixed model. The age of a dominant seedling was the most positively effective explanatory variable in the height development model. Other positively affecting significant predictors were time since seed-tree cutting, number of intermediate birches, and distance between a seedling and the nearest seed tree. Degree of paludification had a negative effect. The study suggests that the regeneration of Scots pine in North-East Lapland is a relatively slow process.
  • Hallikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@metla.fi (email)
  • Hyppönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@metla.fi
  • Hyvönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.hyvonen@metla.fi
  • Niemelä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 518, category Research article
Mats Hannerz, Curt Almqvist, Roland Hörnfeldt. (2002). Timing of seed dispersal in Pinus sylvestris stands in central Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 518. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.518
The objective of the study presented here was to describe the variation in timing of seed dispersal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed trees in central Sweden. Seeds were collected in traps at two sites, for three years at one, and four years at the other . The traps were emptied from March to August each year at 1–2 week intervals during the main period of seed dispersal. The annual seed fall varied between 200 000 and 1.6 million seeds per hectare. The seed fall started in mid to late April, shortly after the heat sum had started to accumulate. The most intensive seed fall took place in early to mid May. The peak period, when 50% of the total seed dispersal occurred, lasted for 18–28 days at the different sites and years. The variation in timing among years seemed to be mainly due to climatic factors – high temperatures promoted seed dispersal, for instance. The results may be useful for planning the time of scarification to optimise the natural regeneration of Scots pine. The data suggest that scarification in the spring, no later than mid-May, would generally create a good seed-bed for most of the current year’s seeds, whereas scarification in late May or June would bury a large proportion of this cohort.
  • Hannerz, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (SkogForsk) Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.hannerz@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Almqvist, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (SkogForsk) Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hörnfeldt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Products and Markets, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7129, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1961). Über die natürliche Bewaldung der Kulturböden im sog. Porkkala-Pachtgebiet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 2 article id 7129. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7129
English title: Natural regeneration of agricultural lands in so-called Porkkala-area of leased land.

The size of the field and the ditching on it as well as the condition of the field at the time of the surrender of Porkkala area (from Finland to Russia) play an important role on how far the natural regeneration of the fields has progressed.

Larger open fields have naturally regenerated only on sides where the surrounding forest can spread the seeds or the thicket of saplings has reached, whereas small parcels of fields have normally been fully forested. Most important species have been e.g. silver birch and pubescent birch, grey and common alders and European aspen as well as pine and spruce. The broad leaved species are dominant.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7472, category Article
Jaakko Lehto. (1956). Tutkimuksia männyn luontaisesta uudistumisesta Etelä-Suomen kangasmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 2 article id 7472. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7472
English title: Studies on the natural regeneration of Scots pine on the upland soils of Southern Finland.

Natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by leaving a seed tree stand on a cutting area has long been the most popular regeneration method in Finland. Results of the method have, however, been unsatisfactory. The aim of the investigation was to study the basic problems of natural regeneration of Scots pine. Regeneration success was studied in 144 sample plots in pine stands at different stages of regeneration in Southern Finland. In addition, the data included information of 42 previously investigated areas.

According to the results, Scots pine can be successfully regenerated naturally on sandy and gravelly soils in Southern Finland. Preparing the ground surface by breaking or burning considerably facilitates the establishment of a seedling stand. The number of seedlings was considerably lower in the ground vegetation than in the mineral soil. Considering growth of the seedlings, root competition of the mother trees was heavy in dense stands, but insignificant in thin stands. The stand density did not affect germination of the seeds. In regeneration areas proper, where the density of mother trees usually is under 50 per hectare, there was in average 4,700 seedlings per hectare in Calluna type forests and 5,200 in Vaccinium type forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7402, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1950). Alikasvoskuusten biologiaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 7402. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7402
English title: On the biology of undergrown Norway spruce.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) invading sites is common in Finland. The species tends to establish itself as undergrowth, and takes over when it gets space to grow. To determine whether the undergrowth is suitable as the new generation requires knowledge on the biology of spruce undergrowth. One of the issues is determining the age of the stunted trees. In this investigation, 100 undergrown spruce trees, their crown and their root systems were studied. A method was developed to determine the age of the trees.

The root system of all trees in Vaccinium sites and of stunted trees in Myrtillius sites were superficial. The root systems of older spruces were purely of adventitious origin. The longer the period of stunting growth, the younger is the root system. In addition to acropetal and general adventitious ramification there is often adventitious branching of the roots of pathological causes. Mortality among the long roots is frequent.

A stunted tree has not the same ability as a viable tree to make use of already existing branches for building assimilating surface. When comparing trees with equally large assimilating surface, a stunted tree had greater sum of roots compared to a viable tree. The root system of a stunted undergrown spruce was very superficial compared with the other trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7294, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1934). Tutkimuksia karjan vaikutuksesta hakkausalojen kasvillisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 17 article id 7294. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7294
English title: Studies on influence of grazing on the vegetation of cutting areas.

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of grazing of the cutting areas to the ground vegetation and regeneration of spruce. The cutting areas could be divided into two kinds of areas based on the vegetation. Hillocks were drier and poorer than other parts of the cutting areas. Their vegetation did suffer less from grazing than the other parts of the cutting areas. The shade-loving plant species decreased, but as the poorer sites have less edible plants, cattle caused less damage than in the better sites. The even spaces between the hillocks had both positive and negative changes. Cattle transport seeds, tile and fertilize the soil, promote paludification, and decrease competition by the primary species like large grasses. This is beneficial to new species. Grazing is directed to large grass species like Calamagrostis. Those species that cattle reject, become more abundant. Stamping damages especially shallow rooted species and perennial species, like Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Larger tree seedlings may get injuries in the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7256, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1929). Tutkimuksia kuusen esiintymisestä alikasvoksina Raja-Karjalan valtionmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 7256. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7256
English title: Studies on Norway spruce undergrowth in state forests in Karelia.

The abundance of Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth is common for the state forests in Karelia near the Russian border, in Finland. In the survey, the occurrence of the undergrowth was studied. The article includes a review on the ownership of the forest, forest soils in the area, and the state of forests in the area. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominative species in 67%, Norway spruce in 27% and Betula sp. 6% of the state forests. Only 2% of the forests are 1‒20 years of age. Stands in the age group of 61‒80 years are the most common (25%). Norway spruce undergrowth is most abundant in the municipality of Salmi. The forests are typically moist forest site types or grass-herb site types. If the stands are allowed to develop naturally, even the Vaccinium sites become Norway spruce dominated. Spruce undergrowth is formed seldom under a spruce forest unless the stand is thin or has openings. Because Norway spruce is often rare in the mineral soil sites, the undergrowth is often regenerated from seeds that spread from spruce swamps. Earlier practiced shifting cultivation and its frequent fires prevented regeneration of spruce undergrowth. Similarly, the common felling method used, clear felling in strips, does not promote spruce undergrowth. Consequently, their occurrence is likely to decrease in the future.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7228, category Article
Agnar Barth. (1929). Skjermforyngelsen i produksjonsökonomisk belysning. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 15 article id 7228. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7228
English title: Natural regeneration from the production economic point of view.

Natural regeneration has been studied so far mostly on the perspective of regeneration, while the production capacity of the seed crop stand has been of little interest in the earlier studies. This paper studied volume growth of the seed trees and the economic impact of this regeneration method both in a literature review and measuring sample stands consisting of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands and mixed forests in Norway.

It is concluded that in the most cases the seed tree stands give better pulpwood and timber yield than the stands in the average. The reason might be that the elite stems can better use their production capacity, and, thus, reach bigger and more valuable dimensions. Even though the growing stock diminishes in the seeding felling, the growth of the stand does not decrease or decreases only little. At the same time, the quality growth improves. In addition, the new tree regeneration is achieved usually without extra costs, and there is no unproductive time period in the stand.

  • Barth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5573, category Article
Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa, Raili Suominen, Tiina Tonteri, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila. (1996). Seedling establishment after prescribed burning of a clear-cut and a partially cut mesic boreal forest in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9218

The prescribed burning of a 7.3 ha clear-cut and a 1.7 ha partially cut forest (volume 150 m3/ha) was carried out in Evo (61 °12'N, 25°07'E) on 1 June 1992. The forest was a mesic Myrtillus site type forest dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Practically all the trees and the above-ground parts of the understorey vegetation died in the fire, while the mor layer was thinned by an average of 1.5 cm.

A study was made on the change of germinated seedling population in time and their dependence on environmental factors. Seedlings of Norway spruce, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pubescent birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were inventoried in 1993 and in 1994 on permanent plots, four times per growing season. Autoregression models were used to compare regeneration of tree species in the burned forest with regeneration in the burnt clear-cut area, and to study the effect of distance from nearest seed source to regeneration.

The average number of seedlings germinating in 1993 was higher than in 1994, probably because of differences between these consecutive years in regard to the amount of seed rain and weather conditions. The number of Norway spruce and rowan seedling was higher inside the forest area than in the clear-cut area. The distance to the bordering forest and to the closest seed tree did not explain the result. It is suggested that the more stable microclimatic conditions under the shade of dead tree promote germination and seedling establishment in the forest area. As rowan is a bird-dispersed species, it is likely that dead trees help the dispersal of rowan seed by providing birds place to sit and defecate. The shade provided by dead trees may influence the further succession of the tree stand and vegetation composition and diversity.

  • Vanha-Majamaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tonteri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tuittila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7195, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1925). Niinipuun uudistumisesta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 5 article id 7195. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7195
English title: Regeneration of small leaved lime in Finland.

The northern range of small leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in Finland has remained the same since the end of 1800s, but according to the studies of subfossiles of lime found in peatlands, the northern limit has once been higher than at the present. The northernmost natural specimens of the species in Reisjärvi do not produce seed, and are therefore probably a relict. The article includes a review on the distribution of the species in Finland and its capacity to regenerate. The natural regeneration of lime in Finland is at present very rare. The species has lost its ability to sexual reproduction, but reproduces readily vegetatively.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5562, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Matti Maltamo. (1995). Impact of regeneration method on stand structure prior to first thinning. Comparative study North Karelia, Finland vs. Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9213

Comparisons were made between artificially and naturally regenerated stands in the south-eastern part of North Karelia, Finland, and naturally regenerated stands in the western parts of the Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation. The effect of soil fertility and silvicultural operations on the stand structure was also investigated.

The results of the study show clearly that when forests are artificially regenerated the stand structure includes less variation when compared with the stands naturally regenerated. Differences between the regeneration methods are clearer the more fertile the forest site is. Within the regeneration method there is also a clear trend in stand structure, with the variation decreasing the poorer the site. The effect of silvicultural operations, i.e. the cleaning of the sapling stand, has disappeared by the time of first thinning, although it appears to have a permanent effect on the dynamics of the tree species within a stand.

The variation of the stand structure can be regarded as an essential factor for the potential biodiversity of the stand also at its young vegetation succession stage. This capacity for maintaining the forest biodiversity, developed at the young vegetation succession stage, becomes increasingly important in subsequent vegetation succession stages. Natural regeneration provides improved possibilities for the operations preserving forest biodiversity, as it generates more dense stands with a wider variation in stand structure, compared to artificial regeneration.

  • Uuttera, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maltamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5557, category Article
Klaus Silfverberg. (1995). Forest regeneration on nutrient-poor peatlands: Effects of fertilization, mounding and sowing. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5557. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9208

The effects of wood ash and PK fertilization on natural regeneration and sowing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in field experiments on nitrogen-poor (Ntot 0.87–1.26%) peat substrates. The study material was derived from three drained, nutrient-poor pine mires (64°52’ N, 25°08’ E) at Muhos, near Oulu, Finland. The experimental fields were laid out in 1985 as a split-split-plot design including the following treatments; mounding, natural regeneration and sowing and fertilization; PK (400 kg ha-1) and wood ash (5,000 kg ha-1). The seedlings were inventoried in circles in July–August 1991.

Changes in the vegetation were small and there were no statistical differences due to the fertilization treatments in the ground vegetation. PK or ash fertilization did not cause vegetation changes harmful to Scots pine regeneration on nitrogen-poor peatlands. Both sowing and fertilization significantly increased the number of pine seedlings, but not their height. Wood ash increased seedling number more than PK fertilizer. The number of seedlings varied from 7,963 (control) to 42,781 ha-1 (mounding + sowing + ash). The seedling number was adequate for successful regeneration even on non-mounded, non-fertilized naturally regenerated plots.

The number of birch seedlings varied more than that of pine (370–25,927 ha-1). Mounding especially increased the number of birches. The difference between PK fertiliser and ash was less pronounced than that for pine. In addition, to the field studies the effects of ash and PK fertilizer on the germination of Scots pine seeds was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Soaking in ash solutions strongly reduced seed germination, while the PK solution was less harmful.

  • Silfverberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5413, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1990). Metsän uudistuminen Kivalon vanhoilla kaistalehakkuualoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5413. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15565
English title: Forest regeneration of old strip cutting areas in Kivalo.

The results of regenerating 54 and 36–38-year old strip cuttings were surveyed in the Kivalo Research Forest (N 66°20’, E 26°40’). 15 measurement plots were placed on each strip. The most common forest type was Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type. Regeneration of the strips proved to be slow. Most of the spruces growing on the strips probably originated from the time before the cutting. The average number of stems was 1,155 per ha, of which one third consisted of broadleaved trees. The average volume increment of stem wood after cutting had been about 1 m3/ha/yr, but it was increasing at the time of the inventory. Both the reforestation of the strips and the development of the emergent stands were dependent on elevation and site fertility. Site fertility was indicated by the abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5379, category Article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Timo Pukkala. (1989). Effect of Scots pine seed trees on the density of ground vegetation and tree seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5379. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15536

The study uses the methodology of ecological field theory to model the effect of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed trees on the density of tree seedlings and other plants in the field layer. The seed trees had a clear effect on the expected value of the amount and distribution of the ground vegetation. The vicinity of seed trees had an adverse effect on the growth of grasses, herbs and seedlings, while mosses were most abundant near the trees. Models based on the ecological field approach were derived to describe the effect of seed trees on the ground vegetation.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5302, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Hänninen, Taneli Kolström, Ahti Kotisaari, Timo Pukkala. (1987). A tentative model for describing the effects of some regenerative process on the properties of natural seedling stands. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5302. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15459

The effect of the size of seed crop, dispersal of seeds and the early development of seedlings on the density and spatial distribution of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands are evaluated on the basis of theoretical models. The models include (i) number and spatial distribution of parent trees on the regeneration area, (ii) size of annual seed crop, (iii) seed dispersal from a particular parent tree, (iv) germination of the seeds (germination percentage), (v) death of ageing seedlings after the establishment process, and (vi) height growth of the seedlings.

As expected, stand density and spatial distribution varied within a large range in relation to the density of the parent trees and the distance from them. The simulations also showed that natural seedling stands can be expected to be heterogenous due to the geometry of seed dispersal, emphasizing the frequency of young and small trees. The properties of the seedling stands were, however, greatly dependent on the density of the parent trees and the length of the regeneration period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kotisaari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5218, category Article
Jouni Suoheimo. (1984). Isokorvakärsäkkään aikuisten esiintyminen ja merkitys männyn luontaiselle uudistamiselle Pohjois-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15397
English title: The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine in Lapland.

The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus Müller weevils and their significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was carried out during summer 1982 at Inari in northern Lapland.

There were two sample plots, one situated in a Scots pine seed-tree area and the other, the control sample plot, in an area with a coverage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa, now subsp. czerepanovii). A total of 177 Otiorhynchus weevils were caught. Movement of the weevils reached its climax in July. There were 86% more individuals in the seed-tree area than in the mountain birch area. No damage to the pine germlings or seedlings was not observed, although the situation could be different during the peaks of the veewil populations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suoheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5198, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine, Jarmo Lepola. (1983). Lannoitus- ja sarkaleveyskokeita karujen rämeiden uudistamisessa ja taimikoiden kasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15181
English title: Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments concerned with regeneration and growth of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor pine bogs.

The effects of variations in the intensity of drainage and NPK fertilization on the natural regeneration and planting results and the subsequent development of seedling stands under various climatic conditions on drained nutrient poor pine bogs was investigated in a 16-year-old study.

Comparison of height development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on drained peatlands to that of pine stands growing in mineral soil sites show that in Southern Finland the most efficient forest improvement measures (10 m ditch spacing and 1,000 kg/ha NPK-fertilization) resulted in growth that corresponds a to a height index of a stand in a Vaccinium type site. Less efficient treatment (30 m ditch spacing and no fertilizer) resulted in growth corresponding the development of young stand in a Calluna type site. In Northern Finland the effect of fertilization on height growth was almost negligible. This is possibly due to a decrease in the nitrogen mobilization from south to north of Finland. Thus, it seems evident that fertilization of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor drained peatlands can be recommended only in the southern part of the country.

The effect of ditch spacing is same in the whole country. The narrower the spacing the better the height growth. In the south planted stands thrive better than naturally regenerated stands, but the situation is reversed in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lepola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7036, category Article
I. Lassila. (1920). Tutkimuksia mäntymetsien synnystä ja kehityksestä pohjoisen napapiirin pohjoispuolella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 7036. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7036
English title: Studies on the regeneration and development of Scots pine forests north of the arctic circle.

The frequency of years when Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) produces cones and seeds affects its reproduction in the north. The study area covered most of the pine lands in Northern Finland. Scots pine seems to be able to produce cones relatively often in the north. The amount of seeds produced in one year was, however, not sufficient to produce a dense seedling stand. Thus, the natural pine stands contain usually trees in different ages-classes, which have germinated in different years. The cone production is highest in 150-170 years old trees. Pine also needs warm summers to produce viable seeds. Brush fires avail the growth of seedlings, because they clear of ground vegetation that hinders germination of seeds. The seedlings need also moisture to survive; good regeneration years have often had rainy summers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7024, category Article
August Renvall. (1919). Suojametsäkysymyksestä IV. Poronlaidunnan järjestely suojametsäalueella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 7024. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7024
English title: Protection forests IV.

This fourth part of the six-article series about protection forest in the Northern Finland is a proposal for organizing reindeer grazing to enable scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) regeneration near the timber line. Protection forests in the Northern Finland cover third of the natural pastures of reindeer in the area. In these areas reindeer grazing can harm the young pine seedlings. The proposal suggests temporary restrictions in grazing in the coniferous forests. Also, in the northernmost parts of Lapland the pine timberline area would be used only as winter pastures. Regional limits should be set for the number of reindeer. Also the ownership of reindeer herds and herding coopearatives included problematic issues that should be solved.

The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7022, category Article
August Renvall. (1919). Suojametsäkysymyksestä II. Suojametsäjärjestelmän tarkoitusperät ja edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 2-3 article id 7022. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7022
English title: Protection forests II.

The second part of the six-article series about protection forest in Northern Finland outlines the principles of protecting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) timber line. The protected areas should include at least all of the viable pine stands and those birch (Betula sp.) lands that are necessary to safeguard fuel wood supply in the pine forest zone. Outside the actual pine forest zone also those birch stands that are near populated regions should be protected to secure sustainable fuel wood supply. Third, south and down of the pine forest zone should be protected pine forest stands and adjacent open fell areas where forests are especially vulnerable. A new protection forest commission should be established to execute the protection forest legislation.

The article is divided in six parts. The parts II and III of the article series are included in the same PDF. A German summary is in a separate PDF.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7013, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1917). Tutkimuksia mäntymetsien uudistumisvuosista Etelä- ja Keski-Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 7013. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7013
English title: Studies on the regeneration years of Scots pine forests in Southern and Central Finland.

The success of natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the amount and quality of seeds produced in each year. While seed production of Scots pine in Northern Finland is well known, there is little information about frequency of good seed years in Southern and Central Finland. The success of regeneration of Scots pine was studied by defining from the growth rings of felled sample trees in which year they started to grow. The aim was to choose sample trees so that they would form a continual series from seedlings to 100 years old trees. In the material there was too little sample trees from certain years. However, within the period of 1827-1910 it could be identified 13 good regeneration years of pine in Southern Finland. According to the study, pine has regenerated very well every 6th year and at least moderately well every 4th year. When compared to the previous studies made in Northern Finland, part of the good regeneration years seems to be same both in Northern and Southern Finland. Regeneration of Scots pine is affected also by the type and condition of the site.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7656, category Article
Kari Leinonen, Matti Leikola, Antti Peltonen, Pentti Räsä­nen. (1989). Kuusen luontainen uudistaminen Pirkka-­Hämeen metsälautakunnassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 209 article id 7656. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7656
English title: Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-Häme Forestry Board District, Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and develop the use of natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in private forestry. The study was carried out using a line-plot survey with permanent circular sample plots. In total 40 regeneration sites were measured. The study includes results from three successive inventories: prior to the shelterwood cutting, in the summer after the cutting, and one year after the cutting. Regression and logistic regression analyses were used to construct models describing the effect of various factors on the restocking of the stands.

The standing volume prior to the shelterwood cutting was on average 236 m3/ha (ranging from 80 to 428 m3/ha) and after the cutting 120 m3/ha (39–220 m3/ha). The average number of stems per hectare decreased from 435 to 186. Prior to the shelterwood cutting 22% of the stands were satisfactorily restocked. After the cutting and one year later these percentages were 6 and 29%, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the number of acceptable seedlings was 1,440/ha, in the summer and year later 1,308/ha and 1,546/ha, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the characteristics of the mother stands did not correlate well with the number of seedlings. The change in the number of seedlings during the initial stage of shelterwood method depended on height of the seedling stand, amount of logging waste and number of germlings prior to the cutting. The risk to fail in regeneration was highest in the poorly restocked, sparse shelterwood stands, where a fast expansion of grass vegetation took place.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsä­nen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7625, category Article
Antti Turakka, Olavi Luukkanen, Suree Bhumibhamon. (1982). Notes on Pinus kesiya and P. merkusii and their natural regeneration in watershed areas of northern Thailand. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 178 article id 7625. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7625

The aim of the present work was to clarify the structure of selected natural Pinus kesiya Royale ex Gord. And P. merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese stands, with particular attention on the amount and quality of naturally-occurring seedlings and young trees. Furthermore, basic information required in the management of pine stands in watershed areas of northern Thailand was obtained.

Large number of pine seedlings were found in P. kesiyana stands only. Two of the examined four localities where this species occurred also included various intermediary height classes under the mature trees. In dense stands the number of seedlings was generally smaller as compared with lower seed tree densities. Neither one of the two localities where P. Merkusii was investigated indicated sufficient natural regeneration. Young pines (over 5 m height) seemed to survive the frequent ground fires quite well, whereas younger seedlings were destroyed and the ground layer vigour was lowered in these cases.

In situ sowing experiments at the beginning of the dry season indicated a faster development and better survival of emerging P. Kesiya seedlings as compared to P. Merkusii. Soil preparation and exposure to sun decreased the survival of seedlings in both species. Utilization of natural regeneration and direct sowing of pines as a silvicultural method as well as the general significance of the two pine species in the succession of plant communities under the influence of forest fires is also discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Turakka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bhumibhamon, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4451, category Article
Pekka Urho Sakari Tikka. (1928). Havaintoja kuusen esiintymisestä ja kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuivissa kangasmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 10 article id 4451. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8399
English title: Observations on Norway spruce growth and development in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is rarely the dominant species on dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland. These sites are, in general, too poor and dry for spruce, and suit better for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). According to the study, the natural regeneration of spruce is in Northern Finland poor. In the sample plots, cones could be found in 35% of spruce trees in the stands in natural state and 46% in the harvested stands. Compared to the spruce areas in Northern Finland, or fresh mineral soil sites in Southern Finland, cone and seed production of Norway spruce was in dry mineral soil sites very low due to scarcity of seed trees and their low cone number. There were few spruce seedlings in the sample plots, but according to the observations, spruce is able to regenerate on lichen and heath covered sites. The seedling growth was, however, poor on dry sites. Spruce seedlings were often found near fallen trees and stumps. The growing trees prevent growth of seedlings of all species. Norway spruce seems, however, to be able to spread also to the poor sites. The success depends on the vegetation and dryness of the site. For instance, spruce can spread to dry mineral soil sites from seed trees of nearby peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4669, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1956). Vehkatallinmaa. Silva Fennica no. 90 article id 4669. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9116
English title: Vehkatallinmaa, a successful reforestation area in Central Finland.

In 1933, forest fire caused by locomotive sparkle burned about 600 hectares of forest in a forest district named Vehkatallinmaa, in Central Finland. In 1934–36, the burned area was reforested, using different sowing and planting methods. At the same time, areas with poor runoff were drained. The results from reforestation throughout the area have been good. Also, natural regeneration of coniferous trees, especially Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has occurred. Even deciduous trees, especially birch (Betula sp.), have regenerated naturally in the area. The forests are an evidence of the adaptability of broadcast sowing on snow crust as a method of reproduction.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4644, category Article
Vilho Antero Kolehmainen. (1955). Havaintoja kulotuksen merkityksestä metsiemme uudistamisessa. Silva Fennica no. 85 article id 4644. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9106
English title: Effect of prescribed burning in the forest regeneration.

Prescribed burning has reported to avail forest regeneration, for instance, by releasing nutrients for the use of seedlings, changing the pH of the soil and decreasing competition of ground vegetation. The aim of the study was to find out if the effects could be verified. Sample plots were measured in the experimental area of Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland, both in previously burned and untreated seedling stands and young forests. The main species in the sample plots was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

According to the results, prescribed burning prepares the soil for regeneration. Germination percentage of the seeds is higher on the burned soil. All the species, Scots pine, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and birch species (Betula sp.) grow faster. Prescribed burning increases the amount of birch seedlings by improving its regeneration compared to unburned sites. The seed trees survive burning better if they are tall and have short crown, and have thick bark. In general, prescribed burning improves regeneration in seed tree stands.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4543, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1938). Metsän uudistamisesta laihoilla kangasmailla. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4543. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13952
English title: Forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4542, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1938). Eräitä metsän uudistamisessa huomioon otettavia näkökohtia. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4542. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13951
English title: Forest regeneration.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes factors that should be taken into account in forest regeneration. 

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4536, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Metsän uudistumisen tarkkailusta kovilla metsämailla ja ojitetuilla soilla sekä ojien tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13945
English title: Inspection of regeneration of forests in mineral soil forests and drained peatlands and checking of ditches.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches. 

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4530, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1938). Ojitettujen soiden metsittämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4530. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13939
English title: Afforestation of drained peatlands.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes afforestation of drained peatlands. 

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4486, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1937). Metsien luontaisen uudistumisen edistämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4486. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13896
English title: Facilitating natural regeneration.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes natural regeneration in forests and factors affecting the success of regeneration.

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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