Current issue: 55(4)
Under compilation: 55(5)
The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.
The results of the Finnish forest condition survey carried out during 1986–90 in background areas are presented. The same 3,388 forest trees (1,897 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.), 1,289 Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. And 202 broadleaves) on 450 mineral soil sample plots were examined annually. Growth characteristics (defoliation, the number of needle age classes, branch damage and needle discolouration), fertility and abiotic and biotic damage express the general vitality of the trees and are not specific for air pollutants. A correlative approach was applied in analysing the factors which may explain the regional pattern and changes in defoliation.
Average tree-specific degree of defoliation was 9% in pine, 21% in spruce and 12% in broadleaves in 1990. Altogether 11% of the pines, 42% of the spruces and 16% of the broadleaves have lost over 20% of their needles or leaves. Defoliation in spruce was the same as in the previous year, but in pine and broadleaves it had slightly decreased. Defoliation had increased by 5 %-units in pine, 16 %-units in spruce and 7 %-units in broadleaves during the whole study period 1986–90.
High stand age and different weather and climatic factors greatly affected forest defoliation in background areas in Finland. Pine cancer (Ascocalyx abietina) has enhanced defoliation in pine in the western part of the country. Air pollutants have evidently contributed to the increase of defoliation in the most polluted parts of Southern Finland. In pine a significant positive correlation was found between modelled sulphur deposition and the average stand-specific degree of defoliation as well as with the increase in average 5-year defoliation in Southern Finland. It is suspected that green algae growing on needles of spruce in Southern Finland indicates elevated nitrogen deposition levels.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
In 1953 and 1954 needle cast (Peridermium pinastri (Shrad.) Chev., now Lophodermium) caused much damage at the Leksvall nursery at Tammisaari as well as at some other nurseries in Southern Finland.
Experiments were conducted at the Leksvall nursery with different fungicides. The results showed that with spraying done every second week during the whole growing season beginning on May 20th and ending on 27th September in 1954, the damage caused by needle cast was entirely controlled with 2% Bordeaux mixture and the zineb preparation (Dithane Z-78); nabam preparation (Dithane D-14) being somewhat less effective. Lime sulphur, Burgundy mixture, thiram preparation, captan preparation, and PCNB preparation were rather ineffective, in addition, of these the lime sulphur and the Burgundy mixture caused damage to the needles. Phenylmercury preparation proved useless.
The article includes an abstract in English.