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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1970-1979
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'palkka'.

Category: Article

article id 7442, category Article
Esko Hellén. (1954). Sosiaaliministeriön tilasto metsätyöntekijäin ansioista ja palkoista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 30 article id 7442. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7442
English title: Statistics of the wages and earnings of forest workers prepared by the Ministry of Social Affairs.

The wage problems of forest workers were first studied in 1931-1932, when the depression compelled the enforcement of a wage control system in forestry, and thus produced statistics on the earnings of forest workers. When the wage controls were introduced in 1934, it was necessary to determine wage norms on which to base the assessment on working results.

Three different norms were defined. The norm of daily earnings means the amount an adult, able-bodied, skilled forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at piece work. The norm of daily salary is the amount of a forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at time rates, and the wage norm per hour for floating workers is the amount a floating worker should receive per hour. The wages are controlled by special inspectors, and statistics on wages are collected by reports of the inspectors.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7442, category Article
Esko Hellén. (1954). Sosiaaliministeriön tilasto metsätyöntekijäin ansioista ja palkoista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 30 article id 7442. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7442
English title: Statistics of the wages and earnings of forest workers prepared by the Ministry of Social Affairs.

The wage problems of forest workers were first studied in 1931-1932, when the depression compelled the enforcement of a wage control system in forestry, and thus produced statistics on the earnings of forest workers. When the wage controls were introduced in 1934, it was necessary to determine wage norms on which to base the assessment on working results.

Three different norms were defined. The norm of daily earnings means the amount an adult, able-bodied, skilled forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at piece work. The norm of daily salary is the amount of a forest worker should be able to earn in an 8-hour day at time rates, and the wage norm per hour for floating workers is the amount a floating worker should receive per hour. The wages are controlled by special inspectors, and statistics on wages are collected by reports of the inspectors.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7306, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1934). Sahatukkien teko- ja ajopalkat todellista työvaikeutta vastaaviksi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 29 article id 7306. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7306
English title: Felling and hauling wages that correspond the actual requirements of the work.

Forest work in Finland has generally been paid by the job. The wages in 1930s were based on variable measuring units and principles in different parts of the country. The rates did not often take into account how difficult the individual stands are to harvest. The studies have shown that the productivity of logging depends on size of the stems, density of the stand, branchiness of the trees, terrain and depth of snow cover. The article suggests a wage system which takes into account the differences of the cutting areas.

Wages of felling and hauling logs that are payed per the trunk or cubic meter should be adjusted so that the earnings of an employee depends not on the quality of the stand. The quality of the stand influences the stumpage price of the wood, because of the versatile harvesting costs. If the demands of the job in a challenging stand are not compensated for the workers, the higher harvesting costs are inequitably balanced by lowering the wages of the forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7306, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1934). Sahatukkien teko- ja ajopalkat todellista työvaikeutta vastaaviksi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 29 article id 7306. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7306
English title: Felling and hauling wages that correspond the actual requirements of the work.

Forest work in Finland has generally been paid by the job. The wages in 1930s were based on variable measuring units and principles in different parts of the country. The rates did not often take into account how difficult the individual stands are to harvest. The studies have shown that the productivity of logging depends on size of the stems, density of the stand, branchiness of the trees, terrain and depth of snow cover. The article suggests a wage system which takes into account the differences of the cutting areas.

Wages of felling and hauling logs that are payed per the trunk or cubic meter should be adjusted so that the earnings of an employee depends not on the quality of the stand. The quality of the stand influences the stumpage price of the wood, because of the versatile harvesting costs. If the demands of the job in a challenging stand are not compensated for the workers, the higher harvesting costs are inequitably balanced by lowering the wages of the forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5121, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1981). Metsätöiden palkkauksen ja työolosuhteiden kehitys Suomessa ennen työehtosopimuskautta. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5121. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15062
English title: Development of the wages and work conditions in forest work in Finland prior to the age of agreements on the terms of working.

In Finland the first trade union in the field of forest work and timber floating was founded in 1946 and the first formal collective agreement was achieved in 1962. Information about the development of wage payments and work conditions (lodging and food) in forest work prior to the formal agreements was dispersed in a number of different sources, and is already partially in danger of being forgotten. The aim of this study was to bring together all available information concerning the matter in question.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4951, category Article
Heikki Heiskanen. (1976). Metsätyön palkkauksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4951. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14797
English title: Basic problems of the wage system for forest work.

It has been in Finland discussed to replace the present straight piece rate by a time rate in forest work. The low earnings of aged forest workers, the health hazards, its tendency to cause conflicts and considerable income differences are the main drawbacks of the piece rate and the proneness to increase the labour costs is the essential fault of the time rate mentioned in the discussion. One possible solution for these problems is an efficiency bonus (prevents the labour costs from increasing and decreases the income differences) combined with a bonus for age (guarantees high incomes for aged wage earners), a maximum efficiency standard (prevents health hazards), and a group incentive (prevents conflicts).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4951, category Article
Heikki Heiskanen. (1976). Metsätyön palkkauksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4951. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14797
English title: Basic problems of the wage system for forest work.

It has been in Finland discussed to replace the present straight piece rate by a time rate in forest work. The low earnings of aged forest workers, the health hazards, its tendency to cause conflicts and considerable income differences are the main drawbacks of the piece rate and the proneness to increase the labour costs is the essential fault of the time rate mentioned in the discussion. One possible solution for these problems is an efficiency bonus (prevents the labour costs from increasing and decreases the income differences) combined with a bonus for age (guarantees high incomes for aged wage earners), a maximum efficiency standard (prevents health hazards), and a group incentive (prevents conflicts).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4951, category Article
Heikki Heiskanen. (1976). Metsätyön palkkauksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4951. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14797
English title: Basic problems of the wage system for forest work.

It has been in Finland discussed to replace the present straight piece rate by a time rate in forest work. The low earnings of aged forest workers, the health hazards, its tendency to cause conflicts and considerable income differences are the main drawbacks of the piece rate and the proneness to increase the labour costs is the essential fault of the time rate mentioned in the discussion. One possible solution for these problems is an efficiency bonus (prevents the labour costs from increasing and decreases the income differences) combined with a bonus for age (guarantees high incomes for aged wage earners), a maximum efficiency standard (prevents health hazards), and a group incentive (prevents conflicts).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9125
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Blåfield, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Havukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sajama, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9125
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Blåfield, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Havukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sajama, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4677, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Pölkyn koon vaikutus niputustulokseen ja sen huomioon ottaminen taksassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4677. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9123
English title: Effect of log size on the bundling result and how it is taken into account in bundling wage payments.

In Finland, the wage norms of forest wages have been defined by the government since 1935. However, no official tariffs have been drawn for mechanical bundling in water for floating in bundles. The aim of the investigation was to find out the correlation between the bundling result and the size of logs to be bundled, and how it affects the differences observed in earnings between the different types of devices used in the work. The aim is a more equal bundling tariff in cases where the log size is not the variable. The investigation was based mainly on diaries of bunders of Enso-Gutzeit Oy.

A tariff was formulated based on the results of the investigation. A unit tariff was obtained for bundling of timber differing in size by dividing the earnings of bundling an average timber by the unit number of logs differing in size from the average and bundled in a corresponding period. The tariff was not able to produce even earnings on all bunching machines, but a tariff that takes account log size may be recommended when the aim is an equal wage payment.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4677, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Pölkyn koon vaikutus niputustulokseen ja sen huomioon ottaminen taksassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4677. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9123
English title: Effect of log size on the bundling result and how it is taken into account in bundling wage payments.

In Finland, the wage norms of forest wages have been defined by the government since 1935. However, no official tariffs have been drawn for mechanical bundling in water for floating in bundles. The aim of the investigation was to find out the correlation between the bundling result and the size of logs to be bundled, and how it affects the differences observed in earnings between the different types of devices used in the work. The aim is a more equal bundling tariff in cases where the log size is not the variable. The investigation was based mainly on diaries of bunders of Enso-Gutzeit Oy.

A tariff was formulated based on the results of the investigation. A unit tariff was obtained for bundling of timber differing in size by dividing the earnings of bundling an average timber by the unit number of logs differing in size from the average and bundled in a corresponding period. The tariff was not able to produce even earnings on all bunching machines, but a tariff that takes account log size may be recommended when the aim is an equal wage payment.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4483, category Article
Esko Hellén. (1937). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4483. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13893
English title: Statistics of wages in forest work and floating.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes statistics of wages in forest work and in floating.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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