Current issue: 54(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'pino'.

Category: Research article

article id 1618, category Research article
Miguel Genin, Mohamed Alifriqui, Abdessamad Fakhech, Mohamed Hafidi, Lahcen Ouahmane, Didier Genin. (2017). Back to forests in pre-Saharan Morocco? When prickly pear cultivation and traditional agropastoralism reduction promote argan tree regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1618
Highlights: There was a significant positive relationship between the age of implanted prickly pear orchards and natural argan tree regeneration; This relationship is mainly associated with interconnected changes in traditional land uses and the activation of facilitation factors such as an enhancement of the soil’s organic matter and nurse plant phenomena; This example constitutes a remarkable alternative model for thinking about agricultural development while combating desertification.

In the southwestern pre-Saharan arid zone of Morocco, the endemic argan forest (Argania spinosa) had been almost completely destroyed in the 1960s due to intensive coal mining and mixed cereal-livestock farming. These activities turned out to be unviable and a massive rural exodus occurred in the 1970s. Local populations started to develop maintenance-free prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivation at large scale in order to keep their land ownership rights, while reducing their traditional agropastoral activity. We conducted a survey in order to characterize the relationships between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree regeneration. We also explored facilitating factors, such as soil organic matter and mycorrhiza. Results showed a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree resprouts, but with differences depending on a continentality gradient. The soil organic matter content also showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) depending on the age of the prickly pear plantation, while spora density did not show such differences. The recent high economic value attributed to prickly pear fruits, and to both argan and prickly pear seed oil, has given farmers the opportunity to develop a lucrative agricultural activity, while promoting the recovery of native vegetation. This situation constitutes a remarkable example of speculative agricultural development in a very harsh environment, in phase with ecological priorities for combating desertification. It could represent an alternative to the externally-generated projects sustained by high levels of public funding, with ecological, economic and social impacts which are sometimes questionable.

  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: miguel.genin@gmail.com
  • Alifriqui, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: alifriqui@gmail.com
  • Fakhech, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: abdessamad.fakhech@edu.uca.ac.ma
  • Hafidi, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: hafidi.ucam@gmail.com
  • Ouahmane, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: l.ouahmane@gmail.com
  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: didier.genin@univ-amu.fr (email)

Category: Article

article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7277, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1933). Kuusipaperipuun kutistumisesta ja kutistumisen osuudesta pinon painumiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 6 article id 7277. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7277
English title: Studies on shrinkage of Norway spruce pulpwood and its effect on sinking of the stacks.
Original keywords: pino; pinomitta; puukauppa; kuitupuu

When the volume of the pulpwood was determined from the dimensions of the stack, the practice was to add an agreed percentage to the height of the stack which took account of the sinking of the stack as the wood dried. The stack was piled to the agreed added height, or the percentage was compensated when the stack was delivered to the buyer. The aim of the study was to determine a more accurate percentage to be used in the pulpwood sales.

The dimensions of a stack of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) pulpwood and the diameter of each log was measured during the drying. The 223 cm high pile sank by 0.8% to 221 cm, and the stacked cubic meter decreased from 4.46 m3 to 4.42 m3. However, the shrinkage of a solid cubic meter of the wood was 2.8%, markedly more than the sinking of the stack.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7277, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1933). Kuusipaperipuun kutistumisesta ja kutistumisen osuudesta pinon painumiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 6 article id 7277. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7277
English title: Studies on shrinkage of Norway spruce pulpwood and its effect on sinking of the stacks.
Original keywords: pino; pinomitta; puukauppa; kuitupuu

When the volume of the pulpwood was determined from the dimensions of the stack, the practice was to add an agreed percentage to the height of the stack which took account of the sinking of the stack as the wood dried. The stack was piled to the agreed added height, or the percentage was compensated when the stack was delivered to the buyer. The aim of the study was to determine a more accurate percentage to be used in the pulpwood sales.

The dimensions of a stack of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) pulpwood and the diameter of each log was measured during the drying. The 223 cm high pile sank by 0.8% to 221 cm, and the stacked cubic meter decreased from 4.46 m3 to 4.42 m3. However, the shrinkage of a solid cubic meter of the wood was 2.8%, markedly more than the sinking of the stack.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5005, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Kuorinnan vaikutus pinon tiiviyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5005. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14859
English title: The effect of barking on the pile density.

According to the available literature, the times when pulpwood limbing was made by axe and barking by hand tools, barking either had no effect on the pile density (if limbing quality was good) or increased pile density (if limbing was bad). When rotary barking machines are used, the branch stumps remain intact during barking. Therefore, if there are branch stumps in the pulpwood, barking decreases the pile density. Nowadays, when power saw limbing is a common practice in Finland, barking presumably greatly decreases the pile density, due to the fact that in power saw limbing branch stumps are numerous and high. Therefore, the method to estimate the solid volume of a pile of unbarked pulpwood are not applicable to barked pulpwood without modification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14456
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4646, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsänhoitolautakuntien ja -yhdistysten leimaustoiminnan kehityksestä. Silva Fennica no. 87 article id 4646. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9108
English title: Studies on crop marking of District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations.

Wood demand and practices in the marking of trees for cutting have affected the silvicultural state of the forests of Finland in the early 1900s. The aim of the study was to study the development of timber sales and the marking of trees for logging, with a special emphasis on variation in the volume of the sales and assortment range. The study is based on statistics of the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations about timber marked for cutting in 1931-1953.

The professionals in the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations have marked annually in average 9 million stems of heavy timber and about 7 million m3 of stacked wood for sales. The volume  follows business cycles, the changes in the volume of stacked wood being larger than of heavy timber. When demand was high, the number of professional workers limited the supply of wood. There were large differences in the volumes marked within the country. The share of small diameter stacked wood has increased since 1930s compared to heavy timber.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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