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Articles containing the keyword 'plantation'.

Category: Research article

article id 9918, category Research article
Ari Nikula, Vesa Nivala, Juho Matala, Kari Heliövaara. (2019). Modelling the effect of habitat composition and roads on the occurrence and number of moose damage at multiple scales. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 9918. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9918
Highlights: The occurrence and number of moose damage were modelled with a zero-inflated count model; An admixture of mature forests within plantations increased the number of damage; Vicinity of inhabited areas and roads reduced damage; Plantations in landscapes with a large amount of pine-dominated thinning forests had less damage in Lapland; Damage risk assessment should include characteristics specific to each region.

We modelled the effect of habitat composition and roads on the number and occurrence of moose (Alces alces L.) damage in Ostrobothnia and Lapland using a zero-inflated count model. Models were developed for 1 km2, 25 km2 and 100 km2 landscapes consisting of equilateral rectangular grid cells. Count models predict the number of damage, i.e. the number of plantations and zero models the probability of a landscape being without damage for a given habitat composition. The number of moose damage in neighboring grid cells was a significant predictor in all models. The proportion of mature forest was the most frequent significant variable, and an increasing admixture of mature forests among plantations increased the number and occurrence of damage. The amount of all types of plantations was the second most common significant variable predicting increasing damage along with increasing amount of plantations. An increase in thinning forests as an admixture also increased damage in 1 km2 landscapes in both areas, whereas an increase in pine-dominated thinning forests in Lapland reduced the number of damage in 25 km2 landscapes. An increasing amount of inhabited areas in Ostrobothnia and the length of connecting roads in Lapland reduced the number of damage in 1 and 25 km2 landscapes. Differences in model variables between areas suggest that models of moose damage risk should be adjusted according to characteristics that are specific to the study area.

  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96200 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi (email)
  • Nivala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96200 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.nivala@luke.fi
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
  • Heliövaara, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.heliovaara@helsinki.fi
article id 10034, category Research article
Yan Ao, Peter M. Hirst, Guolei Li, Yahui Miao, Runzhe Zhang. (2018). Combined effects of provenance and slow-release fertilizer on nursery and field performance of yellowhorn seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10034
Highlights: Combining slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and provenance in the nursery has large effects on most seedling characteristics in yellowhorn; Stem and root P contents in the nursery, and height at the end of the second growing season (T3) in the field were mainly affected by provenance; Higher rates of SRF tended to increase root N, stem and root P contents in the nursery, diameter, and biomass at T3; The combination of AQ provenance with 120–200 mg N seedling–1 SRF yielding better nursery and field performance was recommended.

Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge) has been widely planted for biodiesel production in China, but has frequently shown poor field performance. Container-grown yellowhorn seedlings originating from three Chinese provenances, Wengniute Qi (WQ), Alukeerqin Qi (AQ), and Shanxian (SX), were fertilized with slow-release fertilizer (SRF) at 40, 80, 120, 160 or 200 mg N seedling–1. Tree growth, survival and nutrient content were measured after one year’s growth in a greenhouse followed by two years in a field site. Plants from AQ and SX tended to have higher stem and root P contents in the nursery. Higher rates of SRF increased root N, and stem and root P contents. After one year in the nursery, there were a number of interactions between provenance and SRF for plant growth responses and nutrient content in the nursery, however after two years of additional growth in the field, plants from the different provenances generally responded similarly to applied SRF in the nursery, with few interactions. Final plant height was approximately 10% lower in trees from provenance SX but was not affected by application of SRF. Conversely, final trunk diameter and stem and root biomass were unaffected by provenance but increased with higher rates of applied SRF. Our results indicate that application of SRF may be a useful tool to nutrient load yellowhorn in the nursery and facilitate transplanting performance in the field. Overall, optimal nursery and field performance of yellowhorn were observed in provenance AQ at 120–200 mg N seedling–1 SRF. We suggest that growers consider a wider range of yellowhorn provenances and SRF rates (above 200 mg N seedling–1) to yield even better growth response.

  • Ao, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: aoyan316@163.com (email)
  • Hirst, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: hirst@purdue.edu
  • Li, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: glli226@163.com
  • Miao, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 372902610@qq.com
  • Zhang, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 793755837@qq.com
article id 1599, category Research article
Andrew McEwan, Michal Brink, Raffaele Spinelli. (2017). Factors affecting the productivity and work quality of chain flail delimbing and debarking. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1599
Highlights: Machine productivity averaged 59 m3 ub SMH–1, with a 19% incidence of delay time; Productivity increased 70% if tree volume increased from 0.1 to 0.4 m3 ub; Debarking quality was good for 58% of the trees, medium for 29% and poor for 13%; The more trees in a bunch and the higher BWBS, the lower debarking quality.

Chain flail delimbing and debarking may improve value recovery from small tree harvests, without renouncing the benefits of multi-tree processing. The technology is mature and capable of excellent performance, which has been documented in many benchmark studies. This paper offers new insights into the relationship between the performance of chain flail delimbing and debarking and such factors as tree volume, load volume, tree form and bark-wood bond strength (BWBS). The study was conducted in Chile, during the commercial harvesting of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation. In an observational study, researchers collected production data from over 780 work cycles, and work quality data from over 1000 individual trees. The analysis of these data shows that productivity is affected primarily by load volume. Work quality is affected by BWBS and by the number of trees in a load. Work quality degrades with increasing BWBS and tree number, since more trees tend to shield each other. Tree form has no effect on either productivity or work quality. Regression and probability functions are provided, and can be used for predictive purposes when trying to optimize current operations or to prospect the introduction of chain flail technology to new work environments.

  • McEwan, Postgraduate Forest Programme, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20 Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: Andrew.McEwan@nmmu.ac.za
  • Brink, Postgraduate Forest Programme, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20 Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: michal@cmo.co.za
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9545-1004 E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 1709, category Research article
Guoping Chen, Cong Shi, Shanshan Cheng, Tiejian Zhao, Guoquan Liu, Fuchen Shi. (2017). The structure and soil characteristics of a Pinus tabuliformis planted forest after 60 years of natural development in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1709
Highlights: Increasing proportions of broadleaf tree species was shown to affect nutrient content of the forest floor and soil, and the soil microbial community in the process of natural development of Pinus tabuliformis planted forest. In this regard, this study can act as a reference for management of the near-natural transformation of P. tabuliformis planted forests and for the choice of the tree species used.

This study evaluated the transformation of a Pinus tabuliformis Carrière forest into a near-natural forest after 60 years of natural development. The structure and soil characteristics of P. tabuliformis planted forest, the near-natural forest (coniferous-broadleaved P. tabuliformis mixed forest), and secondary forest (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. forest) were compared. Tree, shrub and herb species diversity of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests was higher than that of the planted P. tabuliformis forest. Examination of soil characteristics revealed that compared to the pure pine forest, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests increased in the forest floor and soil, but total carbon (C) concentration decreased in the forest floor, countered by increases in the soil. Furthermore, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH in the P. tabuliformis forest increased when deciduous broadleaved species were present. Total microbial biomass and bacterial biomass in the soils were greatest in the Q. mongolica forest, followed by the mixed, and then the P. tabuliformis forests. However, fungal biomass did not significantly differ among the three forests. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that different forest types can affect soil microbial biomass and community structure. Meanwhile, the natural development is recommended as a potential management alternative to near-natural transformation of a P. tabuliformis planted forest.

  • Chen, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: guopingchern@mail.nankai.edu.cn
  • Shi, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8689, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: cshi1@for.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
  • Cheng, School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 1401213932@sz.pku.edu.cn
  • Zhao, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaotiejiann456@sina.com
  • Liu, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: liuguoquan01@163.com
  • Shi, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fcshi@nankai.edu.cn (email)
article id 1565, category Research article
Teija Ruuhola, Ari Nikula, Nivala Vesa, Seppo Nevalainen, Juho Matala. (2016). Effects of bedrock and surficial deposit composition on moose damage in young forest stands in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1565
Highlights: The effect of bedrock and soil on moose damage in forest plantations were examined; Moose damage were concentrated in nutrient rich bedrock areas; Bedrock of damaged stands contained a higher proportion of mafic and alkaline rocks; Pine-dominated stands on fine grained fertile forest sites had the highest damage risk.

There is evidence that moose are attracted to fertile growth habitats apparently due to better quality and larger quantities of food. The nutrients in mineral soils originate from the weathering of bedrock and the composition of parental bedrock affects the fertility of produced mineral soil, thus affecting also the import of nutrients into the whole food web. We surveyed the connection between moose damage in forest plantations and the composition of bedrock and surficial deposits in Finnish Lapland. We used a database of compensated moose damage in private forests in years 1997−2010. Undamaged stands in National Forest Inventories (NFI) from years 1986–2008 served as a control data and moose-damaged NFI-stands as a reference data. Bedrock and surficial depositions and the location of studied stands in relation to ancient shorelines were explored by using the digital databases of the Geological Survey of Finland. Moose-damaged stands were concentrated in southwestern and east Lapland in the areas of the Peräpohja Schist Belt and Lapland’s Greenstone Belt that are both composed of nutrient-rich rocks. The bedrock of damaged stands contained a higher proportion of mafic and alkaline rocks than did the control stands. Moose-damaged stands were pine-dominated and grew in more fertile forest sites than did control stands. Part of pine stands probably located in soils formerly occupied by spruce, which may increase the stands’ vulnerability to biotic threats. Especially, there were relatively more moose damage in pine plantations regenerated on fine-grained mineral soils derived from nutrient rich rocks than in less fertile soils.

  • Ruuhola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: teija.ruuhola@uef.fi
  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi (email)
  • Vesa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.nivala@luke.fi
  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@luke.fi
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
article id 1124, category Research article
Āris Jansons, Mārtiņš Zeps, Juris Rieksts-Riekstiņš, Roberts Matisons, Oskars Krišāns. (2014). Height increment of hybrid aspen Populus tremuloides x P. tremula as a function of weather conditions in central part of Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 5 article id 1124. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1124
Highlights: Intra-annual height growth of hybrid aspen was monitored; Clones with early leaf flushing dates showed faster height growth; Height growth was generally controlled by temperature; Fast-growing hybrids were more robust to weather conditions than slow-growing ones; Potential evapotranspiration (moisture regime) negatively affected height growth of clones with delayed phenology.
Height growth of young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) was studied in relation to weather conditions. Height of clones with different leaf flushing phenology (early, intermediate and late) was monitored during the growing periods of 2010 and 2011 in a plantation established on former agricultural land. Mean daily height increment (HI) was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine which weather factors (variables) had significant effect on HI. Mean seasonal height growth (mean seasonal HI) between clones (groups) was compared by ANOVA. In both years, HI was significantly higher for clones with early and intermediate leaf flushing compared to clones with late leaf flushing. The effect of weather factors also differed between clones according to their leaf flushing phenology; it was the weakest for HI of clones with early leaf flushing compared to clones with intermediate and late leaf flushing. Mean temperature was the main factor, which positively affected HI of all clones, suggesting that warmer climate might be beneficial for height growth of young hybrid aspen in Latvia. Nevertheless, significant negative relationship between HI and potential evapotranspiration (PET) was observed for clones with delayed leaf flushing, suggesting negative effect of increasing variability of precipitation on growth. Thus, the differences in height growth intensity might be related to growth sensitivity to weather conditions. On the other hand, such differences in height growth between clones might be caused by competition (i.e. with herbs), as trees with early leaf flushing might conquer more resources and become more robust against the environmental fluctuation.
  • Jansons, LSFRI „SILAVA”, Rigas Str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Zeps, LSFRI „SILAVA”, Rigas Str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: martins.zeps@silava.lv
  • Rieksts-Riekstiņš, LSFRI „SILAVA”, Rigas Str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: Juris.Riekstins@silava.lv
  • Matisons, LSFRI „SILAVA”, Rigas Str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Krišāns, LSFRI „SILAVA”, Rigas Str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: oskars.krisans@silava.lv
article id 1188, category Research article
Kristina Wallertz, Henrik Nordenhem, Göran Nordlander. (2014). Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1188
Highlights: Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil; Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species; The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production.
There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of pine weevil feeding on two dominant native conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the non-host deciduous broadleaf hybrid aspen (Populus × wettsteinii Hämet-Ahti) and four introduced conifers: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriére) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). The extent of feeding damage on seedlings and its effect on their vitality were examined in a field study in south-central Sweden and a laboratory experiment, which gave largely consistent results. Generally, the species most heavily attacked by the pine weevil, in both experiments, were Douglas fir and Sitka spruce. In the field experiment pine weevils killed or severely damaged significantly higher proportions of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce seedlings (60%) than any other species except Norway spruce (49%). Among conifer seedlings the proportions of killed or severely damaged seedlings were lowest for Scots pine and hybrid larch (27%) and Lodgepole pine (36%). The results indicate that most conifer species planted on young clear-cuttings in Sweden need some kind of pine weevil protection, and the possibility that introducing new tree species might increase damage caused by pests must be considered. For instance, widespread use of hybrid aspen could reduce damage by pine weevils, but increase damage by other, untested pests or pathogens.
  • Wallertz, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Asa Research Station, SE-36030 Lammhult, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.wallertz@slu.se (email)
  • Nordenhem, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.nordenhem@slu.se
  • Nordlander, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.nordlander@slu.se
article id 1119, category Research article
Beata Woziwoda, Agnieszka Parzych, Dominik Kopeć. (2014). Species diversity, biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration in the understorey of post-agricultural Scots pine forests. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1119
Highlights: Understorey plant species diversity significantly increases with the age of a Scots pine stand; Biomass of mosses decreases by a quarter, while biomass of herbs increases several times; Total understorey’s carbon stock increases over three times. The highest amount of carbon is accumulated in understorey species like Vaccinium myrtillus and Dicranum polysetum; The growing proportion of vascular plants in the understorey biomass results in an increase in the understorey C/N ratio.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the age of a stand of post-agricultural Scots pine forests affects the species composition, biomass and the carbon stock of the forest understorey. The community structure and species composition were studied in 75 plots (100 m2 in size), the amount of biomass, organic carbon and total nitrogen were analysed in 75 subplots (1/16 m2 in size). The plots were located in 21 plantations with the stand age of 41–60, 61–80 and over 80-years. Results show that the understorey species diversity increased with the increasing age of Scots pine stands, and the structure and species composition of secondary forests (although managed for timber production) became similar to the fresh pine forest of the European temperate region (Leucobryo-Pinetum community). Despite the increasing species diversity, however, only six understorey vascular and moss species played an important role in the biomass accumulation and C sequestration. Due to the differences in the dominant species composition, the total amount of understorey biomass significantly differed among the forest stands. The mean moss biomass ranged from 3046 kg ha–1 in 41–60-year-old stands, trough 2686 kg ha–1 in 61–80-year-old stands to 2273 kg ha–1 in over 80-year-old stands, and the mean understorey vascular plant biomass amounted to 2 kg ha–1, 1924 kg ha–1 and 3508 kg ha–1, respectively. The concentration of organic C varied considerably between species; it was the highest in Vaccinium myrtillus (50.6%) and in Dicranum polysetum (49.5%). The total mass of C was nearly 800 kg ha–1 in the youngest forests, in the subsequent age series it was two times higher and 3.5 times higher in the oldest ones. Differences in the species composition and in the C/N ratio in different species (generally higher for vascular plants and lower for mosses) were expressed in an increase in the understorey C/N ratio, which was 39.5, 46.6 and 48.6, respectively.
  • Woziwoda, Department of Geobotany and Plant Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: woziwoda@biol.uni.lodz.pl (email)
  • Parzych, Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, Institute of Biology and Environmental Protection, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Arciszewskiego 22b, 76-200 Słupsk, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: parzycha1@op.pl
  • Kopeć, Department of Geobotany and Plant Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: domin@biol.uni.lodz.pl
article id 893, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Timo Saksa, Jaana Luoranen. (2013). Soil preparation method affects outplanting success of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soils susceptible to frost heave. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 893. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.893
Soil preparation is a common practice that precedes outplanting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Finland as it enhances the survival and early growth of seedlings. Mounding in particular has become more common with Norway spruce planting in recent years. However, on fine-grained soils, the postplanting performance of seedlings has been poorer than on coarser soils even with mounding. This study examined the effects of different soil preparation treatments (spot and ditch mounding with varying mound height, inverting, unprepared control with or without a herbicide) on the postplanting performance of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soil susceptible to frost heave in two outplanting forest sites in central Finland. The results indicate higher soil temperature and lower soil water content especially in the highest mounds. Mounds, however, subsided gradually during the study years. Seedling mortality was higher and the proportion of vigorous seedlings was lower in the unprepared treatments, mainly due to increased pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage. Frost heave was present mainly on ditch mounded and inverted spots. Glyphosate herbicide treatment showed no benefit compared to the untreated control in two years. Consequently, seedling damage and conditions in the planting spots were reflected in seedling growth which was enhanced in the mounded spots. However, varying mound height or thickness of mineral capping showed no clear difference in seedling growth. The results therefore suggest that ditch or spot mounding should be used on frost heave susceptible forest soils to promote plantation establishment. Inverting or having no soil preparation with or without herbicide is not recommended.
  • Heiskanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.heiskanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi
article id 128, category Research article
Shelley L. Hunt, Andrew M. Gordon, Dave M. Morris. (2010). Carbon stocks in managed conifer forests in northern Ontario, Canada. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.128
Carbon pools and net primary productivity (aboveground) were measured in managed stands of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.), ranging in age from 10 to 53 years, in the Lake Nipigon area of northern Ontario. Organic carbon in the forest floor and surface mineral soil (top 15 cm) ranged from 13 to 46 Mg C ha-1 and 10 to 29 Mg C ha-1, respectively. Carbon in aboveground tree biomass ranged from 11 to 74 Mg C ha-1 in crop trees, and 0 to 11 Mg C ha-1 in non-crop trees. Coarse woody debris (downed woody debris and snags) contained between 1 and 17 Mg C ha-1. Understory vegetation rarely represented more than 1% of total ecosystem carbon accumulation, but was responsible for a larger proportion of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Rates of ANPP (expressed as carbon) ranged from 0.8 to 3.5 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Carbon stocks in managed stands were compared with published values from similarly aged fire-origin stands in the North American boreal region. Carbon stocks in our study stands generally exceeded those in unmanaged fire-origin stands of the same age, due to larger tree and forest floor carbon pools.
  • Hunt, University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 ORCID ID:E-mail: shunt@uoguelph.ca (email)
  • Gordon, University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Morris, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, 955 Oliver Rd., Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 171, category Research article
Takuo Nagaike. (2009). Snag abundance and species composition in a managed forest landscape in central Japan composed of Larix kaempferi plantations and secondary broadleaf forests. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 171. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.171
Larix kaempferi is the main plantation species in the low-snow, cool-temperate zone of Japan. I studied L. kaempferi plantations of various stand ages in central Japan to examine and compare the effect of stand age on the abundance, size, and species composition of snags (standing dead trees) compared to those in secondary broadleaf forests. Plantations that were older than the standard rotation age had more and larger snags than young plantations, and the species diversity of snags was positively correlated with stand age. Because the density of living planted L. kaempferi showed little correlation with snag variables, whereas that of naturally regenerated tree species was positively correlated with snag variables, the density dependence of snag occurrence was stronger in naturally regenerated trees than in planted L. kaempferi. Snag species that were positively correlated with stand age were the main species in secondary broadleaf forests in this area. Basal area, density, and number of species of snags in standard-rotation plantations were significantly lower than in long-rotation plantations and secondary broadleaf forests. Long-rotation plantations are useful for retaining snags compared to standard-rotation plantations.
  • Nagaike, Yamanashi Forest Research Institute, Masuho, Yamanashi 400-0502, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: nagaike-zty@pref.yamanashi.lg.jp (email)
article id 171, category Research article
Takuo Nagaike. (2009). Snag abundance and species composition in a managed forest landscape in central Japan composed of Larix kaempferi plantations and secondary broadleaf forests. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 171. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.171
Larix kaempferi is the main plantation species in the low-snow, cool-temperate zone of Japan. I studied L. kaempferi plantations of various stand ages in central Japan to examine and compare the effect of stand age on the abundance, size, and species composition of snags (standing dead trees) compared to those in secondary broadleaf forests. Plantations that were older than the standard rotation age had more and larger snags than young plantations, and the species diversity of snags was positively correlated with stand age. Because the density of living planted L. kaempferi showed little correlation with snag variables, whereas that of naturally regenerated tree species was positively correlated with snag variables, the density dependence of snag occurrence was stronger in naturally regenerated trees than in planted L. kaempferi. Snag species that were positively correlated with stand age were the main species in secondary broadleaf forests in this area. Basal area, density, and number of species of snags in standard-rotation plantations were significantly lower than in long-rotation plantations and secondary broadleaf forests. Long-rotation plantations are useful for retaining snags compared to standard-rotation plantations.
  • Nagaike, Yamanashi Forest Research Institute, Masuho, Yamanashi 400-0502, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: nagaike-zty@pref.yamanashi.lg.jp (email)
article id 190, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Veikko Möttönen. (2009). Effect of felling season, storage and drying on colour of silver birch (Betula pendula) wood from four different growing sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.190
Darkening of birch wood during artificial drying is a significant problem regarding the use of its timber as raw material by the mechanical wood industry. In the future, an increasing proportion of birch timber will be obtained from plantation forests, which differ from natural forests in many respects. In this investigation sample boards of Betula pendula, both from naturally regenerated stands and plantations, were sawn into the dimensions used as raw material for parquet billets. Growing site, felling season, and storage of logs were taken into account as possible factors affecting wood colour changes during drying. The wood of birches from fertile plantations remained lighter-coloured during conventional drying than the wood of naturally regenerated birches from low- and medium-fertile stands. The reason may be the difference in tree age and growth rate between natural and planted stands. Thus, it could be beneficial to grow birch in fertile stands so that the trees reach log size as young as possible. The results of this study emphasise the good quality of the birch wood from planted stands compared to natural stands with regard to its colour.
  • Luostarinen, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Möttönen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 210, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Markku Lahti, Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2009). Nutrient loading has a transitory effect on the nitrogen status and growth of outplanted Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 210. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.210
In recent years increased fertilization provided to tree seedlings in the nursery in the previous autumn has been introduced in order to promote good outplanting performance. In this paper this nutrient loading has been studied in order to determine how the increased seedling nutrient status with unaffected seedling size affects both the growth and the nutrient concentration, content and uptake of two-year-old Norway spruce container seedlings (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) after outplanting. Seedling development was monitored for three years at two contrasting soil fertility levels on a sandy test field in two planting years and on one natural forest outplanting site in central Finland. Nutrient loading was shown to increase shoot and root growth in a poor fertility soil during the first growing season after planting, while, after the first growing season, nutrient loading was not found to affect seedling performance. However, although nutrient loading cannot compensate for the availability of nutrients to the seedlings from the soil, it may provide an additional input for fast plantation establishment on poorer sites during the first crucial growing season after outplanting.
  • Heiskanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.heiskanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luoranen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 350, category Research article
Ehsan Sayyad, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Jamshid Mokhtari, Reza Mahdavi, Seyed Gholamali Jalali, Moslem Akbarinia, Masoud Tabari. (2006). Comparison of growth, nutrition and soil properties of pure and mixed stands of Populus deltoides and Alnus subcordata. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 350. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.350
Concerns about decline in soil fertility and long-term productivity of fast-growing plantations have promoted interest in using nitrogen-fixing trees in mixed species plantations. Populus deltoides and Alnus subcordata were planted in five proportions (100P, 67P:33A, 50P:50A, 33P:67A, 100A) in Noor, Iran. After 7 years, the effects of species interactions on tree growth and nutrient concentration in live and senescent leaves and soil properties were assessed. Diameter at breast height and total height of individual Populus trees were positively affected by the presence of Alnus. Nitrogen concentrations in fully expanded and senescent leaves of Populus were higher in mixed plantations than monoculture plantations. The results of nutrition and nutrient return and growth indicated that mixed plantations of these two species were more productive and sustainable than their monoculture plantations. Within the framework of this experiment, it appeared that production was maximized when these two species were grown together in the relative proportions of 50% Populus and 50% Alnus.
  • Sayyad, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hosseini, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: hosseini@europe.com (email)
  • Mokhtari, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mahdavi, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalali, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Akbarinia, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tabari, Tarbiat Modarres University, Natural Resources Faculty, Emam St. Noor, 46414 Noor, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 392, category Research article
Veikko Huhta, Mika Räty. (2005). Soil animal communities of planted birch stands in central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 392. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.392
The aim of this study was to compare soil animal communities in planted birch (Betula pendula) stands of different origin with each other and with natural forests. Six 30-year-old birch stands were investigated, three planted after clear-cutting of spruce stands, and three planted on cultivated soil. The faunal communities were markedly different in plantations established on spruce forest soil and on arable soil. “Birch after Spruce” communities were relatively similar to those of coniferous forests, though the population densities were generally lower. “Birch after Field” communities were sparse and could be characterised as “impoverished forest communities”, except in Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae that have affinities with deciduous forests and cultural landscapes. Soil conditions are not sufficient to explain the differences between the forests. Colonisation and transport by man may determine the presence of certain species, especially earthworms. These in turn affect soil properties, and compete with or otherwise have negative effects on other soil fauna. Thus the community differences between different forests are an outcome of several factors: soil characteristics, site history, colonisation ability and interspecific interactions.
  • Huhta, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä University, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: v.huhta@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Räty, Ojalanlenkki 4, FI-80140 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 412, category Research article
Xingliang Liu, Haiyun Xu, Frank Berninger, Olavi Luukkanen, Chunyang Li. (2004). Nutrient distribution in Picea likiangensis trees growing in a plantation in West Sichuan, Southwest China. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 412. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.412
We measured nutrient distribution of Picea likiangensis (Franchet) E. Pritzel var. balfouriana trees growing in a plantation by field investigations, sample tree and plot harvest in West Sichuan, Southwest China. Based on the results in this study, the total biomass of plant compartments in plantation ecosystem was 114 829.1 kg ha–1. Tree, shrub, herb, bryophyte and litter layers accounted for 93.9%, 0.9%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 5.2%, respectively. The total biomass of tree layers was 107 817.1 kg ha–1. Needles, branches, stem wood, stem bark and roots accounted for 13.2%, 19.7%, 42.3%, 10.0% and 14.8%, respectively. The concentration of the nutrients was generally highest in the actively growing parts of the trees (e.g. needles) and lowest in the structural and not actively growing parts (e.g. stem wood). On the other hand, the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg were generally higher in the current year needles and branches than in the older needles and branches. These nutrient concentrations were also higher in the upper stem wood and bark than in the lower stem wood and bark, and in small roots than in large roots, whereas the opposite patterns were observed for the concentration of Ca in these compartments. The results will be helpful in understanding the nutrient behavior in a highly productive forest plantation and thereby providing decisive information for their sustainable management.
  • Liu, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Xu, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Berninger, Département des sciences biologiques, Cp 8888 succ centre ville, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn (email)
article id 579, category Research article
Matti Maltamo, Kalle Eerikäinen. (2001). The Most Similar Neighbour reference in the yield prediction of Pinus kesiya stands in Zambia. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.579
The aim of the study was to develop a yield prediction model using the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) reference method. The model is constructed on stand level but it contains information also on tree level. A 10-year projection period was used for the analysis of stand growth. First, the canonical correlation matrix was calculated for the whole study material using stand volumes at the beginning and at the end of the growth period as independent variables and stand characteristics as dependent variable. Secondly, similar neighbour estimates were searched from the data categories reclassified according to thinnings. Due to this, it was possible to search for growth and yield series which is as accurate as possible both at the beginning and at the end of the growth period. The reliability of the MSN volume predictions was compared to the volumes predicted with the simultaneous yield model. The MSN approach was observed to be more reliable volume predictor than the traditional stand level yield prediction model both in thinned and unthinned stands.
  • Maltamo, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.maltamo@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Eerikäinen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 584, category Research article
Ralph Alig, Darius Adams, John Mills, Richard Haynes, Peter Ince, Robert Moulton. (2001). Alternative projections of the impacts of private investment on southern forests: a comparison of two large-scale forest sector models of the United States. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.584
The TAMM/NAPAP/ATLAS/AREACHANGE (TNAA) system and the Forest and Agriculture Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) are two large-scale forestry sector modeling systems that have been employed to analyze the U.S. forest resource situation. The TNAA system of static, spatial equilibrium models has been applied to make 50-year projections of the U.S. forest sector for more than 20 years. Much of its input on forest management behavior and decisions about use of forestland derives from expert-based systems external to the TNAA system. FASOM, a spatial intertemporal optimization model, directly incorporates decisions on management investment and land use options relative to agricultural alternatives as endogenous model elements. The paper contrasts projections of private forest investment from the TNAA and FASOM models, focusing on the southern United States. Comparison of the TNAA base case and an investment-restricted scenario from FASOM, both of which reflect a continuation of recent behavioral tendencies by nonindustrial private owners, suggests that Southern private timberlands have considerable biological and economic potential for intensified forest management. Unrestricted FASOM projections confirm that added investment could lead to substantially larger timber harvest volumes and lower prices than those projected in the base/restricted cases. But even under the more intensive investment scenarios, naturally regenerated forests would cover three-quarters of the future private timberland base and hardwoods would continue to dominate the inventory structure.
  • Alig, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: ralig@fs.fed.us (email)
  • Adams, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mills, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 1221 SW Yamhill, Portland, Oregon 97205, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haynes, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 1221 SW Yamhill, Portland, Oregon 97205, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ince, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Lab, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Moulton, USDA Forest Service (retired), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 664, category Research article
Anssi Niskanen. (1999). The financial and economic profitability of field afforestation in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.664
The aim of the study was to assess the rate of return on invested capital and soil expectation value in field afforestation from the financial (business economic) and economic (national economic) point of views in Finland using 1996 cost and price data. Risks for renewal planting and negative growth impacts of reduction in plantation density were explicitly included in the profitability assessments. Results indicated that due to the subsidies and favorable regulations for obtaining them in 1996, field afforestation was financially profitable for farmers regardless of what species was used for planting. From the national economic point of view, investments in field afforestation provided only substantial return on invested capital, being highest after risk adjustments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations.
  • Niskanen, European Forest Institute, Torikatu 34, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.niskanen@efi.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 897, category Research note
Lars Lundqvist, Susanne Spreer, Christer Karlsson. (2013). Volume production in different silvicultural systems for 85 years in a mixed Picea abies–Pinus sylvestris forest in central Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 897. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.897
A long-term comparison of different silvicultural systems was established in 1923 in central Sweden, in an uneven-aged mixed Norway spruce–Scots pine forest (Picea abies (L.) Karst. – Pinus sylvestris L.) with about 85% spruce and 15% pine. The five treatments consisted of two examples of even-aged management 1) clear-cutting followed by planting, and 2) seed tree regeneration, one uneven-aged management 3) selection system, one exploiting treatment 4) diameter limit cut, and 5) one untreated control plot. Each treatment plot was 1 ha, 100 m × 100 m. The plots were measured and managed at irregular intervals, ranging from 7 to 15 years. In 2007–2008 the even-aged treatments and the diameter limit cut were repeated and a new rotation started. Mean annual volume increment during the whole observation period differed widely between the treatments, partly because of differences in species composition over time, with treatment clear-cutting followed by planting at the top, and the control at the bottom. Treatment selection system gave only about 60% of planting, but this was probably largely an effect of too small growing stock during the first roughly 50 years. When the growing stock was increased, periodic annual volume increment increased to about 80% of the mean annual volume increment in the even-aged, planted plot.
  • Lundqvist, Deparment of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.lundqvist@slu.se (email)
  • Spreer, Sveaskog Förvaltnings AB, Ljusdal, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: susanne.spreer@sveaskog.se
  • Karlsson, Field Research Unit, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Siljansfors, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: christer.karlsson@slu.se

Category: Article

article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9239

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rantala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5511, category Article
Veli Pohjonen, Timo Pukkala. (1993). Cupressus lusitanican tuotos Etiopiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15672
English title: Yield of Cupressus lusitanica in Ethiopia.

Yield of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. was modelled by predicting the diameter distribution of trees at given stand ages. The beta distribution was used as a theoretical distribution. The models used for the calculation of diameter distribution were based on 66 temporal sample plots with varying age, site and stand density. The growing sites of Cupressus lusitanica were divided into four classes on the basis of age and dominant height. Using the stand models developed in the study, the yield and profitability of different thinning schedules was evaluated by a simulation technique. In the simulated treatment regimes, the mean annual increment varied from 6.6 m3/ha in the poorest site class to 16.6 m3/ha in the best class with rotation lengths ranging from 25 years (best sites) to 34 years (poorest sites). With typical planting densities (1,600 trees/ha), thinnings increase the total harvest by a few percentage points and improved the profitability of plantation forestry.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5434, category Article
Risto Heikkilä. (1990). Effect of plantation characteristics on moose browsing on Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 4 article id 5434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15588

The effects of plantation characteristics on moose (Alces alces) browsing intensity was studied in 82 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations in Southern Finland. Moose browsing occurred most commonly in plantations established on relatively fertile soil, and the degree of damage was at highest in plantations with openings. A high amount of brush, especially aspen, increased the risk of damage. Furthermore, damage was intensified in plantations situated on hills, slopes or at a long distance from main roads or settlements.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5424, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Veli Pohjonen. (1990). Use of linear programming in land use planning in the Ethiopian highlands. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5424. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15578

Linear programming was used to analyse the land use alternatives in the Debre Birhan Fuelwood Plantation area, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The region represents a rural, high-altitude area, where the main land uses are grazing and cultivation of barley, wheat and pulses. To alleviate fuelwood shortage, large plantations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been established. Livestock has traditionally used the major part of the production capacity of the sites. A decrease in the number of cattle would facilitate a considerable increase in the production of cereals, pulses, fuelwood and construction timber. The optimal share of the land for arable crops, grazing and tree plantations would be about 40, 45 and 15% respectively.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5420, category Article
Toyohiro Miyazava, Jukka Laine. (1990). Effect of macroclimate on the development of Scots pine seedling stands on drained oligotrophic pine mires. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5420. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15574

The influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands growing under various climatic regimes were determined. Comparisons were made between naturally regenerated and planted seedling stands. The effective temperature sum had a stronger effect on the height growth of planted seedlings, and in Northern Finland the planted seedlings seemed to be influenced to a greater degree by the adverse climatic conditions. The heavier the dose of fertilizer that had been applied, the greater the difference in growth caused by macroclimate. A considerably larger proportion of natural seedlings were located on hummocks compared with that of planted seedlings, irrespective of the region. On plots with wider ditch spacings, seedlings growing on hummocks were superior in height growth to those on flat surfaces.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Miyazava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5419, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Owen Mubita, Jussi Saramäki. (1990). Management planning system for tree plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5419. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15573

The paper presents a simple model of long-term forest management planning in tree plantations. The model is particularly suitable for developing countries where the research resources are limited. The management plan is prepared in two steps. First, one or several treatment schedules are simulated for each calculation unit (age class, compartment, etc.) over the selected planning period. Second, an optimal combination treatment schedules according to the selected objectives and constraints is searched by mathematical programming. The simulation of growth is based on the prediction of the diameter distribution at the desired time point. All stand characteristics are derived from this distribution. The models needed in the yield simulation can be estimated from temporary sample plots. A case study management plan for 13,000 ha of Pinus kesiya (Royle ex Gordon) plantations in Zambia is presented to demonstrate the system.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mubita, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7503, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Olavi Luukkanen, Olli Saastamoinen, Suree Bhumibhamon. (1993). Evaluation of the profitability of fast-growing tropical trees. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 241 article id 7503. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7503

The profitability of fast-growing trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Acacia mangium Willd. and Melia azedarach L.) was investigated in the north-eastern and eastern provinces of Thailand. The financial, economic, and tentative environmental-economic profitability was determined separately for three fast-growing plantation tree species and for three categories of plantation managers: the private industry, the state (the Royal Forest Department) and the farmers. Fast-growing tree crops were also compared with teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), a traditional medium or long rotation species, and Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg.) which presently is the most common cultivated tree in Thailand.

The optimal rotation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis pulpwood production was eight years. This was the most profitable species in pulpwood production. In sawlog production Acacia mangium and Melia azedarach showed a better financial profitability. Para rubber was more profitable and teak less profitable than the three fast-growing species. The economic profitability was higher than the financial one, and the tentative environmental-economic profitability was slightly higher than the economic profitability.

The profitability of tree growing is sensitive to plantation yields and labour cost changes and especially to wood prices. Management options which aim at pulpwood production are more sensitive to input or output changes than those options which include sawlog production. There is an urgent need to improve the growth and yield data and to study the environmental impacts of tree plantations for all species and plantation types.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Niskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bhumibhamon, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7670, category Article
Risto Heikkilä. (1991). Moose browsing in a Scots pine plantation mixed with deciduous tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 224 article id 7670. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7670

The utilization of available food resources by the moose (Alces alces L.) was studied in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation containing an admixture of deciduous species. Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) were highly utilized compared to pine and both silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.). However, they were not capable of withstanding continuous browsing by moose owing to their diminished biomass. In total, the browsing intensity (number of browsed twigs/tree) on pine and birch was about double of that on rowan and aspen.

The number of browsed twigs per tree increased as the amount of available main branches increased. The number of bites per available branch, as well as the maximum diameter of the bites, decreased as the density of the plantation increased. Silver birch was more used by moose than pubescent birch as well as planted silver birch compared with naturally regenerated trees.

Main stem breakage was especially common in winter 1988, the average height of the pine and birch trees being over two meters. The tops of broken stems were commonly utilized as food. The increase in moose density and the relatively deep snow cover evidently promoted the incidence of serious damage. The number of undamaged trees/ha was greater in dense than in sparse parts of the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7659, category Article
Ari Lääperi. (1990). Hoidettujen talvilaitumien vaikutus hirvituhoihin mäntytaimikoissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 212 article id 7659. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7659
English title: Effect of winter feeding on moose damage to young Scots pine stands.

The establishment of moose (Alces alces L.) winter feeding sites, their utilization and their effect on damage to young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations was studied in Ruokolahti-Imatra area in Eastern Finland in 1987–89. During the period, the density in the area was about 3–5 moose/ 1,000 ha.

Six feeding sites were established by fertilization, offering mineral lics and the tops of aspen and Scot pine and by salting the tops of pine. The moose preferred the feeding site to control areas during both summer and winter. In winter browsing was very heavy, especially in those areas located in or close to traditional wintering areas. In winter no moose were seen in the summer habitats.

The extent of, and fluctuations in moose damage were studied in 47 Scots pine plantations in the immediate surroundings of the feeding sites (29 plantations), control areas (18 plantations) and also 68 randomly selected pine plantations. Before the experiment began in 1987 four plantations had been seriously damaged. During the study period only one plantation was seriously damaged. However, it could not be conclusively proved that damage to the pine plantations had been reduced as a result of the feeding sites. The results of the study can be put into practice elsewhere to create better living conditions for moose in their winter habitats. However, the food offered at the feeding site should be in the right proportion to the number of animals wintering in the area, so that the risk of damage to nearby plantations would be kept as small as possible.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lääperi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4450, category Article
Seth Nordberg. (1928). Vertaileva katsaus pajun viljelykseen ja sen edellytyksiin ulkomailla ja Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 9 article id 4450. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8398
English title: Review on willow plantations and their requirements in foreign countries and in Finland.
Original keywords: paju; Salix; viljely; viljelymenetelmät
English keywords: willow; willow plantations

There is demand for cultivated willow in toy and barrel making, and handcrafts in Finland. In Europe, Salix sp. have been cultivated on several kinds of sites. In Finland, suitable sites for willow plantations could be found, for instance, by the rivers and brooks, on other alluvial lands, wet meadows and other humid lands unsuitable for agriculture. The article suggests that the cultivation of willow should begin on the agricultural lands, because the choice of origin of the willow cuttings is less important when it is grown on fields, and the areas are more accessible. The desired qualities for cultivated willow are good growth rate and robust stems, frost resistance and resistance to annual cuttings. Of the different species, especially suitable is Salix sect. Amygdalinae. In field tests, all the tested Salix species have been frost resistant, which makes it possible to cut the stems annually.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nordberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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