Current issue: 54(2)
Vaccinium myrtillus L., Vaccinium uliginosum L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. are perennial, cold-adapted clonal shrubs distributed throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America. Due to their usage in food (berries) and pharmaceutical industry (berries and leaves), their natural populations are exposed to anthropogenic and other impacts that affect their genetic make-up. We analyzed 14 fragmentary distributed and small-sized peripheral populations of these species from the Balkans, which represents the southeastern-European marginal area of their wide European distributions, using RAPD molecular markers. The contemporary genetic patterns in all three species within the Balkans were generally similar, and in comparison to previous reports on populations of these species found in northward Europe, where they have a more continuous distribution, the levels of genetic diversity were more or less halved, genetic differentiation was several times higher, gene flow exceptionally low, and the expected prevalence of clonal individuals was lacking. The population dynamics of all three species within the Balkans was complex and distinct, and was characterized by a past admixture of individuals from discrete populations of the same species and interspecific hybridisation not only between V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea but also between V. uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea, the latter not being reported to date. Conservation measures suitable for preservation of presumably genetically distinct portions of the Balkans’ gene pools of studied species have been suggested, while the utility of interspecific hybrids in breeding programs and/ or in food/pharmaceutical industry is yet to be assessed.
Studies by G. König are the main source for the profitability theories of forestry. He was one of the first economists developing the forestry practices more towards profitability aspects. His doctrine presented the first steps of current forest related trend of ideas and hence so significant in the later development of the discipline.
The article presents the life of G. König and two of his most important works: “Anleitung” (introduction) from the year 1813 and “Forstmathematik” (Mathematics of forest) from years 1835 and 1854
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The investigations that have studied peat layers in peatlands have shown that the peatlands in several countries have layers containing tree stumps of different tree species. The stump layers have been explained by local hydrological changes that have caused paludification, or changes in climate.
Peat layers were studied in drained peatlands in Finland, and ditches were used to study the peat profiles. A peatland in Multia in Central Finland was studied in more detail. Tree stump layer patterns that would support the climate change explanation was not found in the Finnish peatlands. The peat changes usually gradually more oligotrophic towards the surface. The stump layers seemed to be caused by local drier periods. According to the layers of Sphagnum-peat near the bottom of the peatlands and the pollen studies indicate that the peatlands have been formed at different times. In South-West Finland, the peat profiles had more apparent layer patterns than in Central Finland, but these were not considered to be caused by changes in climate.
The PDF includes a summary in German.