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Articles containing the keyword 'progeny'.

Category: Research article

article id 539, category Research article
Martti Venäläinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen. (2002). Procedure for managing large-scale progeny test data: a case study of Scots pine in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 539. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.539
Large progeny test networks are typical for conventional forest tree breeding programmes. The individual progeny tests differ with respect to age, composition and ability to screen the breeding values of the parent trees. Several approaches have been introduced to manage the unbalanced and diverse nature of the data generated by progeny tests. This report presents a procedure for ranking breeding material on the basis of ‘messy’ data. Plot means were used as input values and missing plots were estimated from least squares. The differences between test means and variances were standardised by the performance level method. The different precision of the tests was quantified through the reliability coefficient. In order to facilitate the selection of plus trees for different purposes, all the available test results were combined into a single variable that was used for ranking. Three different kinds of ranking variable were calculated and each of them proved to be more useful for the selection of plus trees than an arithmetic or weighted mean. One of them, WMEAN, relied on the reliability and number of the progeny tests, while the others, WCONF0.50 and WCONF0.10, relied on the standard error of the plus tree mean, thus emphasising the precision of the values obtained. The analyses were carried out with SAS® procedures, which require only moderate skills in statistics, programming and data processing technology. The procedure has functioned well throughout an eight-year development phase. Nearly three thousand Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plus trees have been ranked for various characters, and the results have been used for roguing the seed orchards, to establish new ones, and to select plus trees for breeding populations.
  • Venäläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: martti.venalainen@metla.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 659, category Research note
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Pirkko Velling. (1999). Growth and stem quality of mature birches in a combined species and progeny trial. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.659
The growth and stem quality of silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (B. pubescens) and paper birch (B. papyrifera) were compared in a 32-year-old field trial in southern Finland. The material consisted of different unselected stand origins and progenies of phenotypically selected plus trees of silver and downy birch from southern Finland and differing stand origins of paper birch from the North-West Territories, Canada. Growth, yield and a number of stem quality traits, including taper, sweep, stem defects, heights of different crown limits and length of the veneer timber part of the stem were measured or observed. The native Finnish silver and downy birches were superior to paper birch in terms of both yield and stem quality, silver birch being the best. Progenies of silver birch plus trees were better than the stand origin, indicating that the former are able to reach high quality veneer log size in a shorter time than unselected material. The cultivation of paper birch can not be considered viable in Finland.
  • Viherä-Aarnio, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@metla.fi (email)
  • Velling, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5605, category Article
Matti Haapanen, Marja-Leena Annala, Pirkko Velling. (1997). Progeny trial estimates of genetic parameters for growth and quality traits in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8506

Estimates of individual heritability and genetic correlation are presented for a set of 10 growth and quality traits based on data from 16 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trials in Finland. Seven of the traits (tree height, stem diameter, crown width, Pilodyn value, branch diameter, branch angle and branch number) were objectively measured, whereas three traits (stem straightness, branching score and overall score) were assessed visually. The genetic correlations were mostly moderate or low, and favourable from the tree breeder's point of view. All variables related to tree size correlated relatively strongly and positively. Tree height exhibited a more favourable genetic relationship with the crown form traits than diameter, the latter showing positive correlation with branch diameter. Except for the slight negative correlation between branch angle and branch diameter, the branching traits were not notably correlated. The pilodyn value was positively correlated with stem diameter, reflecting negative correlation between diameter growth and wood density. The highest genetic correlations occurred among the two visually evaluated quality scores and branch diameter. All of the heritabilities were less than 0.4. Overall score, Pilodyn, branch angle, branching score and tree height showed the highest heritability.

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Annala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5543, category Article
Matti Haapanen. (1995). Within-plot subsampling of trees for assessment in progeny trials of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5543. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9194

Tree height data from 33 progeny trials of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were used to determine the effect of within-plot subsampling on the magnitude of statistically detectable differences between families, family heritability and correlation of family means based on different sample sizes. The results indicated that in trials established with a standard plot configuration of 25 trees per plot, measuring only 10–15 trees gives nearly the same precision as with assessment of all the plot trees. Even as few as 4–6 trees assessed per plot may constitute a sufficient sample if families or parental trees of extreme performance are being selected. Trials established with non-contiguous plots were found to be more efficient than those established using multiple-tree contiguous plots.

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5488, category Article
Matti Haapanen. (1992). Effect of plot size and shape on the efficiency of progeny tests. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5488. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15649

A simulation approach was applied to study the pattern of environmental variability and the relative statistical efficiency of 14 different plot types. The study material consisted of two nine-year-old field tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The area of the test sites was 1.57 and 0.67 hectares. The efficiency was measured as the error variance attached to the estimate of family mean and the total size of a test needed to detect a given, least significant difference between two family means. The statistical efficiency tended to decline along with increasing plot size. The importance of plot shape was negligible compared to plot size. The highest efficiency was obtained with single-tree plots. Non-contiguous plots appeared to be considerably more efficient than block plots of equal size. The effects of intergenotypic competition on the choice of plot type are discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5457, category Article
Hans Roulund, Tore Skrøppa. (1991). Summary of main topics and conclusions from the meeting. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5457. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15615

This paper summarises the main topics and conclusions from the joint meeting of two IUFRO working parties, S2.04-02, Breeding theory and progeny testing, and S2.02-16, Seed orchards, held in Tuusula, Finland on September 10–15, 1991. It concludes the main topics that need more research in these disciplines and future trends in the research.

  • Roulund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Skrøppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5456, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1991). Biological systems in tree breeding. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5456. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15614

This issue of Silva Fennica includes the presentations given in a joint meeting of two IUFRO working parties, S2.04-02, Breeding theory and progeny testing, and S2.02-16, Seed orchardsThe sessions were held in Tuusula, Finland on September 10–15, 1991.

  • Koski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5353, category Article
Øystein Johnsen, Inger Apeland. (1988). Screening early autumn frost hardiness among progenies from Norway spruce seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5353. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15510

Nursery grown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings from 12 different seed orchards were tested for early autumn frost hardiness using artificial freezing tests. Seed orchards containing grafted parent clones originating from high altitudes produced seedlings showing higher damage than commercial control seed lots of the commercial controls. A seed orchard containing both German and Norwegian clones produced seedlings showing high damage. The correlation between bud-set and frost damage was high at the provenance level, but lower at the half- and full-sib-levels. Families with good growth capacity in progeny field tests showed large between-family variation in frost damage in the artificial freezing tests. This indicates the possibility to combine high growth rate with acceptable autumn frost hardiness in the selection of parent trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Johnsen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Apeland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5256, category Article
Outi Muona, Raimo Hiltunen, Erkki Morén, D. V. Shaw. (1986). Analysis of monoterpene variation in natural stands and plustrees of Pinus sylvestris in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15435

Variation of monoterpene composition of Pinus sylvestris L. was studied in Southern, Central and Northern Finland using data from both natural stands and plus trees. The natural stands were analysed using different techniques and for fewer terpenes than the plus trees.

There were large differences between areas in the proportion of 3-carene in trees from natural stands, as has been discussed by previous authors. The proportion of 3-carene is bimodally distributed and believed to be controlled by a single gene with large effect. For this reason, we stratified our samples into high carene (>10%) and low carene (<10%) groups. Univariate analysis did not reveal any additional differences between natural populations in different zones for components other than 3-carene. In plus trees, several components showed significant differences, but the proportion of 3-carene did not differ between areas. Multivariate discrimination analysis did not distinguish between areas for natural stands. However, for the plus trees discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate between the zones relatively efficiently. The proportion of correct classification was greater than 64% using the best methods. The central zone was most distinct, and 80% of its trees were correctly classified. Broad generalizations are not possible due to the limitations imposed by our data. Our analysis of phenotypic variation does not support the suggestion that plus trees selected from the north represent a southern type.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Muona, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Morén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Shaw, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5204, category Article
Pirkko Velling, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1984). Harvest index in a progeny test of Scots pine with reference to the model of selection. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5204. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15383

Harvest index and number of associated traits were measured in a 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny test based on full-sib families. It was found that harvest index is a highly heritable trait and that a number of yield components are positively correlated with it. It is suggested that harvest index and tree ideotypes should be the basis of selection in cultivated trees. It is emphasized that an integrated approach to tree improvement including silviculture, soil science, industrial and economic constraints and tree breeding is a prerequisite for maximal response.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5199, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1983). Puuaineen tiheyden ja vuosiluston leveyden vaikutus kuusen iskutaivutuslujuuteen Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15182
English title: The influence of basic density and growth ring width on the impact strength of Norway spruce wood from Southern and Northern Finland.

Basic density and absorbed energy in impact bending were measured for 500 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples from Northern and Southern Finland. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between impact strength and basic density was significant and regression analysis showed that it was linear.

Furthermore, with constant density, the impact strength was higher in Northern than in Southern Finland. This was due to growth ring width: i.e. when density was kept constant the impact strength increased with decreasing growth ring width. In addition, when the growth ring width was kept constant, the basic density of wood was higher in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4963, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1977). Männyn ja kuusen siementen gammasäteilyherkkyyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14814
English title: Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

This study, comprising three experiments, aims to determine the effect of the geographical origin of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds, and the duration of the time lag between the moisture treatment and subsequent irradiation on the gamma-irradiation sensitivity of seeds.

The studies showed that the greater the irradiation dose seeds were subjected to the slower the rate of germination. In general, small radiation doses (250–1,000 rad) had a stimulating effect and the final germination percentage (36–40 days) increased. However, when the level was further increased, the germination percentage decreased. Air-dry and moistened seeds withstood irradiation better than others. In a study with moistened seeds from different geographical sources, pine and spruce seeds from Northern Finland were less able to withstand irradiation than those originating from the south.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7602, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1969). Progeny tests in a Pinus silvestris (L) seed orchard in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 99 article id 7602. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7602

Heritability of first and second-year height growth of Pinus sylvestris (L.) plants was studied using three different mating designs. Plants grew in a plastic greenhouse during the first growth period. During the second growth period they were exposed to open air conditions.

Heritability values varied from zero to 42%. An average heritability based on six separate calculations (two from each mating design) was computed and its reliability was discussed. This heritability value was 18%.

Different ways of improving heritability estimates was discussed and the need of more investigations on trait quality in relation to fitness and on the effect of natural selection and population strategy was emphasized.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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