Current issue: 54(1)
Under compilation: 54(2)
The drained peatlands regenerate usually well, and artificial regeneration by sowing or planting has been rare. Field trials of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were established in northern Satakunta in Western Finland in three drained peatlands in 1934. Sowing trials of Norway spruce consisted of patch and broadcast sowed sample sites in treeless bogs and under protective forest. The seedlings of spruce were planted either under protective forest or in treeless peatland.
The results show that artificial regeneration of Norway spruce succeeds best under protective forest. The best tree species for upper storey is Betula sp. which grows fast and controls growth of ground vegetation. The peat is relatively decomposed on those peatlands that are suitable for spruce, and breaking of the surface of the peat is not recommended. In the sowing trials, breaking of the upper layer of the peat caused frost heaving, cracking of the dried surface and sticking of mud in the seedlings in the patch sown sample site. The shoot and root growth of seedlings of the broadcast sown site was better than seedlings of the patch sown site. The planted spruce seedlings seemed to be more susceptible for spring frost than the seedlings in the sown site. The plants of seed origin succeeded in general better than the planted seedlings.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The article is based on observations made during a decade in the parishes of Utsjoki and northern, middle and eastern parts of Inari in Finnish Lapland. At the timber line the pine regenerates very slowly. The amount and quality of pine forests on their timber line has been diminishing because of forestry, expansion of settlements and reindeer pasturing.
Assigning the pine forests on the timber line as protection forests would serve the nature protection purposes as well as the wellbeing of the inhabitants and the state. Protection of areas where the regeneration is weak as well as the birch forests that serve as source of firewood for local people is of particular important. Measures against forest fires need to be taken. Extensive use of forests for reindeer pastures have caused a threat to existence of those forests.
When it comes to forest management, securing the seed yield and the survival of the seedlings need to be taken care. The productivity of the forests must be increased. For growing amount of people living in the area, the need for firewood and timber for other purposes must be fulfilled without increasing pressure to nearby forests.
The article aims to give a proposal on how to organize a protection forest system to protect the pine timber line in the northernmost Finland. In this first part of the six-article series is described the range and biology of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the timber line area, and human actions influencing the species in the area. The southward shift of Scots pine timber line cannot be explained by change of climate. The main factors are too intensive fellings, reindeer husbandry and forest fires. The poor reproduction of pine in Lapland makes it vulnerable to disturbances. The trees produce viable seeds in average only every 100 years. Thus, effective measures are needed to protect the existing pine forests in the area.
The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.
It is possible to show that many of the after-effects resulting from the disappearance of forest cover were well known already in ancient times. The invigorating effect of moving around freely in the forest and its artistic creative ability were also recognized as well as the healing effect of coniferous forest on people suffering from consumption. Hunting and the use of forests for cattle grazing is also an extremely old practice. The so-called by-products of the forest such as tree bark and leaves, as well as berries and fruits, have played an important role in the history of mankind from the very earliest beginnings.
The PDF includes a summary in English.