Current issue: 54(1)

Under compilation: 54(2)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'reindeer'.

Category: Research article

article id 1153, category Research article
Anu Akujärvi, Ville Hallikainen, Mikko Hyppönen, Eero Mattila, Kari Mikkola, Pasi Rautio. (2014). Effects of reindeer grazing and forestry on ground lichens in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1153. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1153
Highlights: Both reindeer grazing and forestry affect the cover and biomass of reindeer lichens; Reindeer grazing has bigger impact than forestry; The lichen cover was about five-fold and the biomass about fifteen-fold in the ungrazed (fenced) sites than in the grazed ones; The decrease of not only the biomass, but also the cover of lichens, is alarming.
Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practiced in the same areas in northern Fennoscandia. Reindeer pastures have largely deteriorated. We aimed to quantify the separate and combined effects of reindeer grazing and forestry on the amount of ground lichens. To do this, we mapped and inventoried all larger enclosures (49) in Finnish Lapland where forest management practices were similar in both sides of the fence. The average time since fencing was 43 years. We recorded the cover and estimated dry biomass of ground lichens, as well as parameters describing forest stand characteristics. The effect of reindeer grazing on both the cover and estimated dry biomass of lichens was clear: in the ungrazed (fenced) sites, the lichen cover (35.8%) was on average 5.3-fold and the dry biomass (1929 kg ha–1) 14.8-fold compared with the corresponding estimates in the grazed sites (6.8% and 130 kg ha–1). The effect of forestry on lichens was smaller. In the grazed stands the cover and biomass of lichens were higher in the mature stands compared to the younger stand development classes, whereas in the ungrazed stands there were no significant differences between the development classes. Both reindeer grazing and forestry affect the cover and biomass of ground lichens. The influence of reindeer grazing is, however, much heavier than that of forestry. The decrease of not only the biomass, but also the lichen cover, is alarming. The decrease of lichen cover may hinder the recovery of reindeer pastures, which in the long run endangers the sustainability of reindeer husbandry.
  • Akujärvi, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anu.akujarvi@ymparisto.fi
  • Hallikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@metla.fi
  • Hyppönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@metla.fi (email)
  • Mattila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eero.mattila@metla.fi
  • Mikkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@metla.fi
  • Rautio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Northern Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@metla.fi

Category: Article

article id 7027, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, August Renvall. (1921). Über die Schutzwaldfrage. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. suppl. article id 7027. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7027
English title: About the protection forests.

The article is based on observations made during a decade in the parishes of Utsjoki and northern, middle and eastern parts of Inari in Finnish Lapland. At the timber line the pine regenerates very slowly. The amount and quality of pine forests on their timber line has been diminishing because of forestry, expansion of settlements and reindeer pasturing.  

Assigning the pine forests on the timber line as protection forests would serve the nature protection purposes as well as the wellbeing of the inhabitants and the state. Protection of areas where the regeneration is weak as well as the birch forests that serve as source of firewood for local people is of particular important. Measures against forest fires need to be taken. Extensive use of forests for reindeer pastures have caused a threat to existence of those forests.

When it comes to forest management, securing the seed yield and the survival of the seedlings need to be taken care. The productivity of the forests must be increased. For growing amount of people living in the area, the need for firewood and timber for other purposes must be fulfilled without increasing pressure to nearby forests.    

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7024, category Article
August Renvall. (1919). Suojametsäkysymyksestä IV. Poronlaidunnan järjestely suojametsäalueella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 7024. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7024
English title: Protection forests IV.

This fourth part of the six-article series about protection forest in the Northern Finland is a proposal for organizing reindeer grazing to enable scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) regeneration near the timber line. Protection forests in the Northern Finland cover third of the natural pastures of reindeer in the area. In these areas reindeer grazing can harm the young pine seedlings. The proposal suggests temporary restrictions in grazing in the coniferous forests. Also, in the northernmost parts of Lapland the pine timberline area would be used only as winter pastures. Regional limits should be set for the number of reindeer. Also the ownership of reindeer herds and herding coopearatives included problematic issues that should be solved.

The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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