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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'roads'.

Category: Article

article id 5380, category Article
Arto Rummukainen. (1989). Moreenimurskeella pinnoitettujen metsäteiden kunnossapito maataloustraktorikalustolla. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15537
English title: Maintenance of crushed moraine paved forest roads with agricultural tractor implements.

The condition of forest road pavements was studied in spring, one week after maintenance and in autumn. The effect of vibrating blade was slightly better than that of pulled drag. Large loose stones couldn’t be pressed into pavement with either of the implements. The use of the vibrating blade was three times as expensive as the use of the pulled drag, however, the blade is suitable for other purposes as well.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5340, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1988). Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15497

A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of fabric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radiogram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5156, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkaluotaukseen perustuva metsäautotien kantavuuden arvioimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15071
English title: Predicting the bearing capacity of forest roads using a radar sounding.

Good correlation between radar reflection depth when using a FM-CW radar during winter and bearing capacity measurements during spring breakup was found. Therefore, it might be possible to evaluate the bearing capacity of forest roads using the radar sounding technique.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5130, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Mikroaaltotutka jään paksuuden mittaukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5130. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15187
English title: Radar measurement of ice thickness on ice roads and landing.

Light and economic FM-CW radar has been developed for controlling the bearing capacity of ice roads and landings on ice used for timber transportation and storage of timber in Finland. It was tested on natural ice and ice roads of three lakes in Southern Finland and one location on sea on the southren coast of Finland (a total of 166 observations). Ice thickness varied from 0 to 100 cm. Correlation coefficient between auger and radar measured ice thickness was r=0.99 and absolute error varied from -10 to +7 cm. The quality of ice had no influence, but by improving the interpretation of results, also the quality factors might be detected.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5059, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1980). Jäljelle jäävä puusto ja ajouralta toimivat harvennuspuun korjuukoneet. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5059. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15000
English title: Remaining trees and machines working from the strip roads in thinning.

In the first part of the study the hindrance of the remaining trees when felling trees by machines working from the strip road in selective thinning was studied on the basis of the literature. In the second part there was geometrically studied the need of schematic thinning in some type stands when bundles are pre-skidded straight-lined to the strip road. In average only 0-1 trees per pre-skidding trail needs to be removed. It was concluded that trees removed from the pre-skidding trail do not significantly increase the need of schematic thinning. Remaining trees do not limit the length of machine booms if the pre-skidding trails are planned during the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7521, category Article
Johanne M. G. Morasse. (1998). Estimation of cutting volume with three inventory methods for harvest planning in Canadian boreal forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 261 article id 7521. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7521

Two methods of pre-harvest inventory were designed and tested on three cutting sites containing a total of 197,500 m3 of wood. These sites were located on flat-ground boreal forest in north-western Quebec, Canada. Both methods studied involved scaling of trees harvested to clear the road path one year (or more) prior to harvest of adjacent cutblocks.

The first method (ROAD) considers the total road right-of-way volume divided by the total road area cleared. The resulting volume per hectare is then multiplied by the total cut-block area scheduled for harvest during the following year to obtain the total estimated cutting volume. The second method (STRATIFIED) also involves scaling of trees cleared from the road. A volume per hectare is calculated for each stretch of road that crosses a single forest stand. This volume per hectare is then multiplied by the remaining area of the same forest stand scheduled for harvest one year later. The sum of all resulting estimated volumes per stand gives the total estimated cutting-volume for all cut-blocks adjacent to the studied road. A third method (MNR) represent the actual existing technique for estimating cutting volume in the province of Quebec. It involves summing the cut volume for all forest stands. The cut volume is estimated by multiplying the area of each stand by its estimated volume per hectare obtained from standard stock tables.

When the resulting total estimated volume per cut-block for all three methods was compared with the actual measured cut-block volume (MEASURED), the analysis showed that MNR volume estimate was 30% higher than MEASURED. However, no significant difference from MEASURED was observed for volume estimates for ROAD and STRATIFIED methods, which respectively estimated cutting volumes 19% and 5% lower than MEASURED.

  • Morasse, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7673, category Article
Jimin Tan. (1992). Planning a forest road network by a spatial data handling-network routing system. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 227 article id 7673. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7673

The basic objective in planning a forest road network is to minimize the total cost of terrain transportation, road transportation, road construction and maintenance by controlling the road location, road network density and road quality, besides environmental and ecological considerations. Studies on the optimization of forest road network have encountered difficulties in taking into account the spatial diversity of forest terrain and stands. The spatial data handling-network routing system developed in this study proves to be useful in assisting forest managers to carry out the planning of forest road networks by covering the spatial and economic analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Tan, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4623, category Article
Metsätalouskomitea. (1952). Puun maakuljetusolojen kehittäminen : vuoden 1949 metsätalouskomitean mietintö N:o 1. Silva Fennica no. 73 article id 4623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9095
English title: Development of land transportation of wood.

The government of Finland appointed in1949 a committee to draft a program to promote forestry and increase the production of forests in the immediate future. The committee regarded promotion of transportation of roundwood and fuel wood as the most urgent question of the assignment. A separate committee was assigned to give a report on floating.

The report gives a summary of timber transportation facilities. The importance of land transport, especially truck transport, has grown. This has influenced other means of long-distance transport, such as railways and floating. Building of truck roads can bring large areas of presently unaccessible forests accessible for forest industry.

The committee suggest improvements in road legislation. Improvements needed in the road system for better timber transport facilities are outlined. The committee gives a detailed list of roads, compiled by area. The total length of forest roads to be constructed is 5,584 km, and the estimated cost 6,702 million marks. Railroads would be built 1,453 km at the cost of 35,745 million marks.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Metsätalouskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4604, category Article
E. J. Koskenmaa. (1951). Koneiden käyttö tie- ja uittoväylärakennuksilla. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4604. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14000
English title: Use of machines in construction of roads and floating channels.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses opportunities to increase the use of working machines, such as tractors, in construction of roads and floating channels, which have been little used in Finland. The presentation summarizes the machines available and their use based on experiences in Sweden.

  • Koskenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4595, category Article
Lauri Silvàn. (1948). Metsäautoteiden rakentaminen. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13997
English title: Building of forest lorry roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation discusses cost-effectiveness of building forest lorry roads to expand the availability of timber in state forests, and gives examples of calculating costs of building a road.

  • Silvàn, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4595, category Article
Lauri Silvàn. (1948). Metsäautoteiden rakentaminen. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13997
English title: Building of forest lorry roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation discusses cost-effectiveness of building forest lorry roads to expand the availability of timber in state forests, and gives examples of calculating costs of building a road.

  • Silvàn, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4566, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1939). Näkökohtia tie- ja polkuverkostosta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4566. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13973
English title: Views on road and path network.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the development of road and path network in state lands in Finland. The speaker wants to stress the need for systematic expansion of the road network, which would serve several demands in forestry.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4555, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Puutavaran autokuljetuksesta ja sen merkityksestä valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13962
English title: Car transportation of roundwood and its significance to forestry in the state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history of road transport of timber in Finland and discusses its significance and potential to forestry in the state forests.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4497, category Article
Erkki J. Simola. (1937). Kyläteiden tieyksiköistä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4497. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13907
English title: Road units and right of way in village roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the use and maintenance of village roads.

  • Simola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4490, category Article
Erkki J. Simola. (1937). Teiden rakentamisesta ja kunnossapidosta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4490. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13900
English title: Building and maintenance of roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation gives guidlines in building and maintaining roads in forest administration.

  • Simola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4490, category Article
Erkki J. Simola. (1937). Teiden rakentamisesta ja kunnossapidosta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4490. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13900
English title: Building and maintenance of roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation gives guidlines in building and maintaining roads in forest administration.

  • Simola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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