Current issue: 54(5)

Under compilation: 55(1)

Scopus CiteScore 2019: 3.1
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 6th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'saw'.

Category: Research article

article id 10205, category Research article
Michel Soucy, Martin Béland. (2020). A crop tree release variant of precommercial thinning using a backpack mounted chain saw. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 3 article id 10205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10205
Highlights: Backpack mounted chain saws offer an opportunity to effectively cut larger stems in precommercial thinning treatments compared to conventional circular blade brushsaws; Productivity in performing precommercial crop tree release (PCTR) in a hardwood stand using a backpack mounted chain saw varied between 0.22 to 0.47 ha h–1.

Although crop tree release (CTR) in hardwood stands is an accepted variant of precommercial thinning (PCT), the lack of an affordable and feasible method hinders its adoption. CTR implies selecting between 150 and 500 trees ha–1 when trees are between 7 and 12 m high and cutting only stems competing with the target crop trees. We performed a field trial of a CTR variant of PCT in a 27.8 ha hardwood stand using a backpack mounted chain saw. A detailed time study was performed to document the trial over 13 days. Compared to conventional PCT performed earlier in the life of a stand, precommercial crop tree release required cutting larger stems, which showed to be feasible and productive using a backpack mounted chain saw. Productivity varied between 0.22 to 0.47 ha h–1 during the trial, Although productivity could vary with stand characteristics and worker, this proof of concept trial demonstrates some of the potential uses that this new saw configuration offers and sets the basis for an eventual larger scale deployment of this treatment.

  • Soucy, Université de Moncton, 165 boulevard Hébert, Edmundston, N.-B. Canada, E3V 2S8, (506) 737-5248 ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0531-5549 E-mail: michel.soucy@umoncton.ca
  • Béland, Université de Moncton, 165 boulevard Hébert, Edmundston, N.-B. Canada, E3V 2S8, (506) 737-5248 ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8591-671X E-mail: martin.beland@umoncton.ca (email)
article id 10183, category Research article
Tomi Karjalainen, Petteri Packalen, Janne Räty, Matti Maltamo. (2019). Predicting factual sawlog volumes in Scots pine dominated forests using airborne laser scanning data. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10183. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10183
Highlights: We predicted visually bucked factual sawlog volumes at the 30 × 30 m plot-level with several alternatives; The lowest root mean squared error value of approximately 21% was obtained with a linear mixed-effects model that employed factual sawlog volume as a response variable and airborne laser scanning metrics as predictors; The sawlog reduction model commonly used in Finland performed poorly.

The aim in the study was to compare alternatives for the prediction of factual sawlog volumes using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in eastern Finland. Accurate estimates of factual sawlog volume are desirable to ease the planning of harvesting operations. The factual sawlog volume of pines was derived from visual bucking, i.e. a procedure where the defects were located on each stem during sample plot measurements. For other species, the theoretical sawlog volume was considered also as the factual sawlog volume due to data restrictions. We predicted factual sawlog volume with eight alternatives that were based on either linear mixed-effects models or k-nearest neighbour imputations. An existing sawlog reduction model, commonly used in Finland, was also tested individually and combined with a number of the alternatives, and site type information was also utilised. Model fitting and prediction was implemented at the 15 × 15 m level, but accuracy was assessed at the 30 × 30 m level. The relative root mean squared error (RMSE%) values for the factual sawlog volume predictions varied between 20.9% and 33.5%, and the best accuracy was obtained with a linear mixed-effects model. These results indicate that factual sawlog volumes in Scots pine dominated forests can be predicted with reasonable accuracy with ALS data.

  • Karjalainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tomikar@uef.fi (email)
  • Packalen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.packalen@uef.fi
  • Räty, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.raty@uef.fi
  • Maltamo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.maltamo@uef.fi
article id 10179, category Research article
Lauri Korhonen, Jaakko Repola, Tomi Karjalainen, Petteri Packalen, Matti Maltamo. (2019). Transferability and calibration of airborne laser scanning based mixed-effects models to estimate the attributes of sawlog-sized Scots pines. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10179. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10179
Highlights: Attributes of individual sawlog-sized pines estimated by transferring ALS-based models between sites; Mixed effects models were more accurate than k-NN imputation tested earlier; Calibration with a small number of field measured trees improved the accuracy.

Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is nowadays often available for forest inventory purposes, but adequate field data for constructing new forest attribute models for each area may be lacking. Thus there is a need to study the transferability of existing ALS-based models among different inventory areas. The objective of our study was to apply ALS-based mixed models to estimate the diameter, height and crown base height of individual sawlog sized Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) at three different inventory sites in eastern Finland. Different ALS sensors and acquisition parameters were used at each site. Multivariate mixed-effects models were fitted at one site and the models were validated at two independent test sites. Validation was carried out by applying the fixed parts of the mixed models as such, and by calibrating them using 1–3 sample trees per plot. The results showed that the relative RMSEs of the predictions were 1.2–6.5 percent points larger at the test sites compared to the training site. Systematic errors of 2.4–6.2 percent points also emerged at the test sites. However, both the RMSEs and the systematic errors decreased with calibration. The results showed that mixed-effects models of individual tree attributes can be successfully transferred and calibrated to other ALS inventory areas in a level of accuracy that appears suitable for practical applications.

  • Korhonen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9352-0114 E-mail: lauri.korhonen@uef.fi (email)
  • Repola, Natural Resources Institute of Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@luke.fi
  • Karjalainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tomikar@uef.fi
  • Packalen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.packalen@uef.fi
  • Maltamo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.maltamo@uef.fi
article id 10052, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Harri Kilpeläinen, Henrik Heräjärvi. (2019). Effect of pruning season and tool on knot occlusion and stem discolouration in Betula pendula – situation five years after pruning. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10052
Highlights: The occlusion was the fastest in the case of small living branches of fast growing trees pruned in springtime; Occlusion was quicker after saw pruning than after secateurs pruning, due to shorter knot stubs; Branches that were pruned in living state occluded faster than the ones pruned as dead; Dead branches hit down with a stick occluded slowly.

This paper investigates and models the effects of pruning season and tool on wound occlusion with varying tree and branch characteristics of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stems at the pruning height of 0−4 metres. Dates of eight secateurs prunings, three saw prunings and two sticks prunings as well as unpruned control were tested in permanent plots on four sites. Knot occlusion and discolouration in stemwood were measured from about 1600 studied knots of 112 sample trees felled five to six years after pruning in 2010. Knot occlusion rate was modelled according to pruning tool, date, tree growth, and branch characteristics. The occlusion was the fastest in trees pruned in spring or early summer, and the slowest in trees pruned in autumn. Stubs of living branches occluded faster than the dead ones with the same diameter. Saw pruning resulted in clearly better occlusion rates than secateurs pruning, caused by the shorter knot stubs after saw pruning. Hitting dead branches away with a stick resulted in the worst occlusion status. The colour defects spread more often upward from the knot than downward. Discolouration in stemwood was detected more frequently near to the pruned branches than the unpruned ones, and more widely near to the stubs of dead branches than the living ones. Most saw and secateurs pruned branches were completely occluded during the experiment, so these prunings were suitable for all branches under 20 mm in diameter, and for living branches even up to 30 mm in fast-growing trees.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Kampusranta 9 C, FI-60320 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pentti.niemisto@luke.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.kilpelainen@luke.fi
  • Heräjärvi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@luke.fi
article id 7816, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Harri Kilpeläinen, Eero Poutiainen. (2018). Effect of first thinning type and age on growth, stem quality and financial performance of a Scots pine stand in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7816
Highlights: Early commercial first thinning at the top height of 11 m with tree selection targeting high quality of remaining stems was more profitable in a Scots pine stand than thinning from below at similar time or delayed thinning 10 years later; After early first thinning only one intermediate thinning was needed, but a late thinning at age of 60 years was feasible in connection with increased amount of high quality butt logs after artificial pruning; The optimal rotation period for a Scots pine stand using a lower interest rate of 1% was 80–85 years depending on the thinning pattern. With a higher rate of 4%, the optimal rotation took only 60 years.

The objective of the study was to ascertain the effects of tree selection (thinning from below, from above and according to stem quality) and timing of first commercial thinning (early and delayed) on the growth, yield and quality of trees in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A long-term field experiment (25 years) was measured in 5-year periods and the further development was simulated with growth and yield models to final cuttings using alternative rotation periods of 55–85 years. The measurements included also the exact location and type of technical defects detected on all trees in the experimental plots. The measured volume increment per unit area during the study period, 25 years after the early thinning stage was the lowest in the plots thinned from below, and the highest in the plots thinned from above or in the delayed thinning plots. However, the largest volume of saw logs during the whole rotation of 80 years was yielded after early first thinning according to the quality. The largest volume of very high-quality butt logs was produced by pruning connected with early thinning from above, and a smaller volume after early thinning according to stem quality but no after thinning from below or delayed first thinning. Without pruning an early quality thinning with one intermediate thinning was the most profitable thinning treatment in the Scots pine stand regardless the rotation length or the interest rate used. By interest rates of 1% and 2%, the optimal rotations were 80–85 years and 70 years respectively. A late thinning at the age of 60 year with long rotation was profitable only for the pruned pine stands with a low interest rate.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Kampusranta 9 C, FI-60320 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pentti.niemisto@luke.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.kilpelainen@luke.fi
  • Poutiainen, Oulu ORCID ID:E-mail: eero1.poutiainen@dnainternet.net
article id 1393, category Research article
Werner Poschenrieder, Andreas Rais, Jan-Willem G. van de Kuilen, Hans Pretzsch. (2016). Modelling sawn timber volume and strength development at the individual tree level – essential model features by the example of Douglas fir. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1393
Highlights: An individual tree timber growth and quality model toolbox was designed; It realistically predicts an increase of bending strength with planting density; Prediction was shown to be based on consideration of essential intrinsic variables; Height‑diameter‑allometry depending on planting density was effective; Consideration of cambial age and knot area ratio was crucial.

We designed a streamlined timber growth and quality model that aims at the effect of stand management on the efficiency of wood resource use. Applying the R based module toolbox to experimental plots of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) we analysed essential model features for reflecting the influence of planting density on board strength. The current version realistically predicted a significant increase of centre board bending strength at tree age 40 with initial stand density. Model performance gained clear advantage from a) parameterisation of height to diameter allometry as dependent on planting density b) consideration of cambial age and cross‑sectional knot area in board strength computation. Crown shape was less decisive. The model produced a significant effect of planting density even after a whole rotation period of 70 years as well as a realistic spectrum of board bending strength.

  • Poschenrieder, Technische Universität München, Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans Carl von Carlowitz Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9028-8583 E-mail: Werner.Poschenrieder@lrz.tum.de (email)
  • Rais, Technische Universität München, Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans Carl von Carlowitz Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany; Technische Universität München, Holzforschung München, Winzererstrasse 45, 80797 Munich, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: Andreas.Rais@hfm.tum.de
  • van de Kuilen, Technische Universität München, Holzforschung München, Winzererstrasse 45, 80797 Munich, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: vandekuilen@hfm.tum.de
  • Pretzsch, Technische Universität München, Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans Carl von Carlowitz Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: Hans.Pretzsch@lrz.tum.de
article id 1054, category Research article
Karin Kolis, Juhana Hiironen, Esa Ärölä, Arvo Vitikainen. (2014). Effects of sale-specific factors on stumpage prices in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1054. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1054
Highlights: Data on 4824 individual sales were used to estimate which factors affect stumpage prices; The time of sale, seasonal harvest restrictions, the location and the assortment affected prices; Larger total volumes and shorter forest haulage distances raised unit prices; A higher percentage of the assortment and percentage of sawlogs within the sale corresponded to higher prices.
Buyers of standing timber take not only the market situation but also the harvest costs into consideration when making purchase offers. In Finland, 85% of all timber is sold as standing timber, but there is little information for forest owners and third parties regarding how differences in harvest costs are reflected in the stumpage prices. This article analyses the relationship between sale-specific factors and stumpage prices in Finland. Data on 4824 standing timber sales between 2008 and 2012 were gathered from five local Forest Management Associations. Regression analyses were run on the stumpage prices (euros m–3) paid for sawlogs and pulpwood. Seasonal harvest restrictions, the volume of the sale and the timber assortment influenced stumpage prices, as did the presence of forest damages. Prices also differed over time and between locations. Furthermore, the forest haulage distance was statistically significant for pulpwood. The results suggest that the size of the individual sales and the composition of assortments affect the income owners earn from their forest. The results can be used to estimate stumpage prices and the monetary impacts on forest owners of procedures such as forest road network planning and land consolidation, as well as for valuation of forests.
  • Kolis, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.kolis@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hiironen, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juhana.hiironen@aalto.fi
  • Ärölä, National Land Survey of Finland, Production Support Services, P.O. Box 84, FI-00521 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: esa.arola@nls.fi
  • Vitikainen, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: arvo.vitikainen@aalto.fi
article id 1006, category Research article
Jörn Rathke, Maria A. Huka, Manfred Gronalt. (2013). The box assignment problem in log yards. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1006
Highlights: Logistic approach for the optimization of log yard in terms of arrangement of storage boxes and ejection boxes reduced transportation time by 16 percent compared with the original solution.
This paper presents an optimization approach to minimizing log yard round wood transportation time for a medium sized hardwood sawmill. The log yard, which has to ensure a smooth raw material supply to the entire production process, is the first processing step in a sawmill. The log yard also serves as an internal round wood sorting and storing capacity. Thus, an optimal assignment of ejection boxes, storage boxes and feeding carriages is required to minimize transportation time at a log yard. The main contribution of this paper is to present an integrated approach which simultaneously takes into account log transportation time, storage capacity and yard crane deployment. The approach is based on two steps: a) defining storage spaces per batch and calculating distances and b) determining optimum box assignments in the log yard in order to minimize overall transportation distance. The solution in step b) is compared with the results obtained by random box assignment as well as a spreadsheet based planning method. We have been able to show that our approach is much more flexible and results are more than 16 percent better than the corresponding real life solution.
  • Rathke, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: joern.rathke@boku.ac.at
  • Huka, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.huka@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 117, category Research article
Harri Kilpeläinen, Jari Lindblad, Henrik Heräjärvi, Erkki Verkasalo. (2011). Saw log recovery and stem quality of birch from thinnings in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.117
The objective of this study was to examine the timber quality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and European white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees in the first and second thinnings in southern parts of Finland, from the viewpoint of sawing of small-diameter, short logs, in particular. The average stem volume of birch was 0.140 m3 in the first thinning stands and 0.206 m3 in the second thinning stands. In planted stands, the trees were larger in the first thinnings but slightly smaller in the second thinnings, compared with naturally regenerated pure birch stands or mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch species. Almost 60% of the harvested and 35% of the remaining stems that could provide saw logs were graded as pulpwood for timber quality due to the occurrence of stem defects. The most common stem defects were multiple crooks and middle crooks. Only minor between-stratum differences were detected in the numbers of defects. Depending on the bucking option, the total percentage of saw and plywood logs from the total birch recovery in the thinning of the sample stands varied between 11.7 and 18.2. The recovery of saw logs was clearly higher in the second thinnings, 12–19%, than in the first thinnings, 8–14%. Of the stand types, saw log recovery was the highest in planted birch stands, 12–19%, but lower in naturally regenerated pure birch stands and mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch. The highest share of saw logs was in the second thinning of planted stands, 17–25%. This study shows that the harvesting recoveries of end-use based timber assortments can be estimated in different kinds of thinning birch stands. Based on tree and log dimensions and stem squality, silver birch firstly from plantations and secondly from mixed stands should be the most interesting source of raw material for the saw milling, furniture and interior product sectors.
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindblad, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heräjärvi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
  • Verkasalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 154, category Research article
Henrik R. Hallingbäck, Gunnar Jansson, Björn Hannrup, Anders Fries. (2010). Which annual rings to assess grain angles in breeding of Scots pine for improved shape stability of sawn timber? Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 154. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.154
The shape stability properties of sawn timber could be improved by breeding or grading Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for reduced grain angles. Currently, only grain angle assessments performed in single annual rings can be considered feasible in forest breeding programmes. The relevance of such methods in assessing shape stability traits was evaluated by taking grain angle measurements beneath the bark in a 36-year-old Scots pine progeny trial. Several grain angle measurements from stem discs were also taken from a sample of 162 trees. Phenotypic correlations were estimated between grain angle and the bow, crook and twist developed in 316 sawn and dried boards. All single annual ring assessments, including measurements taken directly under the bark, were significantly correlated with twist. The highest correlations (0.60–0.70) were observed in annual rings numbered 8–20 and at distances of 30–70 mm from the pith, indicating those parts of logs where grain angles have the largest impact on twist. These results suggests, that grain angles measured beneath the bark are relevant to the twist of sawn small timber, and that any single annual ring could be chosen for the assessment, provided that the tree diameter is within the 60–140 mm range. No appreciable correlations were observed between grain angles and either crook or bow.
  • Hallingbäck, Dept of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.hallingback@vbsg.slu.se (email)
  • Jansson, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hannrup, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fries, Dept of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 459, category Research article
Tomi Tulokas, Jawdat Tannous. (2010). Research method and improvement of log rotation in sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.459
Log rotation studies were performed at 14 Finnish sawmills during the years 2003–2005. In the investigation of automatic log rotation, the materialized degree of log rotation for each log was calculated from photos captured from a digital video recording. Rotation errors (D) for individual logs and again the accuracy of the automatic log rotator was determined from optimized angle values of the log measuring system and materialized angle values calculated from the still photos. The accuracy of the log rotation varied considerably between sawmills. The rotation error average of the automatic log rotation varied from –23.6° to +11.4°. This means that in some cases the logs were under-rotated and in some they were over-rotated, on an average. Standard deviation of the rotation error (s) of the automatic rotator varied from 4.4° to 22.9°. The results of the simulation indicated that the performance of the log rotation system can be improved by adjusting the log rotator control. In addition to the zero degree error on an average rotation (or near to zero), the corrected values have a significantly smaller standard deviation of the rotation error, and the number of correct rotations was significantly higher compared to the situation before the adjusted rotation commands. At Sawmill 1, standard deviation of the rotation error was reduced by 40.9% from 14.9 degrees to 8.8 degrees. At the same time the number of correct rotations (–10°≤ D ≤ +10°) increased 4.0 fold from 20.1% to 79.4%. At Sawmill 2, standard deviation of the rotation error was reduced by 23.8% from 10.5 degrees to 8.0 degrees. At this sawmill, the rate of accepted rotations increased 1.9 fold from 42.6% to 81.0%. According to previous research, 2.5° decrease in standard deviation of the rotation error (from 10.5 to 8.0°) in square sawing means about 0.5% increase in value yield. For example with 10 million Û annual sales of sawn timber this means 50 000 Û extra profit.
  • Tulokas, Centre for Timber Engineering, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK ORCID ID:E-mail: tomi.tulokas@lut.fi (email)
  • Tannous, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 187, category Research article
Tobias Biechele, Leif Nutto, Gero Becker. (2009). Growth strain in Eucalyptus nitens at different stages of development. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 187. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.187
Eucalypts are renowned for their high growth stress levels. These stresses cause splitting, warping and dimensional instability when cutting, processing and drying the wood. In Chile, large Eucalyptus nitens plantations can be found, which, due to these problems, are scarcely utilised for solid wood products (veneer, sawn wood). This study aims to determine the factors influencing growth stress at different stages of tree’s development, and to identify whether the factors influencing growth stress change over time. In five stands of different ages, growth strain, as an indicator of growth stress, was measured at different tree heights with the single hole drilling method. The tree variables DBH, tree height, slenderness (height/diameter ratio) and crown parameters also were measured. A correlation analysis of tree variables and growth strains was undertaken. The results obtained indicate a high variability in growth strain values. It was concluded that growth strain is not correlated with a single growth parameter, but with a combination of factors that variously influence it at different ages and tree heights.
  • Biechele, University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Utilisation and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, DE-79085 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: tobias.biechele@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de (email)
  • Nutto, University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Utilisation and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, DE-79085 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Becker, University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Utilisation and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, DE-79085 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 197, category Research article
Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Heli Peltola. (2009). Sawn timber properties of Scots pine as affected by initial stand density, thinning and pruning: a simulation based approach. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 197. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.197
The aim of this work was to analyze how different management schedules with varying initial stand density, thinning and artificial pruning of branches affect the quality, quantity and value of sawing yield in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). For this purpose, an integrated model system was employed and further developed to simulate: i) the three dimensional structure of the crown and stem of an average tree grown in a stand related to the changes in the within-stand light conditions as caused by the stand management, and ii) the sawing of logs into pieces and their quality grading based on the size and number of living and dead knots on the surfaces of sawn pieces. To maximize the quality of sawn timber, relatively dense stand is desired in the early phase of the rotation to reduce, especially in the lower part of stem, the growth of branches, and to increase the rate of dying and pruning-off of branches. In the later phase, a relatively sparse stand is desired to increase the self-pruning of branches and the occlusion of knots. However, in any case, artificial pruning is needed to maximize the knot-free zone of the stem. Also the value optimization of individual sawn pieces affects the quality and value of sawn timber. Because, only average tree was simulated, the differences between scenarios for stem volume were small. In the future, further model development is needed to analyze the development of crown and stem properties of trees with different status in a stand.
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: veli-pekka.ikonen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 227, category Research article
Ola Lindroos. (2008). The effects of increased mechanization on time consumption in small-scale firewood processing. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 227. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.227
Firewood, which is mainly processed by the consumer, is still an important source of energy for heating houses in industrialised countries. Possibilities to compare the mechanization’s impact on efficiency of firewood processing are limited, due to variations between working conditions in previous studies. Therefore, the objective was to compare time consumption for two small-scale firewood processing systems with different levels of mechanisation under identical conditions. The systems were tested on two classes of wood: one with a homogeneous and medium-sized diameter of logs and one with a mixture of small and large-diameter-logs. Differences in time consumption were analysed for correlations with physical workloads, deviations to routine operations, operator influences and operator perceptions. Twelve operators (60–79 years old) were studied and they showed large variation in time consumption. However, the within-operator time consumption patterns were consistent. In other words, operators all responded similarly to the different combinations of systems and wood classes, but at different absolute levels. The time required to process a unit volume of wood was 25–33% lower when the more highly mechanised system was used, and the time required was 13–22% lower for the homogeneous wood class. Physical work load, deviations and perceptions of the work varied between operators, but were weakly correlated with time consumption. The results’ implications for analyses of investments in equipment for firewood-processing for self-sufficiency purposes are discussed.
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@srh.slu.se (email)
article id 258, category Research article
Ursula Schatz, Henrik Heräjärvi, Kari Kannisto, Matti Rantatalo. (2008). Influence of saw and secateur pruning on stem discolouration, wound cicatrisation and diameter growth of Betula pendula. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 258. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.258
The aim of this case study was to compare the impacts of saw and secateur pruning on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). Data were collected from two saw pruned stands in 2005, and one secateur pruned stand in 2003. All the stands were located in southern Finland. The sample stems were felled, and their butt logs were sawn into flitches, whose knot features and colour defects were measured. In addition, discs were sawn from each stem in order to study the annual ring widths. In this material, pruning with secateurs appeared to cause less colour defects than pruning with a saw. Irrespective of the pruning method used, the colour defects in the stem wood were at their largest in cases where the basal knob or the stem bark appeared to be damaged by pruning. Colour defects spread mainly towards the pith, only in a few cases towards the stem surface. The cicatrisation time of the knots as well as the length of the bark stick remaining inside the stem did not show significant differences between the two pruning methods. Pruning of the lowest living branches appears to have no effect on the diameter growth of silver birch trees.
  • Schatz, Peltotievantie 27, FI-99440 Leppäjärvi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heräjärvi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
  • Kannisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rantatalo, Peltotievantie 27, FI-99440 Leppäjärvi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 541, category Research article
Azim U. Mallik, F. Wayne Bell, Yanli Gong. (2002). Effectiveness of delayed brush cutting and herbicide treatments for vegetation control in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.541
Efficacy of three conifer release treatments, i) single application of glyphosate (Vision™) herbicide, ii) multiple application of glyphosate herbicide, and iii) motor-manual brush cutting for controlling competing plants, particularly trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica), green alder (Alnus viridis spp. crispa), and beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta spp. cornuta), was studied in a seven-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana) plantation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The single and multiple glyphosate applications were equally effective in controlling trembling aspen and pin cherry, causing over 90% stem mortality. The brushsaw treatment caused an initial decrease followed by an increase in stem density of these two species. A high degree of stem thinning by natural mortality in the untreated control plots was observed in trembling aspen (23–46%) and pin cherry (41–69%) over four years. As with trembling aspen and pin cherry, stem density of green alder and beaked hazel initially decreased and then increased following the brushsaw treatment, mainly due to resprouting. Stem mortality in green alder and beaked hazel was 45% and 97%, respectively, two years after the operational glyphosate treatment. Competition index (CI) was low (mean CI = 52, ranging from 18 to 115) in all the plots including the untreated control. There was a significant increase in basal diameter of jack pine in the brushsaw and herbicide-treated plots compared to the control three years after the treatments. Jack pine seedlings in the brushsaw and glyphosate treated plots were taller compared to that of control but differences were not significant. Lower species richness and diversity were recorded in the herbicide-treated plots compared to the brushsaw and control plots in the third growing season following treatment.
  • Mallik, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 ORCID ID:E-mail: azim.mallik@lakeheadu.ca (email)
  • Bell, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada P6A 2E5 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gong, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 581, category Research article
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2001). Technical properties of mature birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) for saw milling in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.581
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in selected technical properties of mature (age > 60 years) birch stems in southern and central Finland. Technical properties were defined as the natural external characteristics that cause differences in the usability of a certain section of stem in the mechanical wood industry, saw milling in particular. On mineral soils, birch stems in mixed stands were slightly larger than those in pure birch stands. On peatlands, however, birch stems in pure stands were larger than those in mixed stands. The average stem form of silver birch was straighter than that of white birch. Small-sized log sections of white birch, as well as those of codominant silver birch, typically contain many dead knots. On mineral soils, coniferous admixture had a positive effect on self-pruning of white birch. Self-pruning of silver birch was as good in pure birch stands as in mixed stands of spruce and birch. Occurrence of decay did not differ significantly between the two birch species. Not only silver birch, due to the growth and yield of the stand, but also vigorous and good-quality white birch, because of the possibility to provide high-quality logs, can be maintained profitably as an admixture in coniferous forests until final cutting.
  • Heräjärvi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
article id 623, category Research article
Anders Roos, Matti Flinkman, Armas Jäppinen, Mats Warensjö. (2000). Adoption of value-adding processes in Swedish sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.623
Adding value to lumber by processing it after sawing and standard drying is one means for the sawmilling industry to increase market shares in competition with other materials, e.g. glass, steel, concrete, aluminium, and plastics. In this study the adoption patterns of value-adding processes used in Swedish softwood sawmills were analysed based on production data from 1995. About 90% of the sawmills applied a value-adding process after initial sawing and drying, and 72% of the sawmills applied two or more processes. The total share of processed sawnwood was about 40%. Important dimensions of value-adding processes are: extra drying and production of blanks for doors/windows and for furniture; surface-treatment, mainly planing, which is sometimes associated with preservation and painting; length trimming and pallet production; extra drying and production of edge-glued panels and laminated beams; and stress grading and production of building components. The association of different value-adding dimensions with location, ownership and production characteristics were investigated. The total share of value-added production were higher for private sawmills than for mills owned by forest companies or by forest owners’ associations, and it was higher for mills in southern Sweden than for sawmills in other parts of the country. Value-added share does not clearly correlate with mill size or with the dominating tree species being sawn.
  • Roos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.roos@sh.slu.se (email)
  • Flinkman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jäppinen, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Warensjö, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 667, category Research article
Timo Kärki. (1999). Predicting the value of grey alder (Alnus incana) logs based on external quality. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.667
The quality of grey alder logs (Alnus incana) was studied by sawing sample logs from two different forests in November 1995–February 1996. For grading of grey alder logs and sawn timber the proposed system of Keinänen and Tahvanainen (1995) plus the reject -grade was used. In general, grey alder logs have knots from the base to the top. All types of knots appear, and the length of the knot-free section is small at the base. In small-dimensioned logs there are fewer knots than in larger logs. Especially in large top logs, there were many more fresh knots than in other types of logs. Evidently, in different types of logs the different grades of sawn timber are located in comparable sections along the length. It also seems that the worse the grade class was, the longer was also the length of the class. The most common reasons for decreasing grade were dry knots and discoloration.
  • Kärki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. BOX 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.karki@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
article id 700, category Research article
Riitta H. Hänninen. (1998). Exchange rate changes and the Finnish sawnwood demand and price in the UK market. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 700. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.700
This paper examines the long-run influence of exchange rate changes on the Finnish sawnwood price in the United Kingdom (UK) using quarterly data for the period 1978–1994. The degree of influence was measured by a pass-through coefficient (PT) obtained from a markup pricing relation of a system model. The model, which included export demand and price equations, was estimated with the cointegration method of Johansen. The results indicated a large PT, which means that exchange rate changes are reflected almost proportionately in Finnish export price expressed in pounds sterling. Thus, the Finnish price of sawnwood in pounds has lowered as a result of depreciation of the Finnish markka (FIM). This has improved Finnish competitiveness and market share in the UK. Appreciation of the FIM has had the opposite effect. It seems that Finnish exporters have made use of depreciations and devaluations of the FIM to maintain and increase their market shares but not necessarily their markups. For Finland, which is in the process of joining the European economic and monetary union (EMU), knowing the size of the PT is also important in assessing the economic impact of membership.
  • Hänninen, Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, 00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riitta.hanninen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 1026, category Research note
Leif Nutto, Ricardo A. Malinovski, Martin Brunsmeier, Felipe Schumacher Sant’Anna. (2013). Ergonomic aspects and productivity of different pruning tools for a first pruning lift of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1026
Highlights: Pruning of hardwoods coming from forest plantations is becoming more and more important in Brazil to replace scarce wood from tropical forests; Evaluating productivity of different pruning tools is essential for the economic output of plantations managed for high quality wood; Pruning activities of forest workers can be classified as “hard” or “very hard work”. Depending on the tools used physical long-term damages may be prevented.
For the substitution of wood from tropical rainforests pruning of Eucalyptus for producing valuable hardwoods in short rotation plantations has become important. Existing tools and ergonomic aspects of pruning were not yet well analysed under these conditions. The objective of the study is to evaluate the productivity and ergonomics of three different pruning tools in a pruning lift up to 3 m in height. The trees used in the study came from an 18-month-old clonal Eucalyptus grandis stand planted in a 5.0 x 2.8 m spacing. Two manual pruning tools and an electric shear were tested for productivity by using time studies. Ergonomic aspects were evaluated by two test persons using pulse meter equipment. The highest productivity could be shown for the electric shear (236 trees per working day), followed by the manual shear (196 trees/day) and the handsaw (180 trees/day). The heartbeat rate of the two test persons ranged from a level of “very hard work” for the manual tools to “middle hard” and “hard work” for the electric shear. The workload level to achieve the productivity currently reached in practice using purely manual tools is extremely high, exceeding the permanent working capacity of the operators and leading to physical degradation on the long run.
  • Nutto, Department for Forestry, Federal University of Paraná, Av. Pref. Lothário Meissner, 632, Curitiba, PR, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: lnutto.ufpr@gmail.com (email)
  • Malinovski, Department for Forestry, Laboratory of Forest Operations, Federal University of Paraná, Av. Prefeito Lothario Meissner, 900, Curitiba, PR, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: ricardo@colheitademadeira.com.br
  • Brunsmeier, Chair of Forest Utilization, University of Freiburg, Werthmannstraße 6, 79085 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: martin.brunsmeier@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de
  • Schumacher Sant’Anna, Department for Forestry, Laboratory of Forest Operations, Federal University of Paraná, Av. Prefeito Lothario Meissner, 900, Curitiba, PR, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: felipe@colheitademadeira.com.br
article id 379, category Research note
Daniel Ligné, Lars Eliasson, Tomas Nordfjell. (2005). Time consumption and damage to the remaining stock in mechanised and motor manual pre-commercial thinning. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 379. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.379
Selective pre-commercial thinning (PCT) is usually carried out by workers with a brush saw in order to increase the growth of the potential crop trees (main stems) through removal of competing trees. In the last decade relative PCT costs have increased, partly because stands are denser and have higher trees when treated, which has led to new interest for mechanised PCT. The objective was to compare mechanised and motor manual PCT regarding productivity and damage to remaining main stems. Time consumption for, and damage after, mechanised and motor manual PCT were studied on 50 plots per treatment in mixed pine birch stands with an initial stand density exceeding 4500 stems ha–1. In the present study productivity was influenced by stand density, stand height and the quota between height and diameter. Irrespectively of these factors, mechanised PCT was 0.74 hours ha–1 slower than motor manual PCT. Motor manual PCT of the average stand (average height 3.69 m, 10 816 stems ha–1) took 5.06 effective hours. In average 2475 and 2805 main stems ha–1 were left after the mechanised and motor manual treatments, respectively, whereof 1.3 and 2.1% were damaged by the treatments. The results show that efficiency in motor manual PCT has increased in dense and tall stands compared to older studies. Motor manual PCT was more time effective than mechanised PCT, and thereby also even more cost-effective. However, the potential for technical and methodological development of mechanised PCT is probably larger than for motor manual PCT.
  • Ligné, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eliasson@norraskogsagarna.se (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7184, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1967). Havusahatavaran valmistus kenttäpyörösahalla : työtieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 3 article id 7184. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7184
English title: The preparation of coniferous sawn goods using circular saws. A work study.

The objectives of the paper were to find out structure of the sawing time when using field circular saws, influence of the different factors on the sawing time and its structure, average sawing time per unit of raw material and sawn goods, and the fundamentals for the creation of an equitable system for the determination of the basis of payment in sawing work. The observations of the time study were made on both a single log and a work period basis. The material was collected using four saws of different brands.

The results showed that the season when the work was done, and top diameter of the logs to be sawn affected the constant times included in the total sawing time and the time used for sawing of center pieces. While the tree species did not affect the constant times, the grade of the logs of different tree species did have effect, especially in winter sawing. The factors affecting the different phases of the work are described in detail. The length of sawing time was longer in the winter than in the summer. The preparatory jobs in sawing required in average 82 cmin per log, and the time increased with increasing top diameter. The actual sawing is the most time-consuming part of the work, it took in average 132 cmin. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7184, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1967). Havusahatavaran valmistus kenttäpyörösahalla : työtieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 3 article id 7184. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7184
English title: The preparation of coniferous sawn goods using circular saws. A work study.

The objectives of the paper were to find out structure of the sawing time when using field circular saws, influence of the different factors on the sawing time and its structure, average sawing time per unit of raw material and sawn goods, and the fundamentals for the creation of an equitable system for the determination of the basis of payment in sawing work. The observations of the time study were made on both a single log and a work period basis. The material was collected using four saws of different brands.

The results showed that the season when the work was done, and top diameter of the logs to be sawn affected the constant times included in the total sawing time and the time used for sawing of center pieces. While the tree species did not affect the constant times, the grade of the logs of different tree species did have effect, especially in winter sawing. The factors affecting the different phases of the work are described in detail. The length of sawing time was longer in the winter than in the summer. The preparatory jobs in sawing required in average 82 cmin per log, and the time increased with increasing top diameter. The actual sawing is the most time-consuming part of the work, it took in average 132 cmin. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7184, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1967). Havusahatavaran valmistus kenttäpyörösahalla : työtieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 3 article id 7184. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7184
English title: The preparation of coniferous sawn goods using circular saws. A work study.

The objectives of the paper were to find out structure of the sawing time when using field circular saws, influence of the different factors on the sawing time and its structure, average sawing time per unit of raw material and sawn goods, and the fundamentals for the creation of an equitable system for the determination of the basis of payment in sawing work. The observations of the time study were made on both a single log and a work period basis. The material was collected using four saws of different brands.

The results showed that the season when the work was done, and top diameter of the logs to be sawn affected the constant times included in the total sawing time and the time used for sawing of center pieces. While the tree species did not affect the constant times, the grade of the logs of different tree species did have effect, especially in winter sawing. The factors affecting the different phases of the work are described in detail. The length of sawing time was longer in the winter than in the summer. The preparatory jobs in sawing required in average 82 cmin per log, and the time increased with increasing top diameter. The actual sawing is the most time-consuming part of the work, it took in average 132 cmin. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7141, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 1. Aineiston hankinta ja käsittely sekä tulosten luotettavuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 1 article id 7141. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7141
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland I. Collection and treatment of the material and reliability of the results.

The purpose of this paper is 1) to establish the possible seasonal variation of the different phases of work in the sawmill industry in Finland, 2) to study the internal and external factors influencing the seasonal character of the sawmill industry, 3) to study ha time lags between the work phases of the sawmill industry, 4) to analyse the seasonal nature of the industry’s money transactions, and 5) to give information concerning the factors influencing employment. The investigation is based on questionnaires of a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. This paper concentrates on the methods of the study, the results are reported in a separate paper in the Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 vol 1.

It was concluded that if seasonal variation in the sawmill industry is to be analysed on the scale it has been in the present work, sampling is the cheapest and most practicable method of collecting the material. If seasonal fluctuation of the industry is to be calculated by size classes, the sample must be allocated into strata by measuring the heterogeneity of the classes with a parameter illustrating seasonal variation. It might be useful to apply these parameters already when the total size of the sample is determined. For the smallest sawmills, for which practically all data have to be collected from primary documents, the most practical method is perhaps to send collectors to the spots. To the larger sawmills the questionnaire can perhaps be sent by mail. A moving index should be obtained for calculation of a seasonal index, but this demands long time series. The collection of the data is described in detail.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7126, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). On the price elasticity of the supply of sawn wood for export. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 4 article id 7126. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7126

The present investigation is concerned with the price elasticity of sawn wood, concentrating on the price elasticity of sawn wood supply for export. The supply of sawn wood for export is referred to the joint attitude to price changes of all producers participating in the market.

The study concludes that producers cannot in the short- and medium-term view use the price parameter to increase total utilization in the sawn wood market. Demand holds a primary position in price formation. The capacity reserve of the sawmills permits great variations in output at the mill level, and thus elasticity in the supply of sawn wood. High timber costs are typical for the industry. Supply of roundwood can easily be adapted even to large variations in demand. The price elasticity of roundwood supply is rather great.

The long process of sawn wood production and the resulting relatively long lead-time of deliveries result in a long adaptation time of supply. Expansion and contraction of sawn wood exports cause, via the effect of exports, on income similar fluctuations in the domestic sales of sawn wood. This weakens the price elasticity of exports in some degree.

The ‘instantaneous elasticity’ upwards of sawn wood supply might be great, but speculation with stocks at the different levels of production often makes it ‘incalculable’. The price elasticity of a medium-long and long period can be expected to be relatively great upwards. The downward elasticity of a period of medium length is probably small. The elasticity of a prolonged period may be influenced by the substitution of other materials for sawn wood.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7126, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). On the price elasticity of the supply of sawn wood for export. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 4 article id 7126. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7126

The present investigation is concerned with the price elasticity of sawn wood, concentrating on the price elasticity of sawn wood supply for export. The supply of sawn wood for export is referred to the joint attitude to price changes of all producers participating in the market.

The study concludes that producers cannot in the short- and medium-term view use the price parameter to increase total utilization in the sawn wood market. Demand holds a primary position in price formation. The capacity reserve of the sawmills permits great variations in output at the mill level, and thus elasticity in the supply of sawn wood. High timber costs are typical for the industry. Supply of roundwood can easily be adapted even to large variations in demand. The price elasticity of roundwood supply is rather great.

The long process of sawn wood production and the resulting relatively long lead-time of deliveries result in a long adaptation time of supply. Expansion and contraction of sawn wood exports cause, via the effect of exports, on income similar fluctuations in the domestic sales of sawn wood. This weakens the price elasticity of exports in some degree.

The ‘instantaneous elasticity’ upwards of sawn wood supply might be great, but speculation with stocks at the different levels of production often makes it ‘incalculable’. The price elasticity of a medium-long and long period can be expected to be relatively great upwards. The downward elasticity of a period of medium length is probably small. The elasticity of a prolonged period may be influenced by the substitution of other materials for sawn wood.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7126, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). On the price elasticity of the supply of sawn wood for export. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 4 article id 7126. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7126

The present investigation is concerned with the price elasticity of sawn wood, concentrating on the price elasticity of sawn wood supply for export. The supply of sawn wood for export is referred to the joint attitude to price changes of all producers participating in the market.

The study concludes that producers cannot in the short- and medium-term view use the price parameter to increase total utilization in the sawn wood market. Demand holds a primary position in price formation. The capacity reserve of the sawmills permits great variations in output at the mill level, and thus elasticity in the supply of sawn wood. High timber costs are typical for the industry. Supply of roundwood can easily be adapted even to large variations in demand. The price elasticity of roundwood supply is rather great.

The long process of sawn wood production and the resulting relatively long lead-time of deliveries result in a long adaptation time of supply. Expansion and contraction of sawn wood exports cause, via the effect of exports, on income similar fluctuations in the domestic sales of sawn wood. This weakens the price elasticity of exports in some degree.

The ‘instantaneous elasticity’ upwards of sawn wood supply might be great, but speculation with stocks at the different levels of production often makes it ‘incalculable’. The price elasticity of a medium-long and long period can be expected to be relatively great upwards. The downward elasticity of a period of medium length is probably small. The elasticity of a prolonged period may be influenced by the substitution of other materials for sawn wood.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7123, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Moitteet ja välimiesmenettelyt Suomen sahatavaran viennissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 1 article id 7123. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7123
English title: Claims and arbitration in exports of sawn goods from Finland.

This study concentrates on claims made against Finnish shippers or referred to arbitration by foreign buyers. The material is collected from two inquiries on claims and arbitrations, sent by the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association to Finnish sawmills engaged to exportation in 1954 and 1958.

On average the claims concerned about 5% of the sawn goods exported from Finland. They affected about 3% of the deliveries from the large sawmills, 10% of the deliveries of medium-sized sawmills and 15–20% of the small sawmills. In large consignments of raw material, variations in quality are not so marked as in smaller ones. Also, the grading of goods is stricter in the larger sawmills, and as they have well-established business relations, they have better opportunities to select goods with a view to demand of the buyer and the marketing areas.

The ratio of goods claimed was least in exports to remote countries, on the Western European markets in exports to Great Britain and the Netherlands. In Belgium, the ratio was high. In 1954 and 1958 approximately 12% of the claims were referred to arbitration. The bigger the sawmills, then on average the smaller the ratio of cases of arbitration in the number of claims. In Belgium, disputes have had to be settled by arbitration most frequently. Over 90% of the claims were made because of defects in quality or condition. About 5% were in respect of the specification of dimensions, and only 5% were related to other reasons than the good themselves. The sums paid for claims connected to the goods in 1958 represented only 54% of those demanded by the buyers. It would perhaps be advisable to consider the formulation of generally acceptable rules of the grading of export timber according to categories of shippers with definition of the minimum standard for each grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7123, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Moitteet ja välimiesmenettelyt Suomen sahatavaran viennissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 1 article id 7123. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7123
English title: Claims and arbitration in exports of sawn goods from Finland.

This study concentrates on claims made against Finnish shippers or referred to arbitration by foreign buyers. The material is collected from two inquiries on claims and arbitrations, sent by the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association to Finnish sawmills engaged to exportation in 1954 and 1958.

On average the claims concerned about 5% of the sawn goods exported from Finland. They affected about 3% of the deliveries from the large sawmills, 10% of the deliveries of medium-sized sawmills and 15–20% of the small sawmills. In large consignments of raw material, variations in quality are not so marked as in smaller ones. Also, the grading of goods is stricter in the larger sawmills, and as they have well-established business relations, they have better opportunities to select goods with a view to demand of the buyer and the marketing areas.

The ratio of goods claimed was least in exports to remote countries, on the Western European markets in exports to Great Britain and the Netherlands. In Belgium, the ratio was high. In 1954 and 1958 approximately 12% of the claims were referred to arbitration. The bigger the sawmills, then on average the smaller the ratio of cases of arbitration in the number of claims. In Belgium, disputes have had to be settled by arbitration most frequently. Over 90% of the claims were made because of defects in quality or condition. About 5% were in respect of the specification of dimensions, and only 5% were related to other reasons than the good themselves. The sums paid for claims connected to the goods in 1958 represented only 54% of those demanded by the buyers. It would perhaps be advisable to consider the formulation of generally acceptable rules of the grading of export timber according to categories of shippers with definition of the minimum standard for each grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7484
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7484
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7484
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7484
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7480, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1958). Suomesta myydyn havusahatavaran hintasuhteiden muutokset vuosina 1932-38 ja 1951-56. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 6 article id 7480. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7480
English title: Changes in the price ratios of sawn softwood sold by Finland in 1932-38 and 1951-56.

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the changes in the price ratios of different tree species of sawn timber, timber sizes and qualities, the ratios of the prices obtained by different shippers and from different countries, and their changes, especially the trends and business cycles. The data can be utilized in the organization of sawing and the drawing up of the price scales. The price ratios were calculated by taking 100 as the basic quantity and calculating the values for the other quantities accordingly, the values are called price indices. The data is collected from the sales reports in the archives of the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association.

Comparing the ratios of the basic prices, the prices of unsorted pine goods by shipper B (the leading marks of Northern Finland), were considerably higher than the others. The North Finnish pine goods are of the best quality in Finland. The price differences between the other shippers were small. The prices of unsorted spruce goods differed very little with different shippers. In some years the basic prices obtained for pine from different countries showed considerable differences although, in the overall view, the differences were small.

In the leading marks of Northern Finland, the differences between pine and spruce prices was greater than the other price differences. The quality of pine logs in Northern Finland is extremely high. During the periods of prosperity, the price difference between pine and spruce was relatively smaller than during depression. With spruce goods, the relative price difference for the qualities is smaller than with pine goods. For the both species the relative price differences diminished with the increase in the basic price. In the broadest sizes of unsorted pine goods, the price difference of the inch class is much bigger than in the small sizes. This is true especially for boards. The relative price difference between boards and battens increased distinctly with the advance in the basic price. A similar, though not as clear change took place in the price ratio of board and 7” sizes. The price differences between battens and boards are much smaller for spruce than for pine. The trends of the price indices of the different sizes show from the middle of 1920s and as far as the 9” u/s pine sizes very gentle, and in regards of the corresponding spruce sizes, a fairly sharp rising tendency.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7480, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1958). Suomesta myydyn havusahatavaran hintasuhteiden muutokset vuosina 1932-38 ja 1951-56. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 6 article id 7480. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7480
English title: Changes in the price ratios of sawn softwood sold by Finland in 1932-38 and 1951-56.

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the changes in the price ratios of different tree species of sawn timber, timber sizes and qualities, the ratios of the prices obtained by different shippers and from different countries, and their changes, especially the trends and business cycles. The data can be utilized in the organization of sawing and the drawing up of the price scales. The price ratios were calculated by taking 100 as the basic quantity and calculating the values for the other quantities accordingly, the values are called price indices. The data is collected from the sales reports in the archives of the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association.

Comparing the ratios of the basic prices, the prices of unsorted pine goods by shipper B (the leading marks of Northern Finland), were considerably higher than the others. The North Finnish pine goods are of the best quality in Finland. The price differences between the other shippers were small. The prices of unsorted spruce goods differed very little with different shippers. In some years the basic prices obtained for pine from different countries showed considerable differences although, in the overall view, the differences were small.

In the leading marks of Northern Finland, the differences between pine and spruce prices was greater than the other price differences. The quality of pine logs in Northern Finland is extremely high. During the periods of prosperity, the price difference between pine and spruce was relatively smaller than during depression. With spruce goods, the relative price difference for the qualities is smaller than with pine goods. For the both species the relative price differences diminished with the increase in the basic price. In the broadest sizes of unsorted pine goods, the price difference of the inch class is much bigger than in the small sizes. This is true especially for boards. The relative price difference between boards and battens increased distinctly with the advance in the basic price. A similar, though not as clear change took place in the price ratio of board and 7” sizes. The price differences between battens and boards are much smaller for spruce than for pine. The trends of the price indices of the different sizes show from the middle of 1920s and as far as the 9” u/s pine sizes very gentle, and in regards of the corresponding spruce sizes, a fairly sharp rising tendency.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7463, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1955). Koivun vetopuun anatomisesta rakenteesta ja ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7463
English title: On the anatomical structure and properties of the tension wood in birch.

The investigation concerns with the strength of the eccentric growth accompanying formation of tension wood in silver birch  (Betula pendula Roth.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), behaviour of wood in wood-working machines and its macroscopic characteristics, its microscopic and sub-microscopic structure, chemical composition, resistance against certain chemicals, physical properties, and the strength characteristics of wood.

The most detrimental properties of tension wood used in wood working industry are high longitudinal shrinkage, warping, twisting and checking. The wooliness of the cut is unwanted, for instance, in plywood and furniture. In pulp industry tension wood is better raw material than normal wood because it yields more and purer cellulose than normal wood. However, it has poorer strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7462, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1955). Suomesta Pohjanmeren maihin vuosina 1920-1952 viety havusahatavara : koostumuksen muutokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 2 article id 7462. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7462
English title: Export of sawn softwood from Finland to the North Sea Countries in 1920-1952.

The objective of the investigation was to study the trends and fluctuations in the composition of sawn goods, changes due to business cycles, and casual fluctuations. The subject is confined to sawn softwood export to Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and France (The North Sea countries) in 1920-1952. The data was based mainly on statistics of the Board of Customs, Series of Foreign Trade, Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Official Statistics.

The North Sea countries took 75-85% of the sawn softwood exported from Finland before World War II, and 50-70% of the quantity exported since the war. Sawn softwood export from Finland is almost exclusively long and small-dimension timber. The composition of the export from Finland to the North Sea countries was defined already during the 1900th century, and no big chances were observed even during the period of 1920-1952. The only definite trend was decrease in the proportion of u/s grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7462, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1955). Suomesta Pohjanmeren maihin vuosina 1920-1952 viety havusahatavara : koostumuksen muutokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 2 article id 7462. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7462
English title: Export of sawn softwood from Finland to the North Sea Countries in 1920-1952.

The objective of the investigation was to study the trends and fluctuations in the composition of sawn goods, changes due to business cycles, and casual fluctuations. The subject is confined to sawn softwood export to Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and France (The North Sea countries) in 1920-1952. The data was based mainly on statistics of the Board of Customs, Series of Foreign Trade, Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Official Statistics.

The North Sea countries took 75-85% of the sawn softwood exported from Finland before World War II, and 50-70% of the quantity exported since the war. Sawn softwood export from Finland is almost exclusively long and small-dimension timber. The composition of the export from Finland to the North Sea countries was defined already during the 1900th century, and no big chances were observed even during the period of 1920-1952. The only definite trend was decrease in the proportion of u/s grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7462, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1955). Suomesta Pohjanmeren maihin vuosina 1920-1952 viety havusahatavara : koostumuksen muutokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 2 article id 7462. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7462
English title: Export of sawn softwood from Finland to the North Sea Countries in 1920-1952.

The objective of the investigation was to study the trends and fluctuations in the composition of sawn goods, changes due to business cycles, and casual fluctuations. The subject is confined to sawn softwood export to Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and France (The North Sea countries) in 1920-1952. The data was based mainly on statistics of the Board of Customs, Series of Foreign Trade, Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Official Statistics.

The North Sea countries took 75-85% of the sawn softwood exported from Finland before World War II, and 50-70% of the quantity exported since the war. Sawn softwood export from Finland is almost exclusively long and small-dimension timber. The composition of the export from Finland to the North Sea countries was defined already during the 1900th century, and no big chances were observed even during the period of 1920-1952. The only definite trend was decrease in the proportion of u/s grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7448, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1954). Suomen havusahatavaran viennin kausimaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 36 article id 7448. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7448
English title: The seasonal fluctuations in the Finnish exports of sawn softwood.

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the seasonal pattern in Finnish export shipments and export sales of sawn softwood in 1927-1953. Statistics concerning shipments have been obtained from the Board of Customs, and material relating to sales has been provided by the Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association (now Finnish Sawmills Association). On the basis of original monthly statistics, 13-month moving averages were computed. Finally, a seasonal index was calculated.

According to the results, the export shipments have a fairly apparent seasonal pattern with very low figures from January to April, a peak from June to August, and thereafter a gradual decline up to the end of the year. There are also considerable variations from year to year but in general the exports follow this rhythm. In contrast to export shipments the seasonal pattern of export sales is characterised by significant irregularity. Market developments and speculation play a far greater role than the seasonal factors. Indeed, a seasonal character in export sales can scarcely be discerned.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7448, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1954). Suomen havusahatavaran viennin kausimaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 36 article id 7448. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7448
English title: The seasonal fluctuations in the Finnish exports of sawn softwood.

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the seasonal pattern in Finnish export shipments and export sales of sawn softwood in 1927-1953. Statistics concerning shipments have been obtained from the Board of Customs, and material relating to sales has been provided by the Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association (now Finnish Sawmills Association). On the basis of original monthly statistics, 13-month moving averages were computed. Finally, a seasonal index was calculated.

According to the results, the export shipments have a fairly apparent seasonal pattern with very low figures from January to April, a peak from June to August, and thereafter a gradual decline up to the end of the year. There are also considerable variations from year to year but in general the exports follow this rhythm. In contrast to export shipments the seasonal pattern of export sales is characterised by significant irregularity. Market developments and speculation play a far greater role than the seasonal factors. Indeed, a seasonal character in export sales can scarcely be discerned.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7431, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Sahatavaran vientitulon jakaantumisesta vuosina 1913-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 19 article id 7431. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7431
English title: On the distribution of income from Finnish sawn timber exports in 1913-1953.

The investigation studies the development of a logger’s daily earnings, a sawmill worker’s hourly earnings, saw timber stumpage prices and saw timber export prices, expressed in marks in Finland in 1913-1953, concentrating upon the trends of real value.

Although worker’s earnings in forestry and sawmilling have developed differently especially in the 1920s, the late 1930s and the early 1940s, their general long-time development has been very similar. On the other hand, the stumpage prices increased in real value much sharply than wages before the World War II. The real value of stumpage prices dropped because of economic regulation measures in the 1940s until regulation was abolished and the Korean War boom raised them in 1951, to fall after that. The development depends partly of the development of export prices for sawn timber.

Without changing the distribution of income from exports the real value of labour earnings, measured by export prices, may rise at most at a pace corresponding to the productivity of work. In logging there has been no actual increase in the productivity in the 20th century. As the increase in the productivity in timber transportation has probably been absorbed in increased wages and capital costs in the branch, a rise in forest labour’s real earnings and stumpage is possible only by means of a rise in the productivity of sawmilling or a change in the distribution of export income. It seems that from the end of World War I up to the middle of 1920s this increase of productivity and in export prices of sawn timber was shared only by capital and possibly mill labour. After that up to World War II stumpage prices rose so steeply that they swallowed the entire increase in productivity and reduced capital’s share of the export price. In the 40s the level of earnings followed the trend of productivity in industry, made possible by a sharp reduction in stumpage.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7431, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Sahatavaran vientitulon jakaantumisesta vuosina 1913-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 19 article id 7431. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7431
English title: On the distribution of income from Finnish sawn timber exports in 1913-1953.

The investigation studies the development of a logger’s daily earnings, a sawmill worker’s hourly earnings, saw timber stumpage prices and saw timber export prices, expressed in marks in Finland in 1913-1953, concentrating upon the trends of real value.

Although worker’s earnings in forestry and sawmilling have developed differently especially in the 1920s, the late 1930s and the early 1940s, their general long-time development has been very similar. On the other hand, the stumpage prices increased in real value much sharply than wages before the World War II. The real value of stumpage prices dropped because of economic regulation measures in the 1940s until regulation was abolished and the Korean War boom raised them in 1951, to fall after that. The development depends partly of the development of export prices for sawn timber.

Without changing the distribution of income from exports the real value of labour earnings, measured by export prices, may rise at most at a pace corresponding to the productivity of work. In logging there has been no actual increase in the productivity in the 20th century. As the increase in the productivity in timber transportation has probably been absorbed in increased wages and capital costs in the branch, a rise in forest labour’s real earnings and stumpage is possible only by means of a rise in the productivity of sawmilling or a change in the distribution of export income. It seems that from the end of World War I up to the middle of 1920s this increase of productivity and in export prices of sawn timber was shared only by capital and possibly mill labour. After that up to World War II stumpage prices rose so steeply that they swallowed the entire increase in productivity and reduced capital’s share of the export price. In the 40s the level of earnings followed the trend of productivity in industry, made possible by a sharp reduction in stumpage.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7399, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1949). Waldsägeuntersuchungen in den nordischen und mitteleuropäischen Ländern. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 3 article id 7399. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7399
English title: Studies on saws used for forest work in Nordic and middle-European countries.

The article presents the development of the saw-alike tools from the Stone Age to Iron Age and to modern times. The most common forms of saws are described and the history of studies on the theme as well.

Repairing of a saw after work is described in detail. The seven phases of the work are: fastening and tightening the saw to the frame, evening the row of the saw tooth, determining the depth of the gullet area, sharpening the teeth, setting of the saw, and check-up of the repair.  

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7399, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1949). Waldsägeuntersuchungen in den nordischen und mitteleuropäischen Ländern. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 3 article id 7399. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7399
English title: Studies on saws used for forest work in Nordic and middle-European countries.

The article presents the development of the saw-alike tools from the Stone Age to Iron Age and to modern times. The most common forms of saws are described and the history of studies on the theme as well.

Repairing of a saw after work is described in detail. The seven phases of the work are: fastening and tightening the saw to the frame, evening the row of the saw tooth, determining the depth of the gullet area, sharpening the teeth, setting of the saw, and check-up of the repair.  

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7374
English title: Results of sawing experiments using wooden bow saw.

Effectiveness of 18 different saw blades of wooden bow saw from four producers (Oy Suomen Sandvik Sahat, Epilä Oy, Ab Orsa Sågbladsfabrik Oy, Kone ja Terä Oy) was tested in 1937. The experiments were divided into test series according to type of maintenance of the blade and tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) to be sawn. Each saw blade was sharpened into four different sharpening angles (54°, 60°, 64°, 70°). Four blades had markedly longer sawing times compared to the others. These blades had a special serration. In addition, two blades with sparse serration had slightly poorer results than the blades in general. When the tree species were compared, birch (Betula sp.) was slowest to saw followed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7374
English title: Results of sawing experiments using wooden bow saw.

Effectiveness of 18 different saw blades of wooden bow saw from four producers (Oy Suomen Sandvik Sahat, Epilä Oy, Ab Orsa Sågbladsfabrik Oy, Kone ja Terä Oy) was tested in 1937. The experiments were divided into test series according to type of maintenance of the blade and tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) to be sawn. Each saw blade was sharpened into four different sharpening angles (54°, 60°, 64°, 70°). Four blades had markedly longer sawing times compared to the others. These blades had a special serration. In addition, two blades with sparse serration had slightly poorer results than the blades in general. When the tree species were compared, birch (Betula sp.) was slowest to saw followed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7374
English title: Results of sawing experiments using wooden bow saw.

Effectiveness of 18 different saw blades of wooden bow saw from four producers (Oy Suomen Sandvik Sahat, Epilä Oy, Ab Orsa Sågbladsfabrik Oy, Kone ja Terä Oy) was tested in 1937. The experiments were divided into test series according to type of maintenance of the blade and tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) to be sawn. Each saw blade was sharpened into four different sharpening angles (54°, 60°, 64°, 70°). Four blades had markedly longer sawing times compared to the others. These blades had a special serration. In addition, two blades with sparse serration had slightly poorer results than the blades in general. When the tree species were compared, birch (Betula sp.) was slowest to saw followed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7372, category Article
Vilho Seppänen. (1942). Sahatukkien teosta aikatutkimuksen valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 19 article id 7372. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7372
English title: Time studies on making of saw logs.

A time study was conducted in saw log harvesting site in state forests of Evo in Southern Finland in 1934. Felling was performed in teams of two loggers. Two teams were observed. The work was divided into several stages of work: felling, branching, cross-cutting, barking and making of top log. On the site grew Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The daily working hours not including breaks was in average 5 hours and 33 minutes. The most time-consuming stage of the work was barking of the stem (55% of working time for Scots pine and 47% for Norway spruce), followed by felling (22.5% for pine and 19.4% for spruce), branching (11.7% and 21.6%) and cross-cutting (11.3% and 11.8%). Temperature affects barking strongly. Scots pine is slower to bark than Norway spruce. Similarly, butt and middle logs are slower to bark than top logs. It took in average 79.02 min to process one solid m3 of timber with bark and 91.45 min without bark.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7335, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuus raaka-aineen käyttäjänä vuosina 1925-1935. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 7335. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7335
English title: The consumption of wood in forest manufacturing industry in Finland in 1925-1935.
English keywords: saw industry; pulp industry

The consumption of wood and the value of the wood in the forest manufacturing industry in 1925‒1935 was studied using the official industrial statistics as the main source of data. The annual wood consumption of sawmills, plywood industry, match production, wood-wool industry, spool production, mechanical pulp mills, sulfite pulp mills and sulfate pulp mills was in average 15.6 million cubic meters, of which 4.0 million m3 was pulpwood, 11 million m3 saw logs and 0.44 million m3 veneer timber. The spool production used 163,200 m3, match production 39,900 m3 and wood-wool production 7,900 m3 of wood. When the wood consumption is at its maximum levels, the fellings cannot be increased sustainably. Thus, the sawing cannot be increased from the present level. The growth of pulp industry has created demand for small timber, and in that industry there is room for expansion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7270, category Article
Eino Saari. (1932). Tutkimuksia Suomen sahateollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 7270. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7270
English title: Studies on cost of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry.

The article is a review on the costs of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry in 1920s based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries). The article includes statistics about the average size of if the saw timber bought in standing sales from private forests and harvested from the industry’s own forests, stumpage price of the timber, and labour costs of the harvesting of the wood. The average size of the logs was greater in the northern part of Finland, where the sawmills could limit the purchases of smaller timber. In the southern part of the country, the size of the timber decreased in 1922‒1926 due to growing demand of the timber. The long transport distances in the north influenced the costs. The number of logs per tree increased during the period. The level of stumpage price varied considerably in different parts of the country, falling from the south-west to the east and north. Competition of raw material increased the stumpage prices in 1922a and 1926‒27. The international economic downturn influenced the industry in 1929‒1931.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7267, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Jalostamattoman puutavaran vienti Suomesta vuosina 1911-1931. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 7267. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7267
English title: Export of roundwood from Finland in 1911‒1931.
Original keywords: puun vienti; raakapuu; vienti; sahatukki; parru

The export of roundwood from Finland was studied based on the official statistics of foreign trade. The volumes were converted to solid volumes under bark. Roundwood (logs and masts) or raw timber trade consisted mainly of saw logs. The main tree species was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrs L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The annual volumes varied from 29,200 m3 in the war year 1918 to 657,200 m3 in 1924. Before the World War I the roundwood was exported mainly to Sweden and Russia, after the war the trade to Russia ceased. Also split spillet was a significant export item before the war. The export peaked in 1916 to 3 million m3, but decreased after the war to 30,000‒40,000 m3. The most important export item in the group of hewn timber has been Egyptian rafters, with annual export of 15,000‒284,600 m3 with the exception of the time of war. The export of spars exported to other countries than Egypt was highest before the war with 125,000 m3. The export of sleepers varied strongly, peaking in 1922. The total export of roundwood varied from 131,000 m3 in 1918 to 4.3 million m3 in 1927. Roundwood has mainly been exported to the European countries. Before the war, the main trading partners were United Kingdom and Russia. After the war the share of United Kingdom was nearly half of the volume, and Russia was replaced with Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7202, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Piirteitä sahan ja saharaamin alkukehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 7202. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7202
English title: Features in the early development of saws and saw frames.
Original keywords: saha; saharaami; sahalaitteisto; kehäsaha

The article describes the evolution of sawmills, focusing on four parts: the frame and sliding devices, the fastening of the blade into the frame, appliances for fastening the timber, and feeding devices. The earlier equipment had adaptability that has been lost in the more developed equipment, because the raw materials have been too expensive and hard to acquire, among other things. It is remarked that many inventions of the sawmills have not been adopted in the actual equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7202, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Piirteitä sahan ja saharaamin alkukehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 7202. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7202
English title: Features in the early development of saws and saw frames.
Original keywords: saha; saharaami; sahalaitteisto; kehäsaha

The article describes the evolution of sawmills, focusing on four parts: the frame and sliding devices, the fastening of the blade into the frame, appliances for fastening the timber, and feeding devices. The earlier equipment had adaptability that has been lost in the more developed equipment, because the raw materials have been too expensive and hard to acquire, among other things. It is remarked that many inventions of the sawmills have not been adopted in the actual equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7202, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Piirteitä sahan ja saharaamin alkukehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 7202. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7202
English title: Features in the early development of saws and saw frames.
Original keywords: saha; saharaami; sahalaitteisto; kehäsaha

The article describes the evolution of sawmills, focusing on four parts: the frame and sliding devices, the fastening of the blade into the frame, appliances for fastening the timber, and feeding devices. The earlier equipment had adaptability that has been lost in the more developed equipment, because the raw materials have been too expensive and hard to acquire, among other things. It is remarked that many inventions of the sawmills have not been adopted in the actual equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5576, category Article
Matti Nuorteva, Lennart Saari. (1996). Winter ecology of a female White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechstein). Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5576. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9221

In the winter of 1977/78, a White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos Bechstein) was observed in the archipelago of southwestern Finland 200 km from its breeding areas. It foraged on insects living in mall dead alder and birches. The potential prey species were identified by rearing the insects from the trunks used by the White-backed Woodpecker. Altogether 628 adult insects emerged. In addition to the big larvae the potential food also included larvae of Sciaridae and Cecidomyidae (Diptera) living in dense clumps.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5547, category Article
Tiina Tolvanen-Sikanen, Pertti Harstela, Lauri Sikanen. (1995). A game theoretic simulation model for quality oriented timber supply to sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5547. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9198

The first aim of this study was to develop a simulation model describing the flow of different timber qualities to different firms. The second aim was to study preliminary the factors which affect timber distributions. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that in a small sawmill firm the traditional way of organizing timber procurement does not direct effectively good quality logs to the special production. The game theoretic approaching and the principles of Monte-Carlo simulation were applied in development of the simulation model. The most important factors of the model were tried to find for further studies with sensitive analysis. Empirical validation brought forth promising results in the area of one municipality. The buyer’s awareness of a marked stand, the seller’s willingness to sell a marked stand, the buyer’s ability to pay for wood and the proportion of first quality pine logs in a marked stand affected the distribution of pine logs. The results also supported the hypothesis that the traditional system, in which sawmills or their own forest departments procure themselves all timber needed, is not the most effective way to direct enough good quality timber to the special production.

  • Tolvanen-Sikanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sikanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5447, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen. (1991). Pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, found in packing case wood. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15601

Living third dispersal stage juveniles of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, were found infesting pine boards in Finland. The boards had been used as building material in a packing case to hold imported machinery. Total numbers of nematodes extracted from the boards did not exceed 4 grams of dry wood. When cultured on Botrytis cinerea the nematode reproduction resumed rapidly.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5192, category Article
Kauko Koljonen. (1983). Inter-industry linkages of forestry and forest industry sectors in the Tanzanian economy. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15175

Sawmilling and Carpentry, Forestry and Hunting, and Food Grains are the economic sectors compared in this study by means of the total input-output coefficient. The coefficient measures the value of direct and indirect demand in the economy caused by a demand worth one monetary unit on the sector in focus. Forestry sector has the weakest linkage to other sectors. The derived coefficients are 1.693 for Sawmilling and Carpentry, 1.183 for Food Grain and 1.167 for Forestry and Hunting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koljonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5187, category Article
Fuhe Luo. (1983). Determination of stem value. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5187. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15170

A dynamic programming approach toward stem value estimation for standing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was developed. The determination of the saw log value was based on the sawing pattern and on the final products composition. The combination of taper curve models and bark models providing taper curves both over bark and under bark, which constituted the basis of the optimum stem scaling. A computer program was developed to determine the optimum log sequence of the stem aiming at maximizing the value of the final products. To examine the reliability of the computation system, 445 Scots pine sample trees from 29 stands were used as a test material. The stem values of sample trees were calculated in two ways: 1) with 12 measured diameters, and 2) with 12 estimated diameters derived from measured tree characteristics. In both cases the values of the intermediate diameters were calculated via cubic spline interpolation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5182, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Herman Hakala. (1983). Kuusitukin koon vaikutus sivulautojen taivutus- ja puristuslujuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5182. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15098
English title: Effect of log size on the bending and compression strength of side boards in Norway spruce.

In order to evaluate the strength properties of boards made from small and large Norway spruce (Picea abies) butt logs, 15 small (top end diameter 13 cm) and 15 large (top end diameter 25 cm) logs were sampled from a sawmill in Finland. From each log two test pieces were made in order to measure the bending and compression strength, dry density and average ring width.

The boards from small logs were stronger and their density higher. When the differences between groups were analysed it was found that the strength was determined by the density and ring width. When the density was kept constant, the increase in ring width had a decreasing effect on the strength properties. Because there was a negative correlation between ring width and density, ring width alone had a great effect on the strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5182, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Herman Hakala. (1983). Kuusitukin koon vaikutus sivulautojen taivutus- ja puristuslujuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5182. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15098
English title: Effect of log size on the bending and compression strength of side boards in Norway spruce.

In order to evaluate the strength properties of boards made from small and large Norway spruce (Picea abies) butt logs, 15 small (top end diameter 13 cm) and 15 large (top end diameter 25 cm) logs were sampled from a sawmill in Finland. From each log two test pieces were made in order to measure the bending and compression strength, dry density and average ring width.

The boards from small logs were stronger and their density higher. When the differences between groups were analysed it was found that the strength was determined by the density and ring width. When the density was kept constant, the increase in ring width had a decreasing effect on the strength properties. Because there was a negative correlation between ring width and density, ring width alone had a great effect on the strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5164, category Article
Juhani Kangas, Tapio Klen. (1982). Raivaussahan kantokäsittelylaitteen käyttäjän altistuminen torjunta-aineille. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5164. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15079
English title: Exposure of forest workers to herbicides.

The purpose of this study was to measure workers’ exposure to MCPA and glyphosate when sprayers connected to the brush saws was used. A non-pressurized sprayer with a pump and a pressurized sprayer where dosage was regulated with manual control were studied. Exposure was measured from the breathing zone and urine samples.

MCPA collected from the breathing zone gathered into alcohol was 0.05 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.02 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.04 mg/m3 (average) for both types of sprayers together.

MCPA in the breathing zone, collected from splashes and fog into a glass fibre filter, was 0.18 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.09 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.12 mg/m3 for both sprayers used together. Glyphosate in the breathing zone, collected into sodium hydroxide was below 0.05 mg/m3.

In five urine samples taken after the work day there was on the average 0.4 mg/l MCPA, while in 21 samples the MCPA contents were under the definition limit (0.2 mg/l).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Klen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5139, category Article
Boguslaw Molski, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Wojciech Dmuchowski. (1981). Content of sulphur and fluorine compounds in Scots pine needles as an indicator of air pollution in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5139. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15366

Our preliminary findings indicate that the content of total sulphur and soluble fluorides in needles of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reflects the degree of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. A project for a map of air pollution in Poland, based on chemical analysis of Scots pine needles, is presented. Results of the total sulphur and soluble fluoride content in 2-year old needles from 15- to 25-year-old trees should yield a picture of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. The first stage will involve the preparation of a map of the area between the Warsaw and Plock agglomerations. This area will be divided into 10 squares with side dimension of 25 km each. Samples will be taken at 5 different sites in each square and also approximately every 5 km along a straight line between these towns.

  • Molski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bytnerowicz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dmuchowski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4870, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1972). Tumamonisärmiöviruksen käytöstä ruskean mäntypistiäisen (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4870. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14676
English title: Use of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus in the control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.).

Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.

When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4818, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Moottorisahojen valinnasta teknisten ominaisuuksien ja hinnan perusteella. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4818. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14607
English title: The choice of power saws on the basis of the price and technical properties.

This investigation studies the effect of the retail price and the technical properties of preference ordering of buyers of power saw. According to the model derived, the preference ordering of power saws is due to technical properties xj. If no such restrictions in the function are supposed that could have bearing on the preferences of the buyers, there may be N ! possible combinations, when there are N power saws. If one can presume that each price corresponds with a technical level it is possible that each buyer has an optimum price of his own. The bigger the difference between the optimum and actual price, the less preferred the actual power saw is. In this case one may notice the amount of possible orderings is much less than that based on the model. Thus, the mode may be used.

In this paper some models are presented for cases when only n pieces of the population of N power saws are studied. 16 power saws of differing ages and technical levels were investigated. It was noted that many criteria of technical goodness were positively intercorrelated. The price correlated positively with every criterium used. According to the profile analysis, it was concluded that there were many development lines. For example, the idea of a light and the idea of an effective power saw.

According to the principal component analysis, it seemed obvious that there was little room for one- or two-dimensional preference ordering by the technical properties and price.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4760, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Kuusitukkien laatuluokkajakautuma Etelä-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4760. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14544
English title: Grade distribution of Norway spruce logs in Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to find the factors influencing the distribution of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) logs on various grades with special stress on the effects of the grade on the value of logs. The material was obtained from ten sawmills located in Southern Finland by grading a total of 13,559 logs.

The results showed that knottiness in its different forms of appearance is the most important factor influencing the quality of spruce logs. Its significance is clearly greater in spruce than in Scots pine saw logs. Among the other defects, the most common are crooks. Even scars and decay occur to a considerable degree, but other defects seldom affect the grade. The quality of butt logs is markedly better than that of top logs. Both in butt and top logs the smallest logs in diameter are of poorer quality. However, in the largest diameter classes the quality begins again to decrease.

The difference in the quality of logs of the same grade at various sawmills is very small. The results of grading at varying times at the same sawmill show greater differences than can be observed between different sawmills. However, the logs of sawmills that procure the timber from coastal areas and islands are inferior to those which procure the timber from the mainland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7518, category Article
Timo Hartikainen. (1997). Late-industrial sawmill customers. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 257 article id 7518. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7518

The methods of secondary wood processing are assumed to evolve over time and to affect the requirements set for the wood material and its suppliers. The study aims at analysing the industrial operating modes applied by joinery and furniture manufacturers as sawn wood users. Industrial operating mode was defined as a pattern of important decisions and actions taken by a company which describes the company’s level of adjustment in the late-industrial transition.

A non-probabilistic sample of 127 companies was interviewed, including companies from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland. Fifty-two of the firms were furniture manufacturers and the other 75 were producing windows and doors. Variables related to business philosophy, production operations, and suppliers’ choice criteria were measured and used as a basis for a customer typology; variables related to wood usage and perceived sawmill performance were measured to be used to profile the customer types.

Factor analysis was used to determine the latent dimensions of industrial operating mode. Canonical correlation analysis was applied in developing the final base for classifying the observations. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to build a five-group typology of secondary wood processing firms; these ranged from traditional mass producers to late-industrial flexible manufacturers. There was a clear connection between the amounts of late-industrial elements in a company and the share of special and customised sawn wood uses. Those joinery or furniture manufacturers that were late-industrial also were likely to use more component-type wood material and to appreciate customer-oriented sawn wood materials and late-industrial supplier relationships.

  • Hartikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7674, category Article
J. Ashley Selby, Leena Petäjistö. (1992). Small sawmills as enterprises: a behavioural investigation of development potential. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 228 article id 7674. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7674

The investigation examines the development potential of small sawmills in rural Finland. Development is defined with qualitative bias, given small sawmills’ limited possibilities for large-scale investments. Potential is defined in terms of the behavioural limitations to development. The investigation assumes that small sawmill entrepreneurial behaviour is essentially satisficing, and that the concept of bounded rationality is applicable. The empirical material concerns a random sample of 399 sawmills from all regions in Finland collected in connection with the 1990 small sawmill inventory.

Three sets of enterprise/entrepreneurial attributes are constructed using principal component analyses: i) entrepreneurial skills & organization, ii) small sawmill outlets, and iii) information attributes. Development potential is measured by employing discriminant analyses to test these attributes against four a priori sawmill classifications: i) sawmill production structure, ii) entrepreneurial development intentions, ii) sawmill operating environments, and iv) sawmilling as a livelihood. Each of these analyses contributes to an understanding of the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic.

Based on the use of Pred’s behavioural matrix, small sawmill entrepreneurs’ quantity & quality of information and their ability to use information are examined with respect to sawmill typologies. In this way, the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic is given a third dimension, that of the entrepreneurs’ partial space. The analysis is therefore able to examine development potential from the standpoint of an entrepreneur-enterprise-environment (partial space) trialectic.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Petäjistö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7672, category Article
Herman Hakala. (1992). Mäntytukkien sahauksen järeyden mukainen taloudellinen tulos ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 226 article id 7672. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7672
English title: Financial result of sawing Scots pine logs as influenced by top diameter and other associated factors.

The influence of log properties (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages, consumption of electric power and thereby on the financial result of sawing was examined. In addition, the significance of various revenues and costs were studied from the point of view of the financial result of sawing. The revenues from sawing are composed of revenues obtained from sawn goods, chips, sawdust and bark. The costs in sawing are made of raw material, capital, labour, energy and other costs. The results were calculated per diameter class and applying the basic principle of targeting all returns and costs on the different diameter classes.

The results are based on test sawings of a total of 1,606 Scots pine logs representing eight diameter classes,  using conventional frame saw sawing patterns. In addition, a sawing simulator was used. Log top diameter had a significant influence on the financial result obtained when calculations were made per log volume. The financial result obtained for the biggest diameter class exceeded that of the smallest diameter class by FIM 99.1/m3. Sawing revenues accounted for FIM 66.0/m3 and sawing costs for FIM 33.1/m3 of this difference. In addition to being influenced by the top diameter, the yield and sawing efficacy were observed to have a clear influence on the financial result. The influence of stoppages was smaller.

The only means of gaining significant improvement in the annual result obtained from sawing were improvements in the revenues from sawn goods or reductions in the cost of raw material. Increase of the minimum diameter led to a significant improvement in the annual result obtainable from sawing only if the production time remained unchanged; i.e., when correspondingly more logs from the other diameter classes were sawn. If the production time was reduced by an amount corresponding to the increase in minimum diameter, then the annual result fell dramatically except in the case of minimum diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7672, category Article
Herman Hakala. (1992). Mäntytukkien sahauksen järeyden mukainen taloudellinen tulos ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 226 article id 7672. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7672
English title: Financial result of sawing Scots pine logs as influenced by top diameter and other associated factors.

The influence of log properties (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages, consumption of electric power and thereby on the financial result of sawing was examined. In addition, the significance of various revenues and costs were studied from the point of view of the financial result of sawing. The revenues from sawing are composed of revenues obtained from sawn goods, chips, sawdust and bark. The costs in sawing are made of raw material, capital, labour, energy and other costs. The results were calculated per diameter class and applying the basic principle of targeting all returns and costs on the different diameter classes.

The results are based on test sawings of a total of 1,606 Scots pine logs representing eight diameter classes,  using conventional frame saw sawing patterns. In addition, a sawing simulator was used. Log top diameter had a significant influence on the financial result obtained when calculations were made per log volume. The financial result obtained for the biggest diameter class exceeded that of the smallest diameter class by FIM 99.1/m3. Sawing revenues accounted for FIM 66.0/m3 and sawing costs for FIM 33.1/m3 of this difference. In addition to being influenced by the top diameter, the yield and sawing efficacy were observed to have a clear influence on the financial result. The influence of stoppages was smaller.

The only means of gaining significant improvement in the annual result obtained from sawing were improvements in the revenues from sawn goods or reductions in the cost of raw material. Increase of the minimum diameter led to a significant improvement in the annual result obtainable from sawing only if the production time remained unchanged; i.e., when correspondingly more logs from the other diameter classes were sawn. If the production time was reduced by an amount corresponding to the increase in minimum diameter, then the annual result fell dramatically except in the case of minimum diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7627, category Article
Markku Simula. (1983). Productivity differentials in the Finnish forest industries. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 180 article id 7627. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7627

Improvement of Finnish forest industries’ competitiveness in the world markets through productivity increase as branch and plant level requires the search for appropriate comprehensive productivity indicators and the analysis of factors underlying productivity variations. These were the main objectives of the study. The data was based on the information on individual plants in 1974, obtained from the files of Industrial Statistics in the Central Statistical Office in Finland.

The study uses neoclassical average production functions as the starting point and the theory is expanded to cover factors underlying productivity variation when measured with regard to labour, capital, material input, and total factor input. For the measurement of the latter an index formula is suggested which would not necessarily incorporate neoclassical assumptions as they cannot be assumed valid in the Finnish forest industries. The estimation results of average production functions suggest increasing rate of returns in sawmilling but in pulp and paper production evidence remains inconclusive. The elasticity of substitution is unlikely to be constant and the non-homotheticity assumption cannot be rejected.

The productivity variation is, in general, best explained by a relatively simple model with capital-labour ratio, plant size and output quality as explanatory factors. Further trials with input quality, input price ratio, process characteristics, and the rate of capacity utilization improved the models only marginally in most cases, which may have been partly due to the failure to measure the variables successfully.

The cross-section results are compared with those of an earlier time-series study. The estimation results of average production functions yield somewhat different information in the long and short run. Both cross-section and time-series productivity models illustrate the importance of output level in total productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7544, category Article
Yrjö Vuokila. (1970). Harsintaperiaate kasvatushakkuissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 110 article id 7544. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7544
English title: Selection from above in Intermediate cuttings.

This study is concerned with silvicultural selection from above. The material consists of 18 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots in the southern half of Finland in experimental forests. The method is motivated by the great difference between the stumpage prices of saw timber and pulpwood. The method suggested includes the removal of individuals belonging to the predominating canopy, to achieve high levels of income from the stand at an early stage. The method is applied at when the growing stock is attaining saw-timber size. Before that the stand is treated with thinnings from below. It is supposed that the volume of growing stock is maintained at a level as high as that in below-thinned stands, and that rotation is of normal length.

On the average, the increment in basal area, as well as volume increment, is greater in stands selectively cut from above than in those treated with low thinnings of the same degree. Initially, selection from above seems to exert a negative effect upon the development of dominant height; later, the dominant height reassumes the same rate of increment as in the below-thinned stands. Selection from above also means an increase in saw-timber production, although it involves a reduction in the mean size of saw timber. The investigation includes growth and yield tables for pine stands treated with silvicultural selection from above.

The results of the investigation prove that silvicultural selection from above is at least as profitable as low thinning. This provides freedom for stand treatment, and contributes to the application of a method most suitable for the owner in each individual case. It is further stressed that the maintenance of a high wood capital in the stand is far more important than the method of thinning applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vuokila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4694, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Metsäntuotteet Ison-Britannian rakennusaineiden mainonnassa. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9133
English title: The position of forest products in advertising of building materials in Great Britain.

This paper concentrates on analysing advertising of building materials used in residential, agricultural and factory building, power station construction, warehouse building and the joinery industry in Great Britain, concentrating on advertising to consumers, including architects, engineers, building entrepreneurs, farmers and do-it-yourself practitioners. The material is based on questionnaires answered by 8 professionals of the field, and assessment of two leading English paper in the field of construction in January 1 – June 30, 1959.

It was concluded that forest products were clearly less advertised than other building materials. The unweight average degree of advertising of all forest products was. 1.7, while the score was 2.6 for other materials. Of the different forest products stand out advertising of plywood and sawn good. The most extensively advertised materials were metals, concrete and cement, and some covering materials. Forest products accounted only ¼ of the advertising space in the publications.

The most important media used in advertising building materials were trade journals, calendars and yearbooks, courses and lectures, exhibitions and fares and direct advertising. The most important audience of advertising were architects, followed by the entrepreneurs. It is suggested that the advertising of Finnish products in Great Britain might be best organized by placing it in the hands of two organizations: the sales organisation and a separate body for advertising. The producers would manage the advertising of individual brands to sales level, while the other levels (agents, importers, merchants) would manage the joint advertising of the forest products to the lower sales levels and consumers. A Finnish market research and information offices might be established in Great Britain.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4675, category Article
Gustav Sirén. (1957). Kokemuksia raivaussahan käytöstä metsänhoitotöissä. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4675. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9121
English title: Experiences of brush cutters in silviculture.

The aim of the study was to compare the newly introduced brush cutter to ordinary hand tools in clearing of cutting areas and thinning young birch (Betula sp.) and Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stands. Working with a prototype of the brush cutter, Brushmaster, reduced the total working time by 15-20% compared to bush knife and axe, in spite of the cutter’s weight. At rainy weather the advantage of Brushmaster dissapeared because of clogging of the cutter’s air filter. The prototype proved to be more effective when clearing a cutting area, and hand tools seemed to be faster if damage to the remaining trees have to be avoided.

In addition, eight either lighter or more effective motor saws or brush cutters were compared mutually, and the effect of motor effect, weight, handiness, arrangement of suspenders and handles is discussed. With these improved types of the cutter it was possible to shorten the total working time in thinning of stands (mostly clearing of young stands) to 30-40% of the total working time compared to hand tools. The most modern saws appeared to be best adapted in clearing cutting areas.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4613, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laatuarvioinnin tarkkuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4613. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14009
English title: Accuracy of quality grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses accuracy of the quality grading of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs suggested by professor Ilmari Vuoristo based on a data collected by Valtiala. According to the study, greatest inaccuracies in the grading by visual inspection was caused by differences between the evaluators.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4612, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laadun mukaisista arvosuhteista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4612. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14008
English title: Value grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Quality grading has been rarely used in pricing of saw logs due to lack of knowledge on how the quality of logs affects the value of the sawn wood. This presentation discusses the subject based on unpublished data professor Ilmari Vuoristo collected in 1930s on effects of timber grading on the quality and value of sawn wood. The quality classification developed by professor Vuoristo is presented.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4612, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laadun mukaisista arvosuhteista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4612. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14008
English title: Value grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Quality grading has been rarely used in pricing of saw logs due to lack of knowledge on how the quality of logs affects the value of the sawn wood. This presentation discusses the subject based on unpublished data professor Ilmari Vuoristo collected in 1930s on effects of timber grading on the quality and value of sawn wood. The quality classification developed by professor Vuoristo is presented.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4612, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laadun mukaisista arvosuhteista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4612. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14008
English title: Value grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Quality grading has been rarely used in pricing of saw logs due to lack of knowledge on how the quality of logs affects the value of the sawn wood. This presentation discusses the subject based on unpublished data professor Ilmari Vuoristo collected in 1930s on effects of timber grading on the quality and value of sawn wood. The quality classification developed by professor Vuoristo is presented.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4611, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelulla saavutettavista eduista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14007
English title: Benefits of qualitative classification of saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes benefits of the qualitative classification of saw logs to forest owners and forest industry.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4610, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelutavat. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4610. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14006
English title: Methods of saw log classification according to quality.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the uses and principles of different kinds of grading of saw logs.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4609, category Article
F. E. Siimes. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelu sahatavarain käytön, lajittelun ja koesahausten valossa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4609. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14005
English title: Classification according to quality of saw logs in the light of use, grading and sawing tests of sawn timber.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the grading of sawn timber for export and domestic use, and suggests improvements to grading of the sawn products in the saw mills to better answer the needs of export.

  • Siimes, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4609, category Article
F. E. Siimes. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelu sahatavarain käytön, lajittelun ja koesahausten valossa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4609. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14005
English title: Classification according to quality of saw logs in the light of use, grading and sawing tests of sawn timber.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the grading of sawn timber for export and domestic use, and suggests improvements to grading of the sawn products in the saw mills to better answer the needs of export.

  • Siimes, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4498, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1937). Havupuumetsien laatuarvo ja laadun arviointi. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4498. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13908
English title: Quality of coniferous forests and the value of timber.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the quality of timber and coniferous forests in the point of view of saw industry.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4498, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1937). Havupuumetsien laatuarvo ja laadun arviointi. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4498. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13908
English title: Quality of coniferous forests and the value of timber.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the quality of timber and coniferous forests in the point of view of saw industry.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4498, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1937). Havupuumetsien laatuarvo ja laadun arviointi. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4498. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13908
English title: Quality of coniferous forests and the value of timber.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the quality of timber and coniferous forests in the point of view of saw industry.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive