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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'seedling growth'.

Category: Research article

article id 404, category Research article
William L. Mason, Colin Edwards, Sophie E. Hale. (2004). Survival and early seedling growth of conifers with different shade tolerance in a Sitka spruce spacing trial and relationship to understorey light climate. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 404. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.404
Alternative silvicultural systems to clearfelling are being adopted in Great Britain as a means of increasing the species and structural diversity of conifer plantation forests. One area where knowledge is lacking is the critical level of below-canopy light for survival and growth of young seedlings. This was investigated by planting seedlings of European larch Larix decidua (Mill.), Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis (Bong.(Carr.)), Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.(Franco.)), and western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. (Sarg.)) in a Sitka spruce plantation thinned to 3 different spacings. The incident light intensity beneath the canopy ranged from about 2 to over 60 per cent of full light. Planting in an adjoining open area provided an indication of growth under full light. Growth and survival of these seedlings were followed for 4 growing seasons. The highest seedling survival was found under the widest spacing and declined with closer spacing and lower light intensity. Only Douglas fir and western hemlock seedlings survived at the closest spacing, and in low percentages. The tallest seedlings of each species were found in the open grown conditions but survival was variable due to increased weed competition. Species-specific growth responses showed little difference under high light conditions but performance at low light was generally consistent with shade tolerance rankings in the literature except that Sitka spruce shade tolerance was slightly lower than expected. Minimum light requirements for these species increased from 10 to 30 per cent of full light with decreasing shade tolerance. Other studies of incident light in Sitka spruce plantations indicated that target basal areas in the range 25–30 m2 ha–1 are required if these light conditions are to be met, which suggests an irregular shelterwood system with frequent interventions should be favoured.
  • Mason, Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK, EH25 9SY ORCID ID:E-mail: bill.mason@forestry.gsi.gov.uk (email)
  • Edwards, Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK, EH25 9SY ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hale, Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK, EH25 9SY ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7475, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1958). Liberation of nitrogen from alder leaf litter. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 1 article id 7475. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7475

Litters of different plant species vary greatly in regard to their nutrient content and other properties. The aim of the study was to compare different litters from the standpoint of their value as soil fertilizer. In an experiment Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown in pot cultures in which known amounts of different litters had been mixed with the soil. The tested litters were Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix sibirica (Ledeb.), Betula sp., Populus tremula (L.), Alnus incana (L.) Moench, A. glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.), Sorbus aucuparia (L.), Tilia cordata (Mill.), Acer platanoides (L.), Corylus avellana (L.), Eupteris aquilina (L.), and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.

A striking difference was found between alder (Alnus sp.) leaf litter and all the other litters tested. The difference can be seen from the second growth season on, becaus the young seedling uses mainly the nutrients included in the seed. The leaf litter has mainly unfavourable effect on the growth of the pine seedlings. Only both alder species improve the growth. This is mainly due to the nitrogen content of alder leaves. Tree leaves and other forest litter are often composted in the forest nurseries. It seems that adding nitrogen to the compost is necessary, otherwise compost added to the soil may have a harmful effect on the seedlings. Alder, on the other hand, has nitrogen binding Actinomyces growing in symbiosis in its root nodules, and is able to utilize atmospheric nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5475, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1992). Allelopathic potential of peatland plant species on germination and early seedling growth of Scots pine, silver birch and downy birch. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15636

The potential alleopathic inhibitive effects of aqueous extracts of 13 peatland plant species on germination, radicle and seedling growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver and downy birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) were studied. Freshly cut plant parts were finely ground, mixed with distilled water and agitated. The proportions of fresh plant mass in the mass-based extracts varied within the range of 1, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w). The seeds were germinated in petri dishes moistened with the plant extracts. In a separate experiment growth of birch seedlings irrigated with the extracts was studied.

Ledum palustre, Vaccinium uliginosum and Empetrum nigrum extracts, and in certain experiments extracts of other species, inhibited the germination of Scots pine and birch seeds. Results from the different experiments were not, however, fully consistent. None of the low (1% w/w) extract concentrations had any effect on germination. Strong extract concentrations (20% w/w) inhibited germination of pine seedlings significantly. The extracts affected only slightly the growth of potted birch seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hytönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15517
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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