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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'seedlings'.

Category: Research article

article id 9980, category Research article
Eino Levkoev, Lauri Mehtätalo, Katri Luostarinen, Pertti Pulkkinen, Anatoly Zhigunov, Heli Peltola. (2018). Development of height growth and frost hardiness for one-year-old Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions in response to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9980
Highlights: Elevated temperature resulted in increased height growth, delayed onset and shortened duration of autumn frost hardiness development in Norway spruce seedlings; Elevated temperature increased variation between genotypes in height growth and frost hardiness development; Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no effect on the development of height or autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce seedlings.

The mean temperature during the potential growing season (April–September) may increase by 1 °C by 2030, and by 4 °C, or even more, by 2100, accompanied by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 536–807 ppm, compared to the current climate of 1981–2010, in which atmospheric CO2 is at about 350 ppm. This may affect both the growth and frost hardiness of boreal trees. In this work, we studied the responses of height and autumn frost hardiness development in 22 half-sib genotypes of one-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings to elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration under greenhouse conditions. The three climate treatments used were: T+1 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; T+4 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; and T+4 °C above ambient and elevated CO2 (700 ppm). The height growth rate and final height were both higher under T+4 °C compared to T+1 °C. Temperature increase also delayed the onset, and shortened the duration, of autumn frost hardiness development. Elevated CO2 did not affect the development of height or frost hardiness, when compared to the results without CO2 elevation under the same temperature treatment. Higher temperatures resulted in greater variation in height and frost hardiness development among genotypes. Three genotypes with different genetic backgrounds showed superior height growth, regardless of climate treatment; however, none showed a superior development of autumn frost hardiness. In future studies, clonal or full-sib genetic material should be used to study the details of autumn frost hardiness development among different genotypes.

  • Levkoev, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eino.levkoev@uef.fi (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Computing, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.mehtatalo@uef.fi
  • Luostarinen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@uef.fi
  • Pulkkinen,  Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-16200 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
  • Zhigunov, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Forestry Faculty, RU-194021, Institutskiy per. 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: a.zhigunov@bk.ru
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
article id 1188, category Research article
Kristina Wallertz, Henrik Nordenhem, Göran Nordlander. (2014). Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1188
Highlights: Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil; Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species; The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production.
There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of pine weevil feeding on two dominant native conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the non-host deciduous broadleaf hybrid aspen (Populus × wettsteinii Hämet-Ahti) and four introduced conifers: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriére) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). The extent of feeding damage on seedlings and its effect on their vitality were examined in a field study in south-central Sweden and a laboratory experiment, which gave largely consistent results. Generally, the species most heavily attacked by the pine weevil, in both experiments, were Douglas fir and Sitka spruce. In the field experiment pine weevils killed or severely damaged significantly higher proportions of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce seedlings (60%) than any other species except Norway spruce (49%). Among conifer seedlings the proportions of killed or severely damaged seedlings were lowest for Scots pine and hybrid larch (27%) and Lodgepole pine (36%). The results indicate that most conifer species planted on young clear-cuttings in Sweden need some kind of pine weevil protection, and the possibility that introducing new tree species might increase damage caused by pests must be considered. For instance, widespread use of hybrid aspen could reduce damage by pine weevils, but increase damage by other, untested pests or pathogens.
  • Wallertz, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Asa Research Station, SE-36030 Lammhult, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.wallertz@slu.se (email)
  • Nordenhem, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.nordenhem@slu.se
  • Nordlander, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.nordlander@slu.se
article id 108, category Research article
Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Ola Lindroos. (2011). The cost-efficiency of seedling packaging specifically designed for tree planting machines. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 108. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.108
Today’s crane-mounted planting heads plant seedlings with biologically similar or better results than operational manual planting. However, the total cost of mechanized tree planting in southern Sweden must decrease at least 25% to compete economically with manual planting. Although seedlings packed in machine-specific packaging increase the productivity of planting machines by reducing seedling reloading time, they also increase logistics and investment costs. In this study, we analyzed the total cost of outplanting seedlings with an excavator-mounted Bracke Planter and seedlings packed according to four different concepts: cultivation trays, cardboard boxes, band-mounted seedlings in cardboard boxes and linked pots in container modules. The total cost per planted seedling was calculated for each packaging system as the sum of all costs from nursery to the recovery of empty packaging. The results showed that today’s system of transporting seedlings in cultivation trays is the most cost-efficient of the four alternatives. Machine-specific seedling packaging was 16–23% costlier per planted seedling than cultivation trays when trucking distances were 100 km. Sensitivity analyses indicated that machine-specific seedling packaging increased in cost-efficiency relative to cultivation trays primarily when more planting machines were contracted, but also as planting machine fixed costs and productivity increased. Moreover, the relative cost-efficiency of band-mounted seedlings, but not seedlings in container modules, increased with increasing trucking distance. Thus, we show that investments in machine-specific seedling packaging for today’s planting machines are justified only when the fixed costs, productivity and number of contracted planting machines increase substantially.
  • Ersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se (email)
  • Bergsten, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 209, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Kyösti Konttinen, Risto Rikala. (2009). Frost hardening and risk of a second flush in Norway spruce seedlings after an early-season short-day treatment. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 209. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.209
There have been years in Finland when container seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) planted in the summer have been damaged by early-autumn frosts. For August and September plantings, the seedlings can be hardened by means of short-day (SD) treatment, but little information is available about its usability for earlier plantings. We studied the effects of early-season SD treatment on the frost hardiness and risk of a second flush of Norway spruce seedlings. In three successive years, second-year seedlings were grown in a greenhouse or outdoors in the spring and early summer and then subjected to two or three-week SD treatment beginning on the second, third, or fourth week of June. We monitored the height growth cessation, bud formation, and frost hardiness of the seedlings in the nursery. All SD treatments made the height growth cease, but the risk of a second flush increased if the temperature sum was less than 300 d.d. before the beginning of the SD treatment or more than 450 d.d. between the end of the treatment and mid-August. Clearly, then, SD treatment reduced the risk of a second flush in seedlings that had been grown in a greenhouse in the spring. Early-season SD treatment increased the frost hardiness of both needles and stems for late July to early September in comparison with untreated seedlings. Later in the autumn, however, the differences disappeared. Before recommending the use of early-season SD-treated seedlings for summer planting, the method has to be tested in practical field conditions.
  • Luoranen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Konttinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 234, category Research article
Enni Flykt, Sari Timonen, Taina Pennanen. (2008). Variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation in Norway spruce seedlings in Finnish forest nurseries. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 234. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.234
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation patterns and seedling growth of containerised spruce seedlings were studied in five typical Finnish forest nurseries by morphotyping and molecular characterisation. ECM colonisation degree of 1-year-old spruce seedlings was below 20% in all studied Finnish forest nurseries. In 2-year-old spruce seedlings the ECM colonisation degree was ca. 50–60% in three of the nurseries, but negligible in others. The ECM fungal species richness varied from 0.1 to 3.8 types per seedling. Altogether seven ECM morphotypes were distinguished. The clearest factors associated with ECM colonisation patterns were nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation. Particularly fertilisation in the early stage of seedling development appeared to diminish the degree of colonisation and species richness of ECM fungi. Root/shoot ratio was positively correlated with high colonisation degree and species richness of ECM fungi. Higher fertilisation inputs in these overall fertilisation levels did not increase the size of the seedlings. According to these results moderate fertilisation levels particularly in the beginning of seedling cultivation are critical for generating higher root/shoot ratios and sufficient ECM colonisation degree of the roots.
  • Flykt, University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Timonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pennanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 515, category Research article
Juho Rantala, Kari Väätäinen, Nuutti Kiljunen, Pertti Harstela. (2003). Economic evaluation of container seedling packing and disinfection machinery. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.515
Productivity and costs of packing container seedlings were studied in a mechanised line for packing and disinfecting seedling trays. The hypothesis was that adequate cost-efficiency could be achieved when some common principles of mechanisation were applied. Results indicated that the unit costs are lower than those of manual packing, if these principles were applied and the annual number of packed seedlings exceeded 6 million. However, most of the nurseries in Finland are still too small to gain a real advantage from large-scale production.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kiljunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 592, category Research article
Marja-Liisa Juntunen. (2001). Use of pesticides in Finnish forest nurseries in 1996. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 592. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.592
In 1996 a questionnaire on seedling production and use of pesticides was sent to 33 forest nurseries in Finland. Twenty-eight nurseries answered the questionnaire; thus the survey covered about 80% of the Finnish production of forest seedlings. According to this study, the Finnish nurseries together are using about 1000 kilograms of pesticides (as active ingredient, a.i.) annually. The most used herbicide was terbutylazine (Gardoprim-Neste®), and half of the total amount of fungicide used was chlorothalonil (Bravo 500®). Three fourths of the insecticide products had permethrin as the active ingredient. The nurseries applied, on average, 1.7 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha annually, although the amount varied considerably between nurseries. In production of container seedlings the highest mean amounts of pesticides were applied to pine seedlings (9.5 kg/ha) and the lowest to spruce seedlings (0.9 kg/ha). To the fields of bareroot seedlings the nurseries applied, on average, 3.9 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha. Mean amounts of pesticide (a.i.) per 1000 seedlings grown in containers were almost the same for birch and pine production, 1.6 and 1.7 grams, respectively; for production of spruce seedlings the comparable values were less than 0.5 grams. For production of bareroot seedlings the nurseries used about four times more pesticides than for container seedlings.
  • Juntunen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marja-liisa.juntunen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 118, category Research note
Audrius Menkis, Remigijus Bakys, Vaidotas Lygis, Rimvydas Vasaitis. (2011). Mycorrhization, establishment and growth of outplanted Picea abies seedlings produced under different cultivation systems. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 118. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.118
In forest nurseries seedlings are commonly produced using different cultivation systems which may have a profound effect on the extent of root colonisation by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and, consequently, on subsequent performance of the outplanted seedlings under field conditions. In this study, we compare effects of bare-root and containerised cultivation systems on mycorrhization, establishment and growth of nursery-produced Picea abies. One hectare experimental plantation was established on poor fertility sandy site. In total, 1250 seedlings of each treatment were planted in rows as ten individual replicates. The results of this study showed that production of P. abies seedlings using containerised system can yield abundant ECM colonisation of seedling roots and significantly improve seedling survival in the field. Some reduction in height increment may occur during the first years as a possible cost for support of ECMs. Study demonstrated that selection of proper cultivation system might result in similar or higher mycorrhization and survival rates of outplanted seedlings than achieved by expensive and laborious artificial mycorrhization.
  • Menkis, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: audrius.menkis@slu.se (email)
  • Bakys, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lygis, Laboratory of Phytopathogenic Microorganisms, Institute of Botany at the Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasaitis, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 403, category Research note
Timo Saksa, Juha Heiskanen, Jari Miina, Jaakko Tuomola, Taneli Kolström. (2005). Multilevel modelling of height growth in young Norway spruce plantations in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 403. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.403
Height development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) transplants was studied on 22 sites prepared by disc trenching or mounding. At the age of 4–9 years the plantations were surveyed using a multistage sampling design. For every planted spruce on a plot, the past annual height increments were measured as far into the past as possible. Multilevel mixed linear modelling was used to analyse the variation in growth at different levels (year, stand, cluster, plot, tree) and the effects of climatic and site characteristics on height growth. The within-plantation variation in height growth was higher on mounded sites than on disc-trenched sites. The mean temperature and the precipitation sum of the summer months affected height growth positively. Soil characteristics measured from undisturbed soil did not explain the height growth of seedlings on mounded sites, whereas on disc-trenched sites, the depth of the organic layer and the soil temperature had a positive effect and the depth of the eluvial horizon a negative effect. The modelling approach used proved to be a useful method for examining the sources of variation in development of young plantations.
  • Saksa, The Finnish Forest Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heiskanen, The Finnish Forest Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Miina, The Finnish Forest Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P. O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tuomola, The University of Joensuu, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FI-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, The University of Joensuu, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FI-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7173, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Studies on the respiration rate in the different parts of the root systems of pine and spruce seedlings and its variations during the growing season. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 8 article id 7173. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7173

In this study an attempt was made to use manometric Warburg technique in studying the growing season variations in the respiration rates of the roots of 1–3-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The respiration rates in both short-roots and long-roots have also been investigated.

According to the results, respiration intensity was the greatest in Scots pine and Norway spruce short-roots but also considerable in the long-root tips at the points of elongation. When the oxygen uptake rate per weight unit in the pine short-roots is given value of 100, the rate in the long-root tips is 61 and in the basal area 36. The corresponding values for spruce are 100, 69 and 43. The relative carbon dioxide release rates are different for the basal parts of the long-roots: pine 53 and spruce 57, when the CO2 release from the short-roots is 100. The CO2 release rate in the basal parts of the long-roots is relatively greater than the oxygen uptake. The respiration rate of the root systems of pine was larger than that of spruce due to the larger size of the root system.

The respiration rate per unit weight of pine roots of the 1- to 3-year-old seedlings decreases significantly with the increasing age. In spruce, the decrease was smaller. The result could have been different if only the short-roots of the same growing season were studied from all seedlings.

During the first growing season the root respiration rate decreased from the middle of the summer towards autumn. An experiment with pine seedlings grown in the mineral soil showed a very rapid increase in respiration rate in the spring. The rate, especially oxygen uptake, is at its greatest in the roots at the time of fastest growth.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7166, category Article
J. E. Hårdh. (1966). Trials with carbon dioxide, light and growth substances on forest tree plants. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 1 article id 7166. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7166

Growth-promoting effects of enhanced caron dioxide levels upon forest tree seedlings grown in plastic houses was studied in 1964 and 1965 in the Forest Breeding Foundation in Haapastensyrjä near Loppi in Southern Finland. In both years more vigorous height and weight growth, and development of root system was achieved when the CO2 concentration was increased to 0.2% than in the normal conditions (CO2 0.03%). The CO2 concentration was increased by burning propane in the plastic houses. Burning continued for four hours per day either at 8–10 and 14–16 a clock or 6–10 a clock. Growth was not affected by the time of the treatment, and it was equally high in 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations.

Treatment of the seedlings with 100–200 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) increased the height growth of healthy, well-rooted seedlings. Treatment with a concentrated (600 ppm) dosage, as well as treatment with a combination of GA and 1-naphtyl acetic acid (NAA) caused serious defects in grafts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). GA treatments did not induce flower formation in pine. Red light during the night seemed to enhance growth of grafts of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hårdh, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7161, category Article
Olavi Laiho. (1965). Further studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 3 article id 7161. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7161

There has not been complete agreement as to what is meant by ectendotrophic mycorrhizae, and there is a wide variety of opinion among authors on mycorrhizal terminology. In this paper ectendotrophic mycorrhizae are defined to be short roots with Hartig net and intracellular hyphae in the cortex. A mantle and digestion of intracellular hyphae may be found but are not necessary. In the study of Mikola (1965) ectendotrophic mycorrhiza was found to be common in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in Finnish nurseries. The mycorrhizae had always similar structure and the mycelium isolated from the seedlings (E-strains) was similar. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of ectendotrophic mycorrhizae exist in forests and nurseries outside Finland, what kind of mycorrhizae do the E-strains isolated from Scots pine form with other tree species, and are these associations symbiotic.

Only one type of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza was found on the 600 short roots collected from the continents of Europa and America. The type was similar to the one described by Mikola: the mycelium is coarse and forms a strong Hartig net, and intracellular infection is heavy. Evidence is convincing that this structure was formed by the same fungus species. The species is unidentified. Mycorrhizae synthesized by E-strain with six spruce species, fir, hemloch and Douglas fir were all ectotrophic.

The E-type ectendotrophic mycorrhizae proved to be a balanced symbiosis. The seedlings of 13 tree species inoculated with the E-strain grew in the experiment better than the controls. The observation that ectendotrophic mycorrhizae dominates in the nurseries but is seldom found in forests, and then only in seedlings growing in the forest, was confirmed in the study. In synthesis experiments E-strain formed either ecto- or ectendotrophic mycorrhiza depending on the tree species.

  • Laiho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7160, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1965). Studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza of Scots pine in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 2 article id 7160. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7160

The differences between different types of mycorrhiza; endomycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza and ectendomycorrhiza, and the use of the terms have been variable in the earlier research. Studied of mycorrhiza in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings may suggest that the conditions affect which kind of mycorrhiza develops in the seedlings. This study is aimed mainly at finding out whether the difference of ectotrophic and ectendotrophic mycorrhizae depends on fungal symbionts or envirionmental conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza in Finland under various conditions was studied, and experiments on the physiology and ecology of the mycorrhiza and the fungal partner were conducted.

The ectendotrophic mycorrhiza as described in this paper has proved to be very common on Scots pine in Finnish nurseries, but it was not found in Norway spruce seedlings. The results did not support the hypothesis presented in some earlier studies that ectendotrophic mycorrhiza is more parasitic than the other mycorrhizal fungi. The nursery survey showed that no correlation existed between the size and vigour of the seedlings and the presence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza. Furthermore, greenhouse-grown seedlings with and without the fungus grew equally well. The type of mycorrhiza was, however, almost exclusively confined to young (1–3-years-old) seedlings and to nursery soils. The experiments indicates also that ectendomycorrhizal fungus has a very wide ecological amplitude in regard to light intensity, soil fertility, acidity, and humus content. It has, however, a weak competitive ability in natural forest soils against the indigenous fungal population. When the seedlings were transplanted from the nursery to forest soil, their mycorrhizal population was largely changed.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7151, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Olavi Laiho, Jorma Eerikäinen, Kari Kuvaja. (1964). The effect of slash burning on the commencement of mycorrhizal association. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 3 article id 7151. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7151

Prescribed burning is a common silvicultural practice in northern Europe, intended to destroy the slash and ground vegetation and to reduce the thickness of the raw humus layer prior reforestation. The purpose of the experiments was to study whether there are any differences in the commencement and early development of mycorrhizal infection between burned and unburned areas. A clear-cutting area was burned on May 1961. The soil was rocky moraine, the forest type was Vaccinium type. Two weeks after burning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was sown in patches.

According to the results, mycorrhizal infection took place on the unburned area earlier than on the burned. The difference was relatively small, perhaps 1–2 weeks. Although burning kills mycorrhizal fungi, it did not cause serious harm to the seedlings, on the contrary, the favourable influence of burning was more distinct. The high temperatures caused by the fire are restricted in the soil in a prescribed burning only a few centimetres deep. Although the mycorrhizal fungi are concentrated in a very thin surface layer of the soil, some mycorrhizae are situated deeper, and from there the fungi are able to infect roots and spread back to the surface layer. The fire also rises the pH of the soil, which can be harmful for mycorrhizal fungi. Even this effect, however, is limited to a thin surface layer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laiho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eerikäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuvaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7150, category Article
Olavi Laiho, Peitsa Mikola. (1964). Studies on the effect of some eradicants on mycorrhizal development in forest nurseries. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 2 article id 7150. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7150

Mycorrhizal association is a characteristic feature of the trees of the northern coniferous forests. The purpose of the present study was to determine what influence some fungicides and herbicides regularly used in Finnish nurseries have on formation and development mycorrhizal in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings. The results are based mainly on field experiments in nurseries. First the initiation of mycorrhiza was described in untreated seedlings.

In the first growing season mycorrhizal infection commences fairly late even under normal conditions, i.e. 6–7 weeks after seeding and 3–4 weeks after the formation of the first short roots. Soil disinfectants are commonly used in nurseries before seeding, and they are supposed to evaporate or disintegrate in a few days or 1–2 weeks. In pure culture experiments mycorrhizal fungi proved several times more sensitive than parasitic and indifferent soil moulds to herbicides and fungicides, but in field experiments the delay of mycorrhizal infection caused by them does not seem to harm the seedlings. In the second summer differences of mycorrhizal relations between treated and control plots disappeared. Accordingly, the influence of biocides on mycorrhizae, when applied in the customary concentrations, does not extend beyond the first growing season.

Methyl bromide and SMDC retarded mycorrhiza formation distinctly, while formaldehyde and allyl alcohol had no effect. Apart from not retarding mycorrhizae, formaldehyde and allyl alcohol promoted seedling growth and favoured Trichoderma viride in the soil. Trichoderma is known to be antagonistic to many fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Laiho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7135, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Kokeellisia tutkimuksia taimien syntymisestä ja ensi kehityksestä kuusikoissa ja männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7135
English title: Experimental studies on the emergence and development of tree seedlings in spruce and pine stands.

This paper aims at studying regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing and natural regeneration of birch (Betula sp.) in Western Finland.

Germination of spruce and pine seeds may be prevented by dryness and temperatures below the optimum for germination. In natural conditions, when temperature and moisture is insufficient for germination, the type of seedbed generally has en effect on germination result. Trenching of the seeding spots showed that root competition during the early stage of regeneration was not of decissive importance. It seemed to, however, improve the preservation of the seedlings later. It is common that it can take long before the seeds germinate, and during that time the number of viable seeds decrease strongly.

Also, the seedling stock quickly began to decrease in number after germination, especially during the first growing season and the following winter. The decrease was larger in intact vegetation than on mineral soil or in the humus layer. The emerging seedlings were destroyed by drought very easily, but their tolerance to drought improved later on.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7135, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Kokeellisia tutkimuksia taimien syntymisestä ja ensi kehityksestä kuusikoissa ja männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7135
English title: Experimental studies on the emergence and development of tree seedlings in spruce and pine stands.

This paper aims at studying regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing and natural regeneration of birch (Betula sp.) in Western Finland.

Germination of spruce and pine seeds may be prevented by dryness and temperatures below the optimum for germination. In natural conditions, when temperature and moisture is insufficient for germination, the type of seedbed generally has en effect on germination result. Trenching of the seeding spots showed that root competition during the early stage of regeneration was not of decissive importance. It seemed to, however, improve the preservation of the seedlings later. It is common that it can take long before the seeds germinate, and during that time the number of viable seeds decrease strongly.

Also, the seedling stock quickly began to decrease in number after germination, especially during the first growing season and the following winter. The decrease was larger in intact vegetation than on mineral soil or in the humus layer. The emerging seedlings were destroyed by drought very easily, but their tolerance to drought improved later on.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7475, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1958). Liberation of nitrogen from alder leaf litter. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 1 article id 7475. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7475

Litters of different plant species vary greatly in regard to their nutrient content and other properties. The aim of the study was to compare different litters from the standpoint of their value as soil fertilizer. In an experiment Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown in pot cultures in which known amounts of different litters had been mixed with the soil. The tested litters were Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix sibirica (Ledeb.), Betula sp., Populus tremula (L.), Alnus incana (L.) Moench, A. glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.), Sorbus aucuparia (L.), Tilia cordata (Mill.), Acer platanoides (L.), Corylus avellana (L.), Eupteris aquilina (L.), and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.

A striking difference was found between alder (Alnus sp.) leaf litter and all the other litters tested. The difference can be seen from the second growth season on, becaus the young seedling uses mainly the nutrients included in the seed. The leaf litter has mainly unfavourable effect on the growth of the pine seedlings. Only both alder species improve the growth. This is mainly due to the nitrogen content of alder leaves. Tree leaves and other forest litter are often composted in the forest nurseries. It seems that adding nitrogen to the compost is necessary, otherwise compost added to the soil may have a harmful effect on the seedlings. Alder, on the other hand, has nitrogen binding Actinomyces growing in symbiosis in its root nodules, and is able to utilize atmospheric nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7472, category Article
Jaakko Lehto. (1956). Tutkimuksia männyn luontaisesta uudistumisesta Etelä-Suomen kangasmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 2 article id 7472. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7472
English title: Studies on the natural regeneration of Scots pine on the upland soils of Southern Finland.

Natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by leaving a seed tree stand on a cutting area has long been the most popular regeneration method in Finland. Results of the method have, however, been unsatisfactory. The aim of the investigation was to study the basic problems of natural regeneration of Scots pine. Regeneration success was studied in 144 sample plots in pine stands at different stages of regeneration in Southern Finland. In addition, the data included information of 42 previously investigated areas.

According to the results, Scots pine can be successfully regenerated naturally on sandy and gravelly soils in Southern Finland. Preparing the ground surface by breaking or burning considerably facilitates the establishment of a seedling stand. The number of seedlings was considerably lower in the ground vegetation than in the mineral soil. Considering growth of the seedlings, root competition of the mother trees was heavy in dense stands, but insignificant in thin stands. The stand density did not affect germination of the seeds. In regeneration areas proper, where the density of mother trees usually is under 50 per hectare, there was in average 4,700 seedlings per hectare in Calluna type forests and 5,200 in Vaccinium type forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7407, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1951). Alikasvosasemasta vapautettujen männyn taimistojen toipumisesta ja merkityksestä metsänhoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 3 article id 7407. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7407
English title: On the recovery of released Scots pine undergrowth and its silvicultural importance.

There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.

The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vaartaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7370, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1942). Männyn taimien juurien suhtautumisesta emäpuun juuriin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 17 article id 7370. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7370
English title: Roots of a seedling in relation to roots of the mother tree.

The study is based on observations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on a dry upland forest site in Karhumäki, where a 10-15-year old seedling stand grew under a hold-overs of larger trees that had been left in the site in a previous felling. The root systems of 80-120 cm tall seedlings growing around single mother trees were unearthed. Root maps were drawn of the root systems of 120 seedlings.

No seedlings grew around old, large hold-overs. It seems that seedlings could not compete with their root system. If the hold-overs were stunted in their growth, seedlings grew also under the canopy of the mother tree. 90% of the seedlings had a tap root. Rest of the roots grew horisontally in the topsoil. Around a vigorous mother tree, the seedlings grew their roots away from the mother tree. Hold-overs that had belonged originally to the lower canopy layer of the old forest did not have similar effect on the root orientation of the seedlings. Their roots had been previously affected by trees of higher canopy layer, later removed in the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7316, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1935). Kuusen juuriston ensi kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 7316. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7316
English title: The early development of Norway spruce root system.
English keywords: main root; forest site; seedlings

The development roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings was studied in sample seedlings grown in different kinds of sites. In the early stage, the seedling roots grow primarily length. The main root is usually long. If the growth of the root is hindered, the tip of the root dies, and the root system growing from the original root collar remains relatively small; in these cases, the secondary root system becomes more important. In unfavourable conditions the root branches can early on replace the main root. The main root of a germling seems to be less able to seek for free growing space than the main and side roots of older seedlings. When the growth of the root is blocked by some kind of obstacle, it does not often hinder the growth of the seedling. The type of soil influences strongly how the root system grows. In good soil and in humus the root system is regular and richly branched, while in clay and coarse sand the root system was small. Spahgnum moss was good substrate for seedlings, Dicranum undulatum moss little less good, while the seedlings grew poorly on Pleurozium Schreberi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7231, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1929). Huomioita männyn ja kuusen pituuskehityksen "vuotuisesta" ja vuorokautisesta jaksosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7231
English title: Observations on annual and daily cycles in the height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

The height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were observed in Korkeakoski and Evo in Southern Finland in 1925-1928. The growth was slow in the beginning of the growing season, increased after that to decrease again towards the end of the growing season. The height growth begun in May, reached the fastest growth rates in June, and ended in June-July. According to the earlier studies, the length of the height growth of Scots pine is dependent on the temperature of the previous summer. This study showed that warm temperatures of the same summer promote height growth, and low temperatures slow it down. Also the daily growth fluctuates, being highest during the afternoon and slowest during the early morning. The daily growth is dependent on temperature.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) begin the height growth in average 9 days later than Scots pine. Compared to pine, the speed of growth in spruce decreases slower towards the late summer.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala., ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5552, category Article
Liisa Saarenmaa, Timo Leppälä. (1995). Fill-in seedlings in constituting the stocking of Scots pine stands in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5552. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9203

Fill planting is a common procedure following reforestation in Finland. In 1990, 13% of the total of seedlings planted was used for fill planting. The objective of this study is (i) to survey the survival of fill-in seedlings and (ii) to estimate the spatial pattern of stands to evaluate the importance of fill-in seedlings in constituting the stocking of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Central and Northern Finland.

A survey of 63 artificially regenerated Scots pine stands was conducted in 1990. Stand densities varied from 950 to 3,925 seedlings/ha. The mean densities of originally planted, fill planted and naturally regenerated seedlings were 863, 639 and 791/ha, respectively. The survival of originally planted seedlings was 36% and that of fill-in seedlings 48%. Death rate of fill-in seedlings of Scots pine increased with longer times between original and fill planting. The survival rate of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings was correlated with temperature sum. Height of the fill-in seedlings was less than that of the originally planted ones. Most stands had an even spatial distribution with the exception of sparsely populated stands, which were somewhat clustered. This indicates that dying of seedlings is not randomly spread. Because of poor survival, fill planting seems to be a risky business in most cases.

  • Saarenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5542, category Article
Leena Ryynänen, Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (1995). Growth, crown structure and seed production of birch seedlings, grafts and micropropagated plants. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5542. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9193

Growth, crown structure, flowering and seed production of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings, grafts and micropropagated plants was compared during four years in a polythene greenhouse experiment. The growth of the seedlings was clearly the most vigorous and that of the grafts the weakest, the micropropagated plants being intermediate. The seedlings had the highest and the grafts the lowest number of branches before cutting the tops of the plants, but the differences between the material types were no more significant after cutting the tops. The grafts had significantly shorter and thinner branches than the seedlings and the micropropagated plants, whereas the differences in branch length and branch thickness between the latter two groups were not significant. The grafts started flowering at the age of two years, one year earlier than the other two types of material. At the age of four years the micropropagated plants had abundant seed production, about 75% of that of the seedlings and about two times higher than that of the grafts. Thus, the micropropagated plants can be used instead of grafts when establishing polythene greenhouse seed orchards of birch.

  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Viherä-Aarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5541, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (1994). Performance of micropropagated plants of silver birch (Betula pendula) in a field trial. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9181

Micropropagated and seed-borne plants of sliver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were compared for survival and growth in a field trial at the age of six years. Three clones for micropropagation were selected from open-pollinated progenies of selected southern Finnish plus trees at the age of 17 and 20. The three seed-borne lots were of southern Finnish stand origin. The best two lots of the experiment as regards the height and diameter growth at the age of six were the clones. The best of these differed significantly from the best-growing seed-grown lot. The weakest lot of the experiment was also a clone which was clearly slow-growing with a dense and bushy crown. Survival of the material was high (mean = 94%), and there was no damage caused by voles and elks, for example. The results clearly show that the selection of material for clonal propagation should be done carefully. The clones should also be tested for performance in the field before propagation on a large scale.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5538, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Leena Ryynänen. (1994). Seed production of micropropagated plants, grafts and seedlings of birch in a seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9178

Seed production of micropropagated plants, seedlings and grafts of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in a polyethylene greenhouse experiment was followed for five years. The grafts started flowering and seed production at the age of two years, one year earlier than other two types of material. At the age of three the seed production of both micropropagated plants and seedlings was already more than two times higher than that of the grafts. Variation between the clones was high and plant type x clone interaction was significant. At the age of four, in 1993, seed production was high in all three types of material. Seed production of the micropropagated plants was two times higher than that of the grafts but about 75% of that of the seedlings. In 1994 seed production of all three plant types was very low, which shows large variation between different years. The early development of the plant material types suggests that micropropagated plants have higher seed production than grafts and could well be used instead of grafts in polythene greenhouse seed orchards.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5534, category Article
Hyun Kang, Inger Ekberg, Gösta Eriksson, Johan Ununger. (1994). Second and third growth period responses of Picea abies families to first growth period photoperiodic, light intensity and temperature treatments. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9174

Seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. full-sib families of contrasting origins were cultivated in a phytotron under different photoperiodic, light-intensity and temperature treatments during their first growth period. The effects of the treatments on juvenile growth traits – whether enhanced or delayed maturation was induces – were observed during the two subsequent growth periods. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) Enhanced maturation can be induced in the first growth period from sowing with (i) a long period of continuous light during active growth (24 weeks vs. 8 weeks); (ii) a shorter night during bud maturation (12 h vs. 16 h); high temperature (25°C vs. 20°C) during (iii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iv) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only. (B) Delayed maturation can be induced after (i) low light intensity during growth cessation and bud maturation (114 μmol m-2 s-1 vs. 340 μmol m-2 s-1); low temperature (15°C vs. 20°C) during (ii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iii) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only.

The most dramatic effect was observed after 24 weeks of continuous light during active growth. All traits showed a significantly more mature performance in the second growth period compared with the control. The effect for all but one trait was carried over to the third growth period. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that the activity of apical shoot meristems controls the maturation process. For the other treatments there was only weak or no support for the hypothesis of induction of enhanced or delayed maturation. Strong family effects were observed for all traits. Differential responses of the various latitudinal families were observed, suggesting that family effects must be considered to predict and interpret correctly how plants will respond to environmental effects.

  • Kang, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ekberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ununger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5497, category Article
Pertti Pulkkinen. (1993). Frost hardiness development and lignification of young Norway spruce seedlings of southern and northern Finnish origin. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5497. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15658

Seedlings from four Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands originating from areas with effective temperature sums ranging from 710 d.d. to 1,150 d.d. were raised under artificial light and temperature treatment. After a 10-week growing period the hardening process was started by subjecting the seedlings to +8°C night temperature and +15°C day temperature, and increasing the night length by 1.5 hour/week. Hardiness was measured by means of artificial freezing treatment (-10°C or -15°C), followed by visual estimation of the degree of needle injury. The stem height, lignification and bud development were measured before the freezing treatment. The amount of injury increased the more southern the origin of the tested material was. Furthermore, the proportion of non-lignified part of the seedling stem was negatively correlated with the latitude of the provenances. The proportion of seedlings with clearly visible buds was more than 90% in the northernmost entry and less than 1% in the southernmost one. The overall correlation coefficient between the needle injuries and the proportion of non-lignified part of the stem was rather high, but varied considerably from 0.3 in the northernmost material to over 0.6 in the southern provenances. According to the results, it seems to be possible to use growth characteristics as an indicator of frost hardiness at the provenance level.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5487, category Article
Maarit Kytö. (1992). Lygus bugs as agents of growth disorders in permethrin-treated pine seedlings in regeneration areas. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5487. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15648

The ability of Lygus bugs to cause growth disorders in permethrin-treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after planting was studied in two regeneration areas. There were three treatments: exposure of the seedlings to Lygus, mechanical protection of the seedlings from insects, and control seedlings. There were no significant differences in the rate of growth disorders between the treatments. The permethrin application protected the seedlings against Lygus bugs in the early summer, as well as when the bug abundance was low. The development of these seedlings, as well as the multiple-leadered and bushy seedlings on a third regeneration area, was followed for two years. Multiple leaders reduced height growth and bud number of a seedling, but caused marked losses in growth only when the seedlings still had multiple leaders the following year, or when they formed several, equally developed stems.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kytö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5481, category Article
Pekka Nygren, Pertti Hari. (1992). Effect of foliar application with acid mist on the photosynthesis of potassium-deficient Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15642

The interactive effects of potassium deficit and foliar application with acid water (pH 5.5, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0 given consecutively) on CO2 exchange rate of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings was investigated in field conditions. No reduction of the CO2 exchange rate was observed in the seedlings supplied with sufficient potassium. Only the seedlings having the lowest needle K concentration (2.4 mgg-1) had an apparently low CO2 exchange rate before the applications with acid water. The CO2 exchange rate of most of the seedlings with low needle K concentration (3.9–6.0 mgg-1) decreased after the acid water application. The threshold acidity for the reduction varied between pH 4,0 and 3.0 depending on the needle K concentration. The reduction was more apparent at high irradiance. It was concluded that acid precipitation disturbs the CO2 exchange only in conditions of mineral nutrient deficit.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5476, category Article
Jukka Selander, Auli Immonen. (1992). Effect of fertilization and watering of Scots pine seedlings on the feeding preference of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5476. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15637

Two-year-old containerized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, raised under different fertilization and watering regimes, were subjected to feeding preference tests with pine weevils (Hylobius abietis L.) in a bioassay. In the tests carried out with pairs of seedlings, the weevil preferred water-stressed seedlings to well-watered ones. In the case of well-watered seedlings, the weevil caused significantly more damage to NPK-fertilized seedlings than those given pure PK fertilization, or no fertilization at all. It is apparent that PK fertilization reduces, and water stress increases seedling susceptibility to weevil damage. The results support findings from field trials that water stress (planting shock) predisposes seedlings to weevil damage. Weevil resistance is discussed with respect to fertilization and water stress as determinants of seedling quality.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Immonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5452, category Article
Riitta Höyhtyä, Heikki Hänninen. (1991). Effect of photon flux density on bud dormancy release in Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15610

The effect of photon flux density on bud dormancy release in two-year-old seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was examined. The seedlings were first chilled for 0–21 weeks under natural conditions and then forced in a warm greenhouse either in low (15 μEm-2s-1) or in high (300 μEm-2s-1) photon flux density. Occurrence of bud burst was observed in the forcing conditions, and the observations were used for estimating the cumulative frequency distribution of the chilling requirement for growth competence. The estimated distribution had greater variance in the low photon flux density than in the high photon flux density forcing. This finding suggests that unnaturally low photon flux densities during forcing may yield overestimates of the genetic within-population variation in the chilling requirement for growth competence.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Höyhtyä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5412, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1990). Metsäpuiden paakkutaimituotannon nykynäkymät. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5412. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15564
English title: Future trends for containerized tree seedling production: A literature review.

Containerized tree seedlings will be used on an increasing scale in the future in different parts of the world. There are number of techniques for the production of small one-year-old seedlings but it has not been possible to develop a completely satisfactory methods for large containerized seedlings production. In the long-term development of pine plantations established with containerized seedlings the greatest problem has been deformation of the root system. With a new method, based on a sheet of peat and root pruning, it has been possible to produce conifer seedlings with a good root regeneration potential and favourable morphological root system development. The use of small containerized seedlings allows an increase in planting density without any marked increase in regeneration costs.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5379, category Article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Timo Pukkala. (1989). Effect of Scots pine seed trees on the density of ground vegetation and tree seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5379. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15536

The study uses the methodology of ecological field theory to model the effect of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed trees on the density of tree seedlings and other plants in the field layer. The seed trees had a clear effect on the expected value of the amount and distribution of the ground vegetation. The vicinity of seed trees had an adverse effect on the growth of grasses, herbs and seedlings, while mosses were most abundant near the trees. Models based on the ecological field approach were derived to describe the effect of seed trees on the ground vegetation.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5352, category Article
Lars Christersson, Heinrich A. von Fircks. (1988). Injuries to conifer seedlings caused by simulated summer frost and winter desiccation. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5352. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15509

Visible frost damage to forest trees in Sweden seldom occurs in winter but is frequent in late spring, summer and early autumn. Frosts are frequent in all seasons in various parts of Sweden, even in the southernmost part (lat. 56°, N) and temperatures may be as low as -10°C even around mid-summer. Ice crystal formation within the tissues, which in most seedlings takes place at around -2°C, causes injury, not the sub-zero temperatures themselves.

The apical meristem, the elongated zone, and the needles of seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in a growing phase were damaged at about -3°C and those of Pinus sylvestris L. at about -6°C. Other species of the genus Pinus were tested and most were found to be damaged at about -6°C, with some variations. Picea species tested were damaged at about -3°C to -4°C.

A method has been designed to compare the response of different species to winter desiccation, which occurs under conditions of (1) low night temperature, (2) very high irradiation and increase in needle temperature during the photoperiod, (3) frozen soil, and (4) low wind speed. There were differences in response to winter desiccation between pine and spruce species. Seedlings of Pinus contorta tolerated these winter desiccation conditions much better than those of P. sylvestris or Picea abies. Picea mariana was the least tolerant of the species tested.

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  • Christersson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fircks, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

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  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14876
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

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  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5021, category Article
Antti Koskimäki, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Inherent growth rythm of some Larix-species grown in a plastic greenhouse. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5021. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14875

The daily height growth rate of several larch species and progenies (Larix decidua, Larix sibirica, Larix laricina, Larix leptolepis) grown in a plastic greenhouse and in the open was measured. The growth pattern indoors was completely different compared with the normal outdoor growth pattern. The onset of growth took place in the greenhouse much earlier than outdoors and the phase of increasing growth was much shorter, as was expected. However, the phase of maximum growth was unexpectedly long. This fact suggests that there is great potential for using greenhouse cultivation to change the growth pattern of cultivated plants in order to obtain more complete utilization of the potential growing season.

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  • Koskimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4983, category Article
Satu Huttunen. (1978). The effects of air pollution on provenances of Scots pine and Norway spruce in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4983. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14837

The success of certain Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) provenances from Northern Finland was studied in a tree damage area occasioned by air pollution in the town of Oulu over the period of 1972-76. The pine strains from more northerly and easterly areas and the spruce strains from the immediate vicinity of the site itself were being observed to thrive best. The results point in a similar direction to those of other comparable experiments, except that the mortality rate amongst the saplings was exceptionally high and the proportion of healthy saplings in good condition was found to be unusually low. Structural properties suggestive of resistance to pollution were observable selectively in certain provenances, these including the xeromorphy of needles or thickness of the epidermis. The chief cause of mortality amongst the saplings was found to be the damage inflicted by pollution during the winter, while that arising in the summer months was relatively slight.

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  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Förrådsgödsling av rotande tallplantor med olika kvävegödselmedel. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
English title: Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer.

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

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  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4908, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Sarkaleveyden ja naveroinnin vaikutus pohjavesipinnan syvyyteen ja männyntaimiston kehitykseen lyhytkortisella nevalla. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14752
English title: The effect of ditch spacing and furrowing on depth of ground water table and on development of a Scots pine plantation on small-sedge bog.

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of ditch spacing, ditch depth and furrowing on ground water table and on development of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation on open small-sedge bog in Central Finland (60° 50’ N; 24° 20’ E), drained in 1967. The area was planted in 1968 with 2+1 Scots pine transplants, and fertilized with Y fertilizer for peat soils. The seedlings were measured in 1972.

The depth of the ground water table was greater, the narrower the ditch spacing. The water furrows shortened the duration of the high ground water and lowered the ground water table particularly in the case of ineffective drainage. The narrower the ditch spacing within the blocks, the higher were the young trees. On the other hand, the differences in the height of the trees between the ditch spacings were eliminated by the effect of the furrows.

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  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4877, category Article
Pertti Laatikainen. (1973). Jyrsinturve ja kuorihumus männyn kylvötaimien kasvualustoina muovihuoneessa. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4877. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14707
English title: Milled peat and milled bark as substrate for Scots pine seedlings in greenhouses.

The purpose of this study was to compare the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings sown on substrates off milled peat and milled bark. Mille peat, ordinary milled bark, milled inner bark waste, and a mixture of milled peat and milled bark in the ratio of 1:1, were all compared in the plastic greenhouse. In addition, two fertilization applications were used with milled park: ordinary surface fertilization and double surface fertilization. The germination and development were measured twice during the summer.

It is concluded that milled bark seems to be a rather useful substrate for use in plastic greenhouses, as long as its special requirements are taken into consideration. In the first measurement, there were no differences between the treatments, in the second measurements seedlings growing on a mixture of peat and bark were slightly more developed than the others. Growth of the seedlings was slightly better in ordinary milled bark. Double surface fertilization increased disease and mortality compared to ordinary fertilization.

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  • Laatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4876, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi, Juhani Sarasto. (1973). Kokemuksia rauduksen istutuksesta ojitetuille soille. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14706
English title: Betula verrucosa plantations on peat.

The aim of the present study was to assess whether two-year old Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (now Betula pendula Roth.) transplants can be used in afforestation of drained peatlands and what factors affect the development of the young trees. The seedlings were planted in 1967. The site was repair planted next spring due to mortality caused by a undefined fungal disease, and the plantations were fertilized with NPK fertilizer (soil application. The seedlings were measured twice a year until the autumn 1970.

Only 28% of the original transplants, and 73.4% of the repair plantations were alive in 1970. In some cases, fertilization improved the results, while in others it was detrimental to the trees or had no effect on survival. According to peat analysis, the poor survival and development of the plants could be due to the too high ratios of N/Ca and N/P. Stunted or dead trees displayed often necrosis caused by Godronia multispora. According to the experiences, Betula verrucosa plantations are inferior to those obtained with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In addition, the results indicate that in old draining areas calcium and phosphorus are often too low in comparison to nitrogen.

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  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

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  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4853, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Pentti K. Räsänen, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1971). Neulasten väri myöhemmän kasvun ja lannoitusvaikutuksen ilmaisijana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14655
English title: The use of needle colour in predicting growth and response to fertilization.
Original keywords: mänty; kuusi; taimet; lannoitus; neulaset; kasvu

About 4,000 seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were planted in 1965 both on a clear-cut and sheltered area in Central Finland. In the autumn of 1966 needle colour was determined by using Muncell Color Charts which allowed a quantitative measurement of three colour dimensions (hue, value, and chroma). Terminal shoot growth was recorded for two years after colour measurements. In both species, fertilization (NPK in the spring of the year of colour measurement) as well as other site factors caused differences in all three dimensions of needle colour. A regression of shoot growth on needle colour was found in both species. In most cases colour value (darkness) and, in spruce, also chroma, predicted the subsequent growth almost as well as did these two-colour variables together.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4849, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Tapani Hänninen. (1971). Eräiden talvivarastointimenetelmien vaikutuksesta männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4849. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14651
English title: The effect of some over-winter storage methods on different Scots pine nursery stock.

Seedlings of three different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) nursery stock, 1+0 ,1+1, and 2+0, were kept over the winter, after they had been packed in polythene bags, in three different ways: 1) In a refrigerated storage room, 2) in a wooden crate in the ground, 3) submerged in a lake. The seedling to which they were to be compared with were left over the winter in a nursery bed. The 1,800 seedlings were planted out in the spring 1966 in 15 random blocks. Their development was scrutinized during the three subsequent falls.

The seedlings which had been stored in the lake all died. The seedlings which had been stored along the 1st and 2nd method, managed almost as well as the ones which had been kept over the winter in the nursery bed, except for those of 1+0 stock.

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  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

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  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

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  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4834, category Article
Bo Långström. (1971). Viktförlust, vattenhalt och plantavgång hos kyllagrade tallplantor. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4834. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14623
English title: Weight loss, water content and mortality of cold stored Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of this study was to investigate how the weight loss and water content of cold stored plants depend on the storage conditions, and if there is a clear connection between these factors and the field survival of the planting stock. The experiments were carried out in a climate chamber at about +2°C and at three moisture levels (about 70, 85, and 95%) from November 1968 to May 1969. Three-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) average length 127 mm, diameter 3.5 mm and the top/root-ratio of fresh weight 1.93, were stored in open and sealed plastic bags. In addition, a transpiration retardant (Silvaplast) was used. The plastic bags (10 plants each) were weighted every 4. week. The remaining 270 seedlings were planted out and inspected after one growing season.

Although the experiment was made in a small scale, the results showed clearly that plant mortality, varying between 3 and 97%, was due to the storage conditions. The weight loss ranged between 2 and 50%, and the correlation between the weight loss and the mortality in the field was high. The water content of the seedlings was about 61%. The correlation between water content and survival was very high. Thus, the determination of weight loss or water content could be a useful method in observing the changes of water balance of the seedling stock during winter-storage. Further investigations are needed to show the tolerable rate of drying out for different sorts of plants. The Silvaplast-treatment had no visible effect either on the drying out or on the field survival.

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  • Långström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4832, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1971). Siementen peittämisen ja kylvökohdan polkaisun vaikutus männyn ruutukylvön tulokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4832. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14621
English title: The influence of covering and tramping the seeds into the soil on the success of spot sowing of Scots pine.

This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.

The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.

Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.

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  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

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  • Långström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

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  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oksanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4807, category Article
J. G. Iyer, G. Chesters, S. A. Wilde. (1969). Recovery of growth potential of nursery stock produced on biocide-treated soils. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4807. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14595

Certain biocides used in production of tree nursery stock exterminate undesirable organisms but cause an abnormal growth stimulation of plants. The reforestation material has decreased survival potential because of high degree of succulence, top:root and height:diameter ratios, and low specific gravity and root surface area. Some fumigants impede mycorrhizae development and arrest phosphorus uptake. Recovery of growth potential was achieved by aluminium sulphate and/or fermented compost inoculated with mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

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  • Iyer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chesters, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4766, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1968). Roomalaisten taimitarhat. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4766. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14551
English title: The nurseries of the ancient romans.

The paper outlines the information about forest tree nurseries in the Roman Empire, found in ancient writings. According to the author, it cannot be stated that actual forest cultivation was practiced in the times of the Roman Empire, even if tree seedlings were used for a variety of purposes, such as embellishment of cities, parks and gardens, and raising supporting trees in forest vineyards. Nurseries were usually established on farms to fill the owner’s needs. For instance, Gato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny and Colulmella have given instructions about establishment and management of nurseries, and methods to sowing seeds of different tree species. Except for seeds, both root- and branch-cuttings were used in cultivation of trees. Also, grafting was known.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4752, category Article
T. T. Kozlowski, S. Sasaki, J. H. Torrie. (1967). Effects of temperature on phytotoxicity of monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4752. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14536

The apparent toxicity of soil-incorporated monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young Pinus resinosa Ait. seedlings was studied over a temperature range of 10–30 °C in growth chambers. The herbicides were first applied to the surface of autoclaved soil at 1 1b/A and later mixed into the soil. Thereafter pine seeds were planted and subsequent seedling development was studied. The effect of CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone were also studied at dosages of 2 and 3 1b/A (soil surface basis).

Under the conditions of this study, picloram and monuron were persistent in the soil and toxic to pine seedlings, whereas CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone appeared to be non-toxic. However, the apparent lack of phytotoxicity of the latter group apparently was caused largely by lack of activation of sesone by autoclaving soil and large losses from the soil of CDEC, EPTC, and CDAA even before seeds were planted.

High toxicity of picloram and monuron was showed by reductions in seedling survival, total dry weight increment of plants, and dry weight increment of surviving seedlings. Various temperature regimes greatly affected growth of herbicide treated plants and controls. In control plants both high and low temperatures adversely affected seedling survival and dry weight more than shoot growth. Temperature extremes generally inhibited root growth more than shoot growth. The high temperatures, 25 and 30 °C, markedly enhanced phytotoxicity of picloram and muron.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kozlowski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sasaki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Torrie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7632, category Article
Pekka Kauppi. (1984). Stress, strain, and injury : Scots pine transplants from lifting to acclimation on the planting site. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 185 article id 7632. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7632

This paper is the final report of a study on the damage of tree transplants induced before the trees are planted in the field. The injury development is viewed as a transient rather than a ”step-like” process. The main objective of the study is to develop concepts and methods for recognizing and analysing the dynamic aspects of that process. The report consists of three parts: i) characterization of the environments to which the plants are exposed, ii) theoretical part of model development, and iii) experiments with bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants in which the model was applied.

The results of the first part indicate fast temporal variation of the environmental stress factors, and a slow response of the plant in terms of visible injury symptoms. A model is developed in the second part of the paper for analysing the relationship between the fast stress variables and the slow injury variables. The model is employed in the third part of the study for developing experiments in which the transplants were subjected to different stress conditions. The conclusions emphasize the hazardous role of root desiccation. Similar injury development was observed over a range of different planting sites. Controlling high temperatures during the transportation and storage of the plants was introduced as an indirect method for avoiding the risk of root desiccation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kauppi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7604, category Article
Jukka Laine, Hannu Mannerkoski. (1980). Lannoituksen vaikutus mäntytaimikoiden kasvuun ja hirvituhoihin karuilla ojitetuilla nevoilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 166 article id 7604. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7604
English title: Effect on fertilization on tree growth and elk damage in young Scots pine stands planted on drained, nutrient-poor open bogs in Finland.

An attempt was made in this study to determine which nutrients and in what amounts should be used in the fertilization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands on nutrient-poor open bogs in order to obtain optimum seedling growth and to minimize the risk of elk damage.

The most important nutrient to improve seedling growth in the experiments was phosphorus. Already rather small amounts produced a significant effect although the effect of higher dosages seemed to be longer lasting. After fertilization also nitrogen gave significant increase in growth. The number of seedlings damaged by elk increased the most on N-fertilized plots. Also, phosphorus increased the occurrence of elk damage, but effect seemed to be related to the better growth and more suitable size of P-fertilized seedlings. The effect of potassium on seedling growth and on occurrence of elk damage was negligible.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7595, category Article
Erkki Hallman, Pertti Hari, Pentti K. Räsänen, Heikki Smolander. (1978). Effect of planting shock on the transpiration, photosynthesis, and height increment of Scots pine seedlings. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 161 article id 7595. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7595

In the experiment Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were transplanted out in the field. The effect of the treatments on gas metabolism and daily height increment were examined. The seedlings were 5-year old Scots pine plants growing in clay pots, covered with plastic bags. Transpiration and photosynthetic rates were monitored with open IRGA measuring system for a few days before being subjected to the treatments and for one month after. In addition, the daily amounts of transpired water and daily height increments were measured. A model for the potential rate of each metabolic process was constructed.

Planting and additional exposure had a strong and rather permanent effect on the self-regulation of the processes. This effect is very similar to that caused by water deficit. Exposure makes the disturbance more pronounced. Transpiration of the transplanted seedlings decreased in a few days after planting to less than half of the potential value and that of the exposed ones decreased to a quarter of the potential value. The daily amounts of photosynthesis decreased to half of the potential value. There was no recovery in photosynthesis during the whole monitoring period of four weeks. There was a slight recovery in transpiration about five weeks after transplanting.

Thus, the treatment probably generated stress conditions throughout the whole growing period, which is characterized by strong self-regulation of photosynthesis and transpiration, thus causing an essential decrease in the total amount of CO2 fixed. The photosynthesis was depressed especially at elevated temperatures after planting, as during water deficit. Planting and additional exposure did not produce any detectable changes in the dependence of the growth rate on temperature or in the effect of self-regulation on height growth. On the other hand, the level of growth was decreased as a result of planting out.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hallman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7584, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1976). Lannoituksen, kuivatuksen ja lämpöolojen vaikutus istutus- ja luonnontaimistojen kehitykseen rämeillä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 150 article id 7584. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7584
English title: Effect of fertilization, drainage and temperature on the development of planted and natural seedlings on pine swamps.

The paper presents some preliminary results of a 10-year-old study the purpose of which is to determine the effect of simultaneous variations in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of planted and natural seedlings on peatlands under various climatic conditions. The development of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings appeared to be better the more intensive the degree of drainage and fertilization used. The increase in the temperature sum had a positive effect on the development of pine seedlings and decreased the mortality rate.

The best growth result was obtained with a 10 m ditch spacing and strong fertilization. As it is difficult to decrease the 10 m ditch spacing for cost reasons, it can be concluded that on such oligotrophic peatlands as were used in this experiment, only an average growth level in the seedling stands can be reached even with the most efficient forest improvement measures. Broadcast fertilization used in the experiment, at least in large doses, increases seedling mortality, as well as the coverage of the ground vegetation, particularly that of cottongrass and fireweed, and also the shrub height, thus increasing competition. It cannot be recommended for afforestation, and today spot fertilization is used. According to this experiment natural seedlings seem once they have recovered after the first years, to grow better than the planted seedlings. This was true especially in the north and in areas, where drainage was not efficient. The height and height growth of the seedlings were to a large extent dependent on the temperature sum.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7548, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Pertti Veijola. (1971). Lannoituksen ja sarkaleveyden vaikutus rämeen uudistumiseen ja taimien kasvuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 114 article id 7548. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7548
English title: Effect of fertilization and ditch spacing on regeneration and seedling growth in pine swamps.

In 1965 and 1966 a total of 25 experiments were laid out in various parts of Finland in order to find out the effect of simultaneous variation in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of plantations and natural seedling stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on pine swamps. The fertilizer used was Y fertilizer for peat soils, a fertilizer mixture containing 14 % N, 18 % P2O5 and 10 % K2O. It was applied in rates of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. The ditch spacings studied were 10, 20 and 30 m. The present paper is a preliminary report on a series of studies, the experiments will be observation for a total of 15–20 years.

Mortality of the planted seedlings was found to be the higher after the first growing season, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that had been applied. Fertilizing caused an increase in seedling mortality even after the first growing season following application. At the end of the fifth growing season the height of both natural and planted seedlings is the greater, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that has been applied. Analysis of the height growth of the seedlings showed that larger quantities of fertilizer did not increase growth in the same proportion. The occurrence of growth disturbances is the greater, the more fertilizer has been applied.

Fertilization also changed the composition of ground vegetation. The in the beginning of the experiment  birch (Betula sp.) was absent in the area, but was found in the stands the greater abundance the higher application of the fertilizer.

From the viewpoint of growth of the seedlings the best results were obtained with the greatest intensity of fertilization and the narrowest ditch spacing used in the study. The results also show that strong fertilization and a high degree of drainage intensity are not capable of bringing about any particularly good growth on peatlands which originally are relatively poor in nutrients. The growth values now obtained equal only one third of those obtained on peat soils of greater fertility.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veijola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7546, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen. (1970). Nostoajankohdan, pakkaustavan, varastointiajan pituuden ja kastelun vaikutuksesta männyn taimien kehitykseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 112 article id 7546. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7546
English title: The effect of lifting date, packing, storing and watering on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

This study was carried out in 1966 in the nursery at Hyytiälä, Korkeakoski Forest District, in Southern Finland. The influence of lifting date (two liftings), way of packing (two methods) and length of storage (one, three and six weeks) on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 2 + 1, during the four years following planting was assessed. On the seedlings stored for six weeks, the influence of compensating for the water deficit was also studied.

According to the results, the lifting carried out later, i.e. when the seedlings had already started growth, gave slightly better results than when seedlings were lifted earlier. No difference could be observed for seedlings stored for one week, but for the seedlings stored for three or six weeks, mortality in the lot lifted earlier was 6- to 7-fold that of the seedlings lifted later. The main reason for this was probably that the seedlings of the earlier lifting suffered from lack of water at the time of lifting.

The growth of the seedlings lifted earlier and stored for three weeks showed a decrease compared to those lifted later. For the seedlings stored for six weeks, on the other hand, faster growth was recorded for both the seedlings of the earlier and the later lifting in comparison with those stored for shorter times. Watering increased to some extent the growth of the seedlings stored for six weeks.

During the normal, one- and three-week storing periods, seedlings were well preserved when packed both in bundles and in polythene sacks. Three years after the planting the average mortality was about 10%. Effect of watering was large for those seedlings that had been longer in the storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7602, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1969). Progeny tests in a Pinus silvestris (L) seed orchard in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 99 article id 7602. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7602

Heritability of first and second-year height growth of Pinus sylvestris (L.) plants was studied using three different mating designs. Plants grew in a plastic greenhouse during the first growth period. During the second growth period they were exposed to open air conditions.

Heritability values varied from zero to 42%. An average heritability based on six separate calculations (two from each mating design) was computed and its reliability was discussed. This heritability value was 18%.

Different ways of improving heritability estimates was discussed and the need of more investigations on trait quality in relation to fitness and on the effect of natural selection and population strategy was emphasized.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7608, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1969). Comparative observations on the nursery technique in different parts of the world. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 98 article id 7608. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7608

This paper is a report of the authors visits to over 80 forestry nurseries in 20 countries mostly in the tropics or subtropics. The article aim is to describe the methods used in the various countries and compares them to the conventional methods of cool and temperate countries. The article introduces nurseries of Africa south of the Sahara, Mediterranean area, Australian and New Zealand and Latin America.

A complete revolution has taken place in the Finnish nursery practice, which used to raise the seedlings in natural field soil in open-air nurseries. The seedlings were usually transplanted into transplant beds at the age of two years. Now the use of plastic greenhouses of light construction and an artificial soil substrate (fertilized peat) are essential. The new technique has some similarities to the practises of the tropical and subtropical nurseries. In Finland cultivation in greenhouses has hastened the development of the seedlings and shortened the nursery rotation from four to two years, and provided better control of watering and fertilization.

Peat beds in greenhouses are used also in Swaziland. The advantage of peat is that it is free of weed seeds, which eliminates weeding. Peat substrate gives also better yield of seedlings, which decreases the need of seeds, which is important in Finland. Another technique common with tropical silviculture is the production of potted seedlings, which are easy to handle and transport. In tropics, peat pots (jiffy pots) have made it possible to grow plantable seedlings in one season without transplanting. The present Finnish technique means a decreased degree of mechanization compared to the conventional technique of modern European and American nurseries.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7188, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen, Asko Hilli. (1968). Taimien talvivarastoinnista ja sen vaikutuksesta männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 88 article id 7188. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7188
English title: Cold-storage and its effects on the field survival and growth of planted Scots pine.

The aim of this study was to find out the planting vigour of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter either in winter storage mainly in the temperature of 4 – -6 °C or in nursery beds. The experimental planting included about 4,500 of 2+1 transplants in Northern Finland. In spring 1965 the control plants were lifted in the spring before budbreak and stored in closed bags in a cold store, in the following year the control plants were lifted in June when the growth had started.

Winter storage of pine transplants in a cold store, tightly closed into bags for the major period, did not, according to the results, increase plant mortality as compared to lifting in the spring. Soaking the stored-plant roots did not affect plant mortality. Mortality was rather small in all treated lots and probably more dependent on planting site and other local factors.

No consistent difference on the leader growth, needle length, bud number and plant grade was found between the plants stored over winter and those lifted in the spring. Sealing the plants into tight bags for winter proved to be suitable method, efficiently preventing water shortage in the plants. No moulds or fungal diseases were found in the plants. In the exceptionally cold 1965–1966 winter, temperature in the cold store sank to -15 °C, but in spite of the temperatures below the recommended storing temperature, the plants survived well. The reason was that the plants froze slowly in the fall and thawed out slowly in the spring.

The value of vigour grade in predicting plant-characteristic development proved to be good, and predicted plant development also in the following year fairly well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hilli, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4544, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Näkökohtia taimien kasvatuksesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13953
English title: Production of forest tree seedlings.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes production of forest tree seedlings.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4488, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Taimitarhatöistä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4488. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13898
English title: Forest nurseries in Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes cultivation of seedlings in forest nurseries.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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