Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1970-1979
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'siemenet'.

Category: Article

article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7158
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7486, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). Siemensiipien hankaajista ja niiden vaikutuksesta siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7486
English title: On machines for abrading seed wings and their influence on the germinative capacity of the seed.

This paper deals with two machines designed for abrading seed wings, and their influence on the germinative capacity of seed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Both machines are commonly used in Finland.

The results of the study indicate that the act of abrading may cause slight or even serious injuries to the seed. Slight injuries of about 3% are probably not easily avoided if mechanical abrading is resorted to. It must be noted, however, that even this reduction in germinative capacity causes significant yearly loss. If the reduction in germinative capacity is greater, which seems to be possible, it is advisable to test the mechanism of the machine and its method of abrading. As the clearance of the machines can affect the extent of injuries, all machines should be tested. If possible, a continual operation control should be arranged. It could, at the same time, to supply material for improving the abrading method and equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7421, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1954). Taimitarhan maantieteellinen sijainti, siemenen alkuperä ja istutuskaudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 9 article id 7421. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7421
English title: Geographical location of a tree nursery, seed origin and planting seasons.

Planning of large central tree nurseries, which has become topical in Finland, means that the seedlings will be used in a wide geographical area. The nursery must decide which proveniences of seeds of the different tree species it will use. This concerns also the customer that buys the seedlings. The planting and lifting of the seedlings in the nursery have to be timed so that the seedlings are in a right state of growth at the time of planting.

The growth of the seedlings can, under certain conditions, be promoted by using a slightly southerly seed provenience, and large-sized seeds. There are, however, limitations to how much the seeds can be transferred northwards. If the nursery lies much south of the planting site, the seedlings have started height growth at the time of planting. This applies especially larch (Larix sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), but affects less Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The problem can be handled by using a cool storage space for the seedlings waiting for a delivery in the nursery.

According to an international study, seedlings grown from seeds collected in countries south from Finland usually die already during the first two years in the nursery. Within Finland the seeds can be transferred at least by two latitudes. Spruce seems to tolerate longer transfer. Seed orchards should be planted south of the seed’s origin to ensure better yield and better quality seeds.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7367, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1942). Karistuslämmön vaikutuksesta männyn siemenen karisemiseen ja itämiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 14 article id 7367. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7367
English title: Effect of seed extracting temperature on extraction and germination of Scots pine seeds.

Temperatures needed in extracting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds is relatively high, however, there is little information on its effect on germination of the seeds. This survey aimed at studying how different temperatures affect both extraction result and germination of Scots pine seeds. Comparisons between different temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC) were made from cones collected from same sample trees, three trees in total.

Temperatures 20 and 30 ºC resulted in incomplete opening of the cones, and gave thus smaller amount of seeds. Complete extraction requires at the least the temperature of 40 ºC. The result is slightly better in 50 ºC, but germination of the seeds is little lower. Temperatures 60 and 70 ºC improve the results, but in the cost of germination. The main reason for lower germination percentage was that the higher temperatures release more empty and defective seeds from the cones. Results of different sample trees were different due to, for instance, quality and size of cones. Higher temperatures accelerated the extraction. According to the study, perfect extraction in 40 ºC requires longer extraction time than when the temperature of 50 ºC is used. In practice, 50 ºC temperature or even little higher temperatures can be used when the extraction time is shorter. Decessive factors in choosing the temperature would be the humidity of cones and length of extraction time.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4963, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1977). Männyn ja kuusen siementen gammasäteilyherkkyyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14814
English title: Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

This study, comprising three experiments, aims to determine the effect of the geographical origin of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds, and the duration of the time lag between the moisture treatment and subsequent irradiation on the gamma-irradiation sensitivity of seeds.

The studies showed that the greater the irradiation dose seeds were subjected to the slower the rate of germination. In general, small radiation doses (250–1,000 rad) had a stimulating effect and the final germination percentage (36–40 days) increased. However, when the level was further increased, the germination percentage decreased. Air-dry and moistened seeds withstood irradiation better than others. In a study with moistened seeds from different geographical sources, pine and spruce seeds from Northern Finland were less able to withstand irradiation than those originating from the south.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4930, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1976). Ionisoivan säteilyn vaikutus varastokuivien ja liotettujen metsäpuiden siementen idäntään ja taimien alkukehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14772
English title: Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination of storage-dry and soaked forest tree seeds and on the initial development of seedlings.

The study was carried out in order to find out the changes taking place in germination of seeds in certain tree species as a function of gamma irradiation, the height growth of the seedlings produced and the types of phenotypic mutants possibly found in the generation that had received radiation. The tree species studied were Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Betula verrucosa (Betula pendula Roth), B. Pubescens Ehrh., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench.

Soaked seeds that had received a rather small dose of radiation germinated usually better than storage-dry seeds, B. pubescens being an exception. The damages observed in germination, height growth and the relative number of mutants were greater the higher the irradiation doses. The LD50 dose (germination, 28 days) was as follows in the case of the different tree species (storage dry/soaked): P. Sylvestris 1,500-2,000/2500-3,000, P. abies 1,000-1,500/4,000-4,500, B. pendula 9,500-10,000/7,000-7,500, B. pubescens >10,000/7,500-8,000 and A. Glutinosa 10,000/8,500-9,000 rad. Mass production of different mutants of deciduous trees for ornamental purposes, for example, appears to be easy using gamma-irradiation. On the other hand, the possibility of increasing tree growth remains open for further study.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4810, category Article
Pentti Solin. (1970). Kuusen käpyjen säilyttäminen jäähdyttämössä ja sen vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4810. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14598
English title: Cold storage of Norway spruce cones and its effect on seed viability.

The aim of the study was to establish how the cold storage of cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) affects the viability of the seeds and the percentage ratio in 7 days. A parallel study was made of the longevity of seed in barn-stored cones subject to weather fluctuations and the longevity of seed extracted immediately and stored in the conventional way in an air-tight container. The cones were collected near Kuopio in Central Finland and near Tampere.

The viability and germination rate of the control sample was constant throughout the storage period. This storage method proved the best. The viability of seeds kept in cones declined in cold storage after 3 ½ months. The cones collected in Tampere were damaged by Laspeyresia strobilella, which affected the viability of the seeds.

The viability of seeds stored in cones in a barn had not weakened by the end of May, however, they deteriorated during the summer, as did the seeds stored in cones in the cold storage. Viability of the seeds was still 94% in October. The germination rate was constant in each lot up to the end of May, after which it decreased to 81.7–86.1% in October.

The results show that healthy spruce cones can be stored in paper sacks in a single layer in cold storage and in an ordinary barn for several months without it affecting the viability of the seeds.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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