Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'siemensato'.

Category: Article

article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312.
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311.
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7036, category Article
I. Lassila. (1920). Tutkimuksia mäntymetsien synnystä ja kehityksestä pohjoisen napapiirin pohjoispuolella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 7036.
English title: Studies on the regeneration and development of Scots pine forests north of the arctic circle.

The frequency of years when Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) produces cones and seeds affects its reproduction in the north. The study area covered most of the pine lands in Northern Finland. Scots pine seems to be able to produce cones relatively often in the north. The amount of seeds produced in one year was, however, not sufficient to produce a dense seedling stand. Thus, the natural pine stands contain usually trees in different ages-classes, which have germinated in different years. The cone production is highest in 150-170 years old trees. Pine also needs warm summers to produce viable seeds. Brush fires avail the growth of seedlings, because they clear of ground vegetation that hinders germination of seeds. The seedlings need also moisture to survive; good regeneration years have often had rainy summers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7013, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1917). Tutkimuksia mäntymetsien uudistumisvuosista Etelä- ja Keski-Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 7013.
English title: Studies on the regeneration years of Scots pine forests in Southern and Central Finland.

The success of natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the amount and quality of seeds produced in each year. While seed production of Scots pine in Northern Finland is well known, there is little information about frequency of good seed years in Southern and Central Finland. The success of regeneration of Scots pine was studied by defining from the growth rings of felled sample trees in which year they started to grow. The aim was to choose sample trees so that they would form a continual series from seedlings to 100 years old trees. In the material there was too little sample trees from certain years. However, within the period of 1827-1910 it could be identified 13 good regeneration years of pine in Southern Finland. According to the study, pine has regenerated very well every 6th year and at least moderately well every 4th year. When compared to the previous studies made in Northern Finland, part of the good regeneration years seems to be same both in Northern and Southern Finland. Regeneration of Scots pine is affected also by the type and condition of the site.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4744, category Article
Pekka Tiililä. (1967). Tutkimuksia eräiden ulkomaisten puulajien siemensadon laadusta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4744.
English title: Studies on the quality of seed yields in some foreign tree species in Finland.

The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.

The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.

Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.

The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.

According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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