Current issue: 54(5)
Under compilation: 55(1)
This review systematically analyses and classifies research and review papers focusing on discrete event simulation applied to wood transport, and therefore illustrates the development of the research area from 1997 until 2017. Discrete event simulation allows complex supply chain models to be mapped in a straightforward manner to study supply chain dynamics, test alternative strategies, communicate findings and facilitate understanding of various stakeholders. The presented analyses confirm that discrete event simulation is well-suited for analyzing interconnected wood supply chain transportation issues on an operational and tactical level. Transport is the connective link between interrelated system components of the forest products industry. Therefore, a survey on transport logistics allows to analyze the significance of entire supply chain management considerations to improve the overall performance and not only one part in isolation. Thus far, research focuses mainly on biomass, unimodal truck transport and terminal operations. Common shortcomings identified include rough explanations of simulation models and sparse details provided about the verification and validation processes. Research gaps exist concerning simulations of entire, resilient and multimodal wood supply chains as well as supply and demand risks. Further studies should expand upon the few initial attempts to combine various simulation methods with optimization.
A model for the succession of the forest ecosystem is described. The growth and development of trees and ground cover are controlled by temperature and light conditions and the availability of nitrogen and water. In addition, the effects of the annual cycle of trees including the risk of frost damage, wild fire, and wind damages are contained in the model as factors which control the survival and productivity of trees. The model also makes it possible to evaluated the risk of insect attack assuming that this risk is inversely related to the growth efficiency of trees.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The simulation model consists of a method to generate theoretical Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands, and a spatial growth model to predict the growth of these stands. The stand generation procedure first predicts the tree diameters from a few stand characteristics and from tree locations. Tree age and height are predicted using spatial models. Spatial growth models were made for both diameter growth and basal area growth. Past growth was used as a predictor in one pair of models and omitted in another pair. The stand generation method and the growth models were utilized in studying the effect of tree arrangement and thinning method on the growth of a Norway spruce stand.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The usefulness of forest sector models in forest policy analysis is discussed, mainly based on experiences from Norway. Forest sector modelling is contrasted to two alternative approaches: (i) Intuitive, verbal analysis, and (ii) econometric models. It is concluded that forest sector models, properly developed in contact with the policy makers, should be of considerable value in forest policy analysis.
The study presents a growth and yield prediction model for a Pinus kesiya (Royle ex Gordon) stand by diameter classes. The material consists of temporary sample plots taken from a plantation inventory, of permanent sample plots established in commercial compartments and of an espacement trial. The mean basal area of the stand, variance and skewness of the diameter distribution are predicted. From these variables the parameters of the Weibull function are derived. Site class is assumed to be known or is calculated from measured information. Mortality is also predicted by estimating the number and mean size of dead trees. Thinnings are defined by the number of trees removed and by their relative size. If measured tree level data at the initial situation is available it can be utilized in the predictions, however, simulations can also be performed with stand level information. The minimum information needed for the prediction is planting density, site class as well as the times and removals of thinnings.
The calculations show that by decreasing the planting density of P. Kesiya from the present 1,330 stems/ha or by conducting early precommercial thinning both the relative and absolute amount of large sawlogs in the total production increase. An increase in the present planting density only slightly increases total yield. It is obvious that the presently recommended rotation of 25 years is too short for producing large sawlogs, especially on poor sites. This rotation period is suitable for small sawlog production while for pulpwood regimes shorter rotation periods can be used. If thinnings are done before the maximum current annual growth is reached stands will react well, but later on the ability to respond to thinnings decreases rapidly. Thinnings from below accelerates the production of large sawlogs more than thinning from above or systematic thinning. If all sawlog sizes are considered no great differences between thinning type exist. The study recommends different thinning regimes according to site class. Separate programs are recommended for the production of sawlogs and pulpwood.
The used thinning reaction model needs refinement and further studies with annual measured thinning trial material.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.