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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'snow damages'.

Category: Research article

article id 138, category Research article
Santiago Martín-Alcón, José Ramón González-Olabarría, Lluís Coll. (2010). Wind and snow damage in the Pyrenees pine forests: effect of stand attributes and location. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 138. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.138
Wind and snow-induced damage have been analyzed at stand level for three pine forests in the Central-Eastern Pyrenees (Pinus nigra Arn. salzmanii, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinata Ram.). Stand-level models have been then developed for the most affected two species, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinata Ram., to describe damage severity. The models were based on data from national forest inventory plots. They included variables related to the spatial location and structure of the stands, being validated using a sub-set of the database (25% of the plots randomly selected). Mountain pine forests (Pinus uncinata Ram.) were the most heavily affected by wind and snow disturbances. For both mountain and Scots pine species, topographic exposure and the severity of the local storm regime had an important effect on the degree of damage. Stand’s resistance to wind and snow was found to be dependent on the combined effect of basal area and mean slenderness of the dominant trees. For a given slenderness ratio, damage increased strongly in lower-density stands, particularly in stands with basal areas below 15 m2/ha. Stand structure was particularly important to define the resistance of Scots pine stands, which presented a higher vulnerability to wind and snow under higher degree of even-agedness. The models presented in this study provide empirically-based information that can be used to implement silvicultural practices to minimize the risk of those forests to suffer wind and snow-related damages.
  • Martín-Alcón, Forest Technology Center of Catalonia, Solsona, Lleida, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: santiago.martin@ctfc.es (email)
  • González-Olabarría, Forest Technology Center of Catalonia, Solsona, Lleida, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Coll, Forest Technology Center of Catalonia, Solsona, Lleida, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5533, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1994). Effect of weather and climatological background on snow damage of forests in Southern Finland in November 1991. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9173

Snow damage to forests in Southern Finland in November 1991 was examined in relation to meteorological conditions. The combined effect of different factors proved to be necessary for severe damage. First, the snow load, in terms of precipitation, should exceed a certain limit. The limit can be set for weak or moderate damage at about 40 mm and for very severe damage at about 60 mm. Second, temperature at the time of precipitation should be above 0°C, which enables the slightly wet snow to attach to twigs during the subsequent period with temperature below 0°C. On the other hand, temperatures exceeding 0.6°C prohibit damage by permitting the snow load to fall from the branches. Wind speed exceeding 9 ms-1, as observed 15 m above ground, were strong enough to dislodge the snow which is not attached, and thus reduce the damage. There are few statistics either of snow damage or of the relation between the snow damage and precipitation. However, there is causal connection between snow damage and heavy snowfalls. Therefore, the regions with a high frequency of heavy snowfalls, as indicated by orographical features and occurrence of thick snow cover, were investigated.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5523, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1993). Snow and soil frost in Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5523. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15684

Abundant snowfalls and thick snow cover influence forest ecology mainly in two ways. Snow loading increases the number of damaged stems, which increases the amount of decay in stems, in its turn important for many animals. Second, the ground remains unfrozen under the snow cover, which is of crucial importance for many perennial species of ground vegetation. These winter phenomena also have influenced the early Finnish culture as man in his everyday life in the wilderness was in close contact with nature. In this paper, ecological interactions between snow conditions, forest flora, fauna and early culture are discussed mainly with reference to the province of Uusimaa in Southern Finland.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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