Current issue: 54(2)
After the Second World War shortage of lubrication oil forced Finland to develop a substitute product that was produced of indigenous materials. This report is an overview of the history of the already terminated lubricating oil industry and it gives a detailed description of lubricating oil production.
The annual lubricating oil consumption in Finland was 15,000 tons before the war, but during the war it decreased to 7-8,000 tons. In 1943 Oy Tervaöljy Ab (Tar Oil Limited) was established with the state of Finland as the main shareholder. It was commissioned to plan and build tar and tar oil plants, and it also transmitted tar from stump wood pyrolyzing plants to oil factories. Two raw materials were used to produce tar oil: tar wood collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stumps and tall oil, a by-product of sulphate pulp mills. A total of 9,000 tons of lubricating oil substitutes was produced in 1943-1947, 53% of this from sulphate pulp mill by-products and 47% from tar and shale oil.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.
Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.
This presentation outlines the state of state forests after the World War II. The area of the forests had decreased and the loggings to cover the needs of war years had influenced the silvicultural state of the forests. The article lists the forest management work that needs to be done in the state forests in the coming years.
The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.
Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.
During the war the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.
During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.
The article includes an abstract in English.