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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'species diversity'.

Category: Research article

article id 1709, category Research article
Guoping Chen, Cong Shi, Shanshan Cheng, Tiejian Zhao, Guoquan Liu, Fuchen Shi. (2017). The structure and soil characteristics of a Pinus tabuliformis planted forest after 60 years of natural development in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1709
Highlights: Increasing proportions of broadleaf tree species was shown to affect nutrient content of the forest floor and soil, and the soil microbial community in the process of natural development of Pinus tabuliformis planted forest. In this regard, this study can act as a reference for management of the near-natural transformation of P. tabuliformis planted forests and for the choice of the tree species used.

This study evaluated the transformation of a Pinus tabuliformis Carrière forest into a near-natural forest after 60 years of natural development. The structure and soil characteristics of P. tabuliformis planted forest, the near-natural forest (coniferous-broadleaved P. tabuliformis mixed forest), and secondary forest (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. forest) were compared. Tree, shrub and herb species diversity of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests was higher than that of the planted P. tabuliformis forest. Examination of soil characteristics revealed that compared to the pure pine forest, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests increased in the forest floor and soil, but total carbon (C) concentration decreased in the forest floor, countered by increases in the soil. Furthermore, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH in the P. tabuliformis forest increased when deciduous broadleaved species were present. Total microbial biomass and bacterial biomass in the soils were greatest in the Q. mongolica forest, followed by the mixed, and then the P. tabuliformis forests. However, fungal biomass did not significantly differ among the three forests. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that different forest types can affect soil microbial biomass and community structure. Meanwhile, the natural development is recommended as a potential management alternative to near-natural transformation of a P. tabuliformis planted forest.

  • Chen, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: guopingchern@mail.nankai.edu.cn
  • Shi, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8689, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: cshi1@for.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
  • Cheng, School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 1401213932@sz.pku.edu.cn
  • Zhao, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaotiejiann456@sina.com
  • Liu, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: liuguoquan01@163.com
  • Shi, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fcshi@nankai.edu.cn (email)
article id 295, category Research article
Pekka Kaitaniemi, Janne Riihimäki, Julia Koricheva, Harri Vehviläinen. (2007). Experimental evidence for associational resistance against the European pine sawfly in mixed tree stands. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 295. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.295
This study examined whether the saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exhibit associational resistance against the European pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) when grown in a mixture with 50% silver birch (Betula pendula). The number of sawflies on pine trees in pure and mixed stands was manipulated at two experimental sites during two years. Survival of larvae and eggs was monitored, and the numbers of presumed sawfly predators were counted. A lower proportion of sawfly larvae and eggs survived on pines grown in the mixture with birch as compared with pure pine stands. Lower survival of sawfly larvae in the mixed stands was associated with the higher abundance of ants in these stands. The numbers of other sawfly predators (e.g. spiders and predatory heteropterans) differed between the study sites and were negatively associated with the presence of ants, which suggests possible interference between these groups. Although sawfly survival was lower on pines in the mixed stands, providing evidence of associational resistance, a related study shows the same trees had a higher number of ant-tended aphid colonies as compared with pines in the pure stands. Therefore, instead of considering resistance against individual herbivore species, it seems more practical to use associational resistance as a trait representing the resistance of larger systems, such as whole tree stands, against the total damage caused by herbivores in general.
  • Kaitaniemi, Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station, University of Helsinki, Hyytiäläntie 124, FI-35500 Korkeakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Riihimäki, Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koricheva, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vehviläinen, Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 541, category Research article
Azim U. Mallik, F. Wayne Bell, Yanli Gong. (2002). Effectiveness of delayed brush cutting and herbicide treatments for vegetation control in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.541
Efficacy of three conifer release treatments, i) single application of glyphosate (Vision™) herbicide, ii) multiple application of glyphosate herbicide, and iii) motor-manual brush cutting for controlling competing plants, particularly trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica), green alder (Alnus viridis spp. crispa), and beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta spp. cornuta), was studied in a seven-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana) plantation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The single and multiple glyphosate applications were equally effective in controlling trembling aspen and pin cherry, causing over 90% stem mortality. The brushsaw treatment caused an initial decrease followed by an increase in stem density of these two species. A high degree of stem thinning by natural mortality in the untreated control plots was observed in trembling aspen (23–46%) and pin cherry (41–69%) over four years. As with trembling aspen and pin cherry, stem density of green alder and beaked hazel initially decreased and then increased following the brushsaw treatment, mainly due to resprouting. Stem mortality in green alder and beaked hazel was 45% and 97%, respectively, two years after the operational glyphosate treatment. Competition index (CI) was low (mean CI = 52, ranging from 18 to 115) in all the plots including the untreated control. There was a significant increase in basal diameter of jack pine in the brushsaw and herbicide-treated plots compared to the control three years after the treatments. Jack pine seedlings in the brushsaw and glyphosate treated plots were taller compared to that of control but differences were not significant. Lower species richness and diversity were recorded in the herbicide-treated plots compared to the brushsaw and control plots in the third growing season following treatment.
  • Mallik, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 ORCID ID:E-mail: azim.mallik@lakeheadu.ca (email)
  • Bell, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada P6A 2E5 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gong, Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 565, category Research article
Sybille Haeussler, Lorne Bedford, Alain Leduc, Yves Bergeron, J. Marty Kranabetter. (2002). Silvicultural disturbance severity and plant communities of the southern Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.565
Boreal forest ecosystems are adapted to periodic disturbance, but there is widespread concern that conventional forest practises degrade plant communities. We examined vegetation diversity and composition after clearcut logging, mechanical and chemical site preparation in eight 5- to 12-yr old studies located in southern boreal forests of British Columbia and Quebec, Canada to find useful indicators for monitoring ecosystem integrity and to provide recommendations for the development and testing of new silvicultural approaches. Community-wide and species-specific responses were measured across gradients of disturbance severity and the results were explained in terms of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and a simple regeneration model based on plant life history strategies. Species richness was 30 to 35% higher 5 to 8 years after clearcut logging than in old forest. Total and vascular species diversity generally peaked on moderately severe site treatments, while non-vascular diversity declined with increasing disturbance severity. On more-or-less mesic sites, there was little evidence of diversity loss within the range of conventional silvicultural disturbances; however, there were important changes in plant community composition. Removing soil organic layers caused a shift from residual and resprouting understory species to ruderal species regenerating from seeds and spores. Severe treatments dramatically increased non-native species invasion. Two important challenges for the proposed natural dynamics-based silviculture will be 1) to find ways of maintaining populations of sensitive non-vascular species and forest mycoheterotrophs, and 2) to create regeneration niches for disturbance-dependent indigenous plants without accelerating non-native species invasion.
  • Haeussler, C2 Site 81 RR#2 Monckton Rd., Smithers, B.C., Canada V0J 2N0 ORCID ID:E-mail: skeena@bulkley.net (email)
  • Bedford, B.C. Ministry of Forests, P.O. Box 9513 Stn. Prov. Govt., Victoria, B.C., Canada, V8W 9C2 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leduc, Groupe de recherche en écologie forestière interuniversitaire, Université du Québec à Montréal, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergeron, Groupe de recherche en écologie forestière interuniversitaire, Université du Québec à Montréal, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kranabetter, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Bag 5000, Smithers, B.C., Canada, V0J 2N0 ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5209, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1984). Diversity pattern of the forest vegetation in relation to some site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5209. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15388

A field data set representing boreal forest-floor vegetation in Southern Finland was analysed using a simultaneous equation model. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and some structural characteristics of the tree stand were treated as predictors in such a way that the tree stand factor was specified to be dependent on the soil variables. Alpha diversity, measured as the total number of species per plot, was treated as a criterion variable.

The model explains 60% of variance in the alpha diversity indicating markedly strong relationships with the site characteristics. Alpha diversity appears to increase with increases in site fertility characteristics. On the other hand, measured characteristics of the tree stand indicate no significant independent effects on the alpha diversity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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