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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'storm'.

Category: Research article

article id 7693, category Research article
Chunyu Zhu, Jiaojun Zhu, Xiao Zheng, Deliang Lu, Xiufen Li. (2017). Comparison of gap formation and distribution pattern induced by wind/snowstorm and flood in a temperate secondary forest ecosystem, Northeast China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7693
Highlights: The canopy gaps induced by wind/snowstorm were aggregated in steep slope and high altitude areas, while the gaps formed by flood were gathered in steep slope and low altitude areas; The wind/snowstorm mainly driven the formation of medium gaps, while the flood mainly promoted the percentage of small gaps and vacant lands.

Canopy gap is the driving force of forest succession. Due to the uncontrollability, however, the influences of natural disturbances on gap formation and gap distribution pattern have been rarely understood in temperate secondary forest ecosystems. We monitored the gap formation and gap distribution pattern using high-resolution remote sensing images before and after two disturbances (wind/snowstorm in 2003 and flood in 2013). The results showed that after wind/snowstorm, the gap nearest neighbor index (GNNI) decreased, the vacant land area did not obviously change while the gap fraction and gaps density (especially medium size) increased. After the flood, GNNI decreased, the number of small gaps increased but larger gaps were in many cases extended to vacant land areas leading to a smaller total number of medium and large gaps but considerable increase in vacant land area. We also found that the gap densities increased with slope and altitude for wind/snowstorm-formed gaps, but they increased with increasing slope and decreasing altitude for flood-formed gaps. These results indicated that gaps were aggregated in steep slope and high altitude areas after wind/snowstorm, but in steep slope and low altitude areas after the flood. Medium gaps were mainly created by the wind/snowstorm due to the individual-level death of dominant tree with the continuous fall of surrounding trees. While, vacant lands were obviously created during the flood because of integral sweeping. Besides, smaller trees were easily damaged by runoff of flood, which induced small gaps. In summary, forest managers may pay more attention to use gaps to accelerate forest succession after wind/snowstorms and to restore vegetation in vacant lands after floods.

  • Zhu, ORCID ID:E-mail: Chunyuzhu123@126.com
  • Zhu, ORCID ID:E-mail: jiaojunzhu@iae.ac.cn (email)
  • Zheng, ORCID ID:E-mail: xiaozheng@iae.ac.cn
  • Lu, ORCID ID:E-mail: delianglu14@hotmail.com
  • Li, ORCID ID:E-mail: delianglu14@hotmail.com
article id 80, category Research article
Mari T. Jönsson, Shawn Fraver, Bengt Gunnar Jonsson. (2011). Spatio-temporal variation of coarse woody debris input in woodland key habitats in central Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 80. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.80
The persistence of many saproxylic (wood-living) species depends on a readily available supply of coarse woody debris (CWD). Most studies of CWD inputs address stand-level patterns, despite the fact that many saproxylic species depend on landscape-level supplies of CWD. In the present study we used dated CWD inputs (tree mortality events) at each of 14 Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominated woodland key habitat sites to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of CWD additions between 1950 and 2002 within a small landscape in central Sweden. We found that inputs were episodic within sites, where local windstorms created pulses in CWD input. Pulses occurred simultaneously in many sites, yielding landscape-level synchrony of CWD input. These synchronous pulses, and importantly, the breaks between pulses, may have negative implications for saproxylic species that are dependent on large volume inputs of freshly killed Norway spruce. In addition, the inherent small size and relative isolation of these sites may further increase extinction risks due to stochastic events. However, background CWD input rates occurring between pulses varied substantially among sites, presumably the result of the sites’ varied histories and structural characteristics. This finding suggests that the different sites have varied abilities to provide habitat for saproxylic species during periods with low landscape-level input of CWD.
  • Jönsson, Department of Ecology, SLU, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden (current); Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.jonsson@slu.se (email)
  • Fraver, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA (current); Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jonsson, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 10009, category Research note
Jānis Donis, Māra Kitenberga, Guntars Šņepsts, Edgars Dubrovskis, Āris Jansons. (2018). Factors affecting windstorm damage at the stand level in hemiboreal forests in Latvia: case study of 2005 winter storm. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10009. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10009
Highlights: In hemiboreal forests in Latvia, dominant tree species, admixture of spruce in canopy-layer, mean height, timing of thinnings, upwind forest edges and wind gusts had significant effect on windstorm damage occurrence at stand-level; Stands on peat soils were more damaged than stands on mineral soils; Tree species composition of canopy-layer was not statistically significant in the model.

In managed European hemiboreal forests, windstorms have a notable ecological and socio-economic impact. In this study, stand properties affecting windstorm damage occurrence at the stand-level were assessed using a Generalized Linear Mixed model. After 2005 windstorm, 5959 stands dominated by birch (Betula spp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), with mean height > 10 m were inventoried. Windstorm damage was positively associated with spruce and pine-dominated stands, increasing mean height, fresh forest edges, decreasing time since the last thinning and stronger wind gusts. Tree species composition – mixed or monodominant – was not statistically significant in the model; while, the admixture of spruce in the canopy layer was positively associated with higher windstorm damage. Stands on peat soils were more damaged than stands on mineral soils. Birch stands were more damaged than pine stands. This information could be used in forest management planning, selection of silvicultural treatments to increase forest resilience to natural disturbances.

  • Donis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: janis.donis@silava.lv (email)
  • Kitenberga, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: mara.kitenberga@gmail.com
  • Šņepsts, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: guntars.snepsts@silava.lv
  • Dubrovskis, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, Latvia, LV-3001 ORCID ID:E-mail: edgars.dubrovskis@llu.lv
  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv

Category: Article

article id 7287, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1934). Havaintoja eräällä myrskytuhoalueella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 10 article id 7287. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7287
English title: Observations in a storm damage area.

A big storm hit Finland in 12.10.1933, and caused forest damages especially in the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Baltic Sea, and in the eastern part of the country. In these areas the wind felled about 75,000‒85,000 m3 timber trees in the state lands. The extent of the wind damage was measured in forest area of 1,500 hectares in Lapinjärvi in Southern Finland. The wind had felled 42% of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 70% of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 44% of the Betula sp. trees. Thus, Norway spruce had been most susceptible for wind damage. That extensive damages in Norway spruce seed tree stands risk the regeneration in the area. Natural regeneration of Norway spruce using seed trees may, therefore, be questioned. The seed tree areas on hills, and especially hollows next to the hills were susceptible for wind damage. A denser border stand protects sparsely stocked seed tree area. The damages were also smaller in older seed tree areas, where the trees and ground vegetation had had time to recover after the felling. The felled spruce and birch trees had often stem rot.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5533, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1994). Effect of weather and climatological background on snow damage of forests in Southern Finland in November 1991. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9173

Snow damage to forests in Southern Finland in November 1991 was examined in relation to meteorological conditions. The combined effect of different factors proved to be necessary for severe damage. First, the snow load, in terms of precipitation, should exceed a certain limit. The limit can be set for weak or moderate damage at about 40 mm and for very severe damage at about 60 mm. Second, temperature at the time of precipitation should be above 0°C, which enables the slightly wet snow to attach to twigs during the subsequent period with temperature below 0°C. On the other hand, temperatures exceeding 0.6°C prohibit damage by permitting the snow load to fall from the branches. Wind speed exceeding 9 ms-1, as observed 15 m above ground, were strong enough to dislodge the snow which is not attached, and thus reduce the damage. There are few statistics either of snow damage or of the relation between the snow damage and precipitation. However, there is causal connection between snow damage and heavy snowfalls. Therefore, the regions with a high frequency of heavy snowfalls, as indicated by orographical features and occurrence of thick snow cover, were investigated.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7017, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1918). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Sturmschäden in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 7017. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7017
English title: Writings on knowledge on wind damages in Finland.

The article represents, based on meteorological data from 1900-1910 and 1911-1915 and annual reports of forest directorate with descriptions or statistics about wind damages of trees in state owned lands, the biggest storms in Finland and the damage they have caused to forests. The most powerful storms of the studied period and damages they caused are presented.  

It was found out that the storm damages take place primarily during the growing season. Frozen ground and a snow cover protects the trees from falling.
  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7017, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1918). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Sturmschäden in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 7017. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7017
English title: Writings on knowledge on wind damages in Finland.

The article represents, based on meteorological data from 1900-1910 and 1911-1915 and annual reports of forest directorate with descriptions or statistics about wind damages of trees in state owned lands, the biggest storms in Finland and the damage they have caused to forests. The most powerful storms of the studied period and damages they caused are presented.  

It was found out that the storm damages take place primarily during the growing season. Frozen ground and a snow cover protects the trees from falling.
  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7017, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1918). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Sturmschäden in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 7017. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7017
English title: Writings on knowledge on wind damages in Finland.

The article represents, based on meteorological data from 1900-1910 and 1911-1915 and annual reports of forest directorate with descriptions or statistics about wind damages of trees in state owned lands, the biggest storms in Finland and the damage they have caused to forests. The most powerful storms of the studied period and damages they caused are presented.  

It was found out that the storm damages take place primarily during the growing season. Frozen ground and a snow cover protects the trees from falling.
  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7016, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1917). Studien über die Sturmrichtungen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 7016. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7016
English title: Studies on directions of the storms in Finland.

There are lot of storm damages in the Finnish forests. They are particularly common in forests logged as strips or with clear cuts, but not absent in selection forestry either. To protect the forests from natural disasters requires more intensive management. For the forestry purposes it is important to know the most common wind directions of different parts of the country. The paper finds out which stormy wind directions are most dangerous to Finnish forests and hence need to be mostly taken into consideration when planning logging operations.  The study is based on meteorological data that has been compared with the reports of storm damages in state owned forests.

The most storm damage take place during the growing season, and to some extent in late fall. The regeneration felling should take place against the primary direction of the stormy winds. The paper represents the most common wind directions for different parts of the country. However, the wind directions may vary from the primary with local conditions such as altitude differences. 

  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7016, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1917). Studien über die Sturmrichtungen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 7016. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7016
English title: Studies on directions of the storms in Finland.

There are lot of storm damages in the Finnish forests. They are particularly common in forests logged as strips or with clear cuts, but not absent in selection forestry either. To protect the forests from natural disasters requires more intensive management. For the forestry purposes it is important to know the most common wind directions of different parts of the country. The paper finds out which stormy wind directions are most dangerous to Finnish forests and hence need to be mostly taken into consideration when planning logging operations.  The study is based on meteorological data that has been compared with the reports of storm damages in state owned forests.

The most storm damage take place during the growing season, and to some extent in late fall. The regeneration felling should take place against the primary direction of the stormy winds. The paper represents the most common wind directions for different parts of the country. However, the wind directions may vary from the primary with local conditions such as altitude differences. 

  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7016, category Article
A. J. Bonsdorff. (1917). Studien über die Sturmrichtungen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 7016. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7016
English title: Studies on directions of the storms in Finland.

There are lot of storm damages in the Finnish forests. They are particularly common in forests logged as strips or with clear cuts, but not absent in selection forestry either. To protect the forests from natural disasters requires more intensive management. For the forestry purposes it is important to know the most common wind directions of different parts of the country. The paper finds out which stormy wind directions are most dangerous to Finnish forests and hence need to be mostly taken into consideration when planning logging operations.  The study is based on meteorological data that has been compared with the reports of storm damages in state owned forests.

The most storm damage take place during the growing season, and to some extent in late fall. The regeneration felling should take place against the primary direction of the stormy winds. The paper represents the most common wind directions for different parts of the country. However, the wind directions may vary from the primary with local conditions such as altitude differences. 

  • Bonsdorff, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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