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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'suojapuusto'.

Category: Article

article id 7343, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1939). Kuusen kylvöstä ja istutuksesta metsitettävillä soilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 7343. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7343
English title: Sowing and planting of Norway spruce in drained peatlands in Finland.

The drained peatlands regenerate usually well, and artificial regeneration by sowing or planting has been rare. Field trials of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were established in northern Satakunta in Western Finland in three drained peatlands in 1934. Sowing trials of Norway spruce consisted of patch and broadcast sowed sample sites in treeless bogs and under protective forest. The seedlings of spruce were planted either under protective forest or in treeless peatland.

The results show that artificial regeneration of Norway spruce succeeds best under protective forest. The best tree species for upper storey is Betula sp. which grows fast and controls growth of ground vegetation. The peat is relatively decomposed on those peatlands that are suitable for spruce, and breaking of the surface of the peat is not recommended. In the sowing trials, breaking of the upper layer of the peat caused frost heaving, cracking of the dried surface and sticking of mud in the seedlings in the patch sown sample site. The shoot and root growth of seedlings of the broadcast sown site was better than seedlings of the patch sown site. The planted spruce seedlings seemed to be more susceptible for spring frost than the seedlings in the sown site. The plants of seed origin succeeded in general better than the planted seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14776
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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