Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'supply chain'.

Category: Research article

article id 10074, category Research article
Sebastian Kühle, Alfred Teischinger, Manfred Gronalt. (2019). Optimal location of laminated beech production plants within the solid hardwood supply network in Austria. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10074. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10074
Highlights: This paper provides data to the solid hardwood business and develops a mixed integer linear program model to design a laminated beech wood supply network; It covers the strategic decision where to locate a new production facility within the existing supply network with the lowest supply network cost; Sufficient sawn wood suppliers and potential facility locations are provided.

Due to changes in forest management in various European countries, hardwood forest areas and amounts will increase. Sustainable and individual utilization concepts have to be developed for the upcoming available resource. Studies conclude that there is low potential for hardwoods in the traditional appearance market thus the application areas have to be extended to new structural innovative products. This paper examines the extension to a future laminated beech wood supply network which would be a combination of already existing and new production facilities. For a better future use of hardwood raw materials it is necessary to consider the entire supply chain. This also better shows a total hardwood value chain. Therefore, this paper provides data to the solid hardwood business and develops a mixed integer linear programming to design a laminated beech wood supply network. The model is applied to Austria as the sample region. It covers the important strategic decisions where to locate a downstream facility within the existing production network with the lowest supply network cost. Fourteen scenarios are developed to examine various future network configurations. Results about optimal material flows and used sawmills as well as downstream production facilities are presented in form of material and financial performances. Two optimal laminated beech production locations are determined by the calculated scenarios results, and the impact of a new sawmill is analyzed which is focused on beech.

  • Kühle, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Material Science and Process Engineering, and Renewable Institute of Wood Technology Materials, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: skuehle@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Teischinger, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Material Science and Process Engineering, and Renewable Institute of Wood Technology Materials, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: alfred.teischinger@boku.ac.at
  • Gronalt, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 1689, category Research article
Juha Laitila, Eeva Lehtonen, Tapio Ranta, Perttu Anttila, Saija Rasi, Antti Asikainen. (2016). Procurement costs of cereal straw and forest chips for biorefining in South-East Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1689
Highlights: Procurement cost at the plant was 59 € dry tonne –1 when the annual procurement volume of biomass was 100 000 tonnes. Of that amount, the proportion of logging residues was 58.4%, stumps 24.3% and delimbed stems 17.3%; Cereal straw represents an important source of biomass in Kouvola but the cost competiveness is poor compared the procurement costs of forest chips due to high baling and transporting costs.

In Finland the increasing use of biofuel in transport presupposes a search for new raw material sources for biorefining. The aim of this study was, at the regional level, to compare the procurement costs of logging residues, stumps, delimbed stems and cereal straw for biorefining. The accumulation and procurement costs of forest chips and cereal straw were estimated within a 100-kilometre transporting distance via existing road network from an end-use-facility located in Kouvola in South-East Finland. The analyses were performed as simulated treatments in thinnings of young stands, cereal fields and regeneration fellings using existing productivity and cost functions and yield calculations based on crop statistics, the forest industry stand data and the sample plots data of the National Forest Inventory of Finland. Accumulation of raw material assortments and costs of production stages were defined per dry tonnes. Subsidies and raw material prices were excluded from consideration in the study. The results indicate that recovering logging residues requires lower costs than utilization of stumps, delimbed stems or cereal straw. Cereal straw represents an important source of biomass in Kouvola but the cost competiveness is poor compared the procurement costs of forest chips. When the annual procurement volume of biomass was 50 000 dry tonnes the cost at the plant was 49 € dry tonne –1 and biomass was comprised totally of logging residues. Procurement cost grew to 59 € dry tonne –1 when the annual procurement volume of biomass was doubled to 100 000 dry tonnes. Of that amount, the proportion of logging residues was 58.4%, stumps 24.3% and delimbed stems 17.3%. First cereal straw dry tonnes were delivered to end-use-facility, when procurement cost grew to 60 € dry tonne –1 and annual procurement volume of biomass was 110 000 dry tonnes.

  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi (email)
  • Lehtonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Halolantie 31A, FI-71750 Maaninka, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eeva.lehtonen@luke.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.ranta@luke.fi
  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: perttu.anttila@luke.fi
  • Rasi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, Survontie 9A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä ORCID ID:E-mail: saija.rasi@luke.fi
  • Asikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.asikainen@luke.fi
article id 899, category Research article
Franz Holzleitner, Christian Kanzian, Norbert Höller. (2013). Monitoring the chipping and transportation of wood fuels with a fleet management system. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.899
Controlling and organizing the complex forest-to-consumer supply chain of wood fuels is a challenging task, especially for the chipping and transport processes. Truck mounted chippers and transport trailer-trucks must be scheduled to minimize delay to be profitable. Job management within the supply chain, including machine activity based controlling, offers a new way to increase efficiency and productivity. However, detailed data are required to detect and analyze potential gaps and improve forest fuel supply. Generally, data regarding the wood fuel supply chain process are obtained from extensive time studies that are based on a specific process step. Although time studies can detect details during the production of forest fuels, they only describe certain time frames. Long-term data that are recorded during the entire year could encompass seasonal and short term effects. This study aims to monitor the forest fuel supply processes (semi-automated), specifically regarding time and fuel consumption. Large data sets were automatically and efficiently gathered with little effort by drivers and operators. Data were recorded with fleet management equipment for more than 14 months. Vehicle data, including GPS data, were logged at an interval of one minute. Data management was conducted in a pre-configured database that contained pre-defined reports and were run by the Institute of Forest Engineering, Vienna. Work step assignments were implemented with Structured Query Language (SQL)-routines by using the raw machine activities data and GPS. The chipping and transport activities of more than 240 loads were analyzed by focusing on fuel consumption, time needed and traffic. The average distance between chipping sites and plants was approximately 54 kilometers. Fuel consumption from transport reached 50 l/100 km. The chipping unit reached a productivity of 12.8 odt/PSH15 and had a fuel consumption of 58 liters per operating hour.
  • Holzleitner, Institute of Forest Engineering, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82/3, 1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: franz.holzleitner@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Kanzian, Institute of Forest Engineering, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82/3, 1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.kanzian@boku.ac.at
  • Höller, Institute of Forest Engineering, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82/3, 1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: norbert.hoeller@boku.ac.at
article id 49, category Research article
Kalle Karttunen, Kari Väätäinen, Antti Asikainen, Tapio Ranta. (2012). The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland’s Lake Saimaa. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 49. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.49
New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel. In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland’s Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside (near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna) was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios. Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after 100–150 km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor. Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from 10.75 euros to 11.64 euros/MWh in distances of 100–150 km by waterways. The energy-density of forest chips in the barge load was found to be, on average, 25% higher than that in truck hauling, because of the better compaction of chips. Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern Finland.
  • Karttunen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.vaatainen@metla.fi
  • Asikainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.asikainen@metla.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi
article id 124, category Research article
Johannes Windisch, Lauri Sikanen, Dominik Röser, David Gritten. (2010). Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement – cost or benefit? Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 124. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.124
It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input.
  • Windisch, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Yliopistokatu 6, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johannes.windisch@metla.fi (email)
  • Sikanen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Röser, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Yliopistokatu 6, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gritten, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 429, category Research article
Juho Rantala. (2004). Optimizing the supply chain strategy of a multi-unit Finnish nursery company. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.429
This paper introduces a capacitated mixed integer programming (CMIP) model for solving an integrated production-distribution system design problem (PDSDP) in the seedling supply chain management (SCM) of a multi-unit Finnish nursery company. The model was originally developed from a strategic perspective in which a company desires to evaluate the expansion or closure of its facilities. Nevertheless, the model is also used for solving operational and tactical level problems by applying applicable constraints. The data were collected from the company studied. The results proved that economies of scale could be exploited in seedling production more than the company does today; Compared to the company’s current supply chain strategy with 5 nursery units producing seedlings, when other supply chain strategies were applied the number of nursery units decreased by 2–4 units, and cost savings in the supply chain varied from 11.3% to 21.3%.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)

Category: Review article

article id 9984, category Review article
Christoph Kogler, Peter Rauch. (2018). Discrete event simulation of multimodal and unimodal transportation in the wood supply chain: a literature review. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9984
Highlights: Focus on discrete event simulation, wood supply chain and multimodal transport; Analyses of 12 review articles and a core of 32 research papers, complemented by 48 related ones; Research focus from unimodal to multimodal transport to build efficient, resilient, green and socially sustainable supply chains; Development of robust risk management considering supply risks, demand risks and external risks is needed.

This review systematically analyses and classifies research and review papers focusing on discrete event simulation applied to wood transport, and therefore illustrates the development of the research area from 1997 until 2017. Discrete event simulation allows complex supply chain models to be mapped in a straightforward manner to study supply chain dynamics, test alternative strategies, communicate findings and facilitate understanding of various stakeholders. The presented analyses confirm that discrete event simulation is well-suited for analyzing interconnected wood supply chain transportation issues on an operational and tactical level. Transport is the connective link between interrelated system components of the forest products industry. Therefore, a survey on transport logistics allows to analyze the significance of entire supply chain management considerations to improve the overall performance and not only one part in isolation. Thus far, research focuses mainly on biomass, unimodal truck transport and terminal operations. Common shortcomings identified include rough explanations of simulation models and sparse details provided about the verification and validation processes. Research gaps exist concerning simulations of entire, resilient and multimodal wood supply chains as well as supply and demand risks. Further studies should expand upon the few initial attempts to combine various simulation methods with optimization.

  • Kogler, Institute of Production and Logistics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Feistmantelstrasse 4, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8811-152X E-mail: christoph.kogler@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Rauch, Institute of Production and Logistics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Feistmantelstrasse 4, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5812-4415 E-mail: peter.rauch@boku.ac.at

Category: Research note

article id 148, category Research note
Ola Lindroos, Magnus Matisons, Petter Johansson, Tomas Nordfjell. (2010). Productivity of a prototype truck-mounted logging residue bundler and a road-side bundling system. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.148
When recovering logging residues (LR) for bioenergy its density should be increased before road transport, otherwise a low proportion of the trucks’ load capacity will be used. One way this can be currently done is to compress LR into bundles that are forwarded to roadside landing. A less well-developed alternative is to forward loose LR and bundle it at landing. In the presented study, a prototype specifically developed for road-side bundling was found to produce larger, heavier bundles than bundling machinery intended for in-field use (mean length, diameter and raw bulk density 4.7 m, 0.8 m and 285 kg m–3, respectively, with 299–445 kg oven dry matter per bundle). The machine was also at least 30% more productive than previously described in-field bundling systems, producing 14–19 bundles per productive work hour (PWh), equivalent to 5.2–7.8 oven-dry tonnes PWh–1. Bundles were estimated to use 67–86% of an LR truck’s 30 tonnes load capacity, similar to proportions used when transporting loose LR. However, a continuous feeding and compressing process would probably almost double productivity, while longer bundles would enable full use of truck load capacity. With such improvements bundling at road-side could provide a viable alternative to current LR-recovering systems.
  • Lindroos, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@srh.slu.se (email)
  • Matisons, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Johansson, Sveaskog Förvaltnings AB, Vindeln, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nordfjell, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

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