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Under compilation: 55(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'sustainability'.

Category: Research article

article id 10043, category Research article
Outi Manninen, Rainer Peltola. (2019). Continuous picking may increase bilberry yields. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10043.
Highlights: Bilberry fruit production and fruit set increased under continuous picking by rake in three-year study; Bilberry flower number and fruit mass were not affected by picking; Bilberry compensated for biomass loss; The highest relative deciduous species abundance was found in the picking treatment plots at the end of the experiment.

Accumulated knowledge about the health benefits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) has increased the demand and utilization of wild bilberries. Intensive berry picking by metal rakes is believed to cause damage in bilberry stands in areas under continuous picking pressure, and hence expected to hamper the production of berries in forthcoming years. We conducted an experiment to examine the effect of continuous bilberry picking by metal rake on the number of bilberry flowers and fruits, fruit mass, compensation for biomass loss after picking, and plant functional type abundance in the understorey in northern Finland. Bilberry lost less than 0.5% of its biomass annually during the three-year study period due to rake harvesting. The number of flowers was not significantly affected by damage caused by picking, while both fruit production and fruit set increased without any indication of reduced fruit mass, and biomass loss was fully compensated. Moreover, the relative abundance of plant functional types was not affected by picking during the study. We suggest that the low intensity and timing of damage act as a buffer against the adverse effects of picking on bilberry fruit production. On the basis of this study, it is reasonable to anticipate that there are no indications that current intensive berry picking would not be on a sustainable level.

  • Manninen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Paavo Havaksentie 3, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Peltola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96200 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 103, category Research article
Luis Diaz-Balteiro, Roberto Voces, Carlos Romero. (2011). Making sustainability rankings using compromise programming. An application to European paper industry. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 103.
This paper characterizes the sustainability of the European paper industry. To undertake this task the sustainability of each country is defined by using fourteen indicators of a diverse nature (economic, environmental and social). These indicators are aggregated into a composite or synthetic index with the help of a compromise programming model. In order to associate different weights with each indicator, a survey among international experts has been carried out. In this way, a ranking of seventeen European countries analysed in terms of the sustainability of the European paper industry has been established, where Finland is the most sustainable paper industry in Europe except when the most balanced solution is chosen. Also, the results are robust when different preferential weights are attached. Finally, this methodology can be applied at a more disaggregated level and other indicators can be introduced.
  • Diaz-Balteiro, Research Group “Economics for a Sustainable Environment”, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Voces, Research Group “Economics for a Sustainable Environment”, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Romero, Research Group “Economics for a Sustainable Environment”, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 323, category Research article
Simo Kyllönen, Alfred Colpaert, Hannu Heikkinen, Mikko Jokinen, Jouko Kumpula, Mika Marttunen, Kari Muje, Kaisa Raitio. (2006). Conflict management as a means to the sustainable use of natural resources. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 323.
Democratic societies’ emphasis on individual rights and freedoms inevitably opens them up to political disputes. Conflict management should thus be seen as an integral part of democratic institutional design. The evolution and management of policy disputes concerning the use of different natural resources in Finland is analysed by using the theoretical models of frame analysis and strategic interaction. The studied disputes include lake fisheries, watercourse regulation, reindeer herding, and forestry. The institutional design in the case studies varies. Despite the differences, many common features are identified that could explain their successes or difficulties in achieving sustainable and cooperative use of the resources. Among these are problems involving complex and uncertain knowledge, differences in frames held by multiple users of a resource, and distrust between the users and other parties. The analysis concludes with preliminary conclusions on how various disputes related to sustainable resource use could be managed. These include addressing the knowledge and frame problems in order to initiate a learning process; establishing sub-processes in which mutual trust between the parties – including a managing authority or a third party – can emerge; giving explicit roles and a clear division of entitlement to the parties; and providing a credible alternative for co-operation that affects the parties’ payoff assessments during the process. Finally, the conflict management process shouldn’t be regarded as a distinct phase of dispute resolution, but as an essential aspect of ongoing co-management practices of resource use.
  • Kyllönen, Department of Social and Moral Philosophy, P.O. Box 9, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Colpaert, University of Joensuu, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikkinen, Taida, P.O. Box 1000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jokinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Unit, Muoniontie 21 A, FI-95900 Kolari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kumpula, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Reindeer Research Station, Toivoniementie 246, FI-99910 Kaamanen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Marttunen, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Muje, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raitio, Department of Social and Policy, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 527, category Discussion article
Jyrki Kangas, Ron Store. (2002). Socioecological landscape planning: an approach to multi-functional forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 527.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Store, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5603, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1996). Tasks of forest biodiversity management and monitoring deriving from international agreements. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5603.

Four governmental efforts are underway to reach consensus on indicators of sustainable forestry. Through the Helsinki process, European countries have developed and reached a pan-European, binding consensus, The Montreal process includes non-European Temperate and boreal forest countries, the International Tropical Timber Organization (lTTO) have developed guidelines for the sustainable management of natural tropical forests, and the countries around the Amazon basis have developed a joint initiative for creating guidelines of sustainable forest management of the Amazonian tropical rain forests. It is estimated that as many as 15–20 distinct processes are under way in the private sector by non-profit organizations and for-profit companies, some domestic and other international in scope. Perhaps the most wide-ranging definition work of non-governmental organizations is the undertake by the Forest Stewardship Council, FSC. The paper discusses the Helsinki and Montreal processes and the tasks for research.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515.
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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