Current issue: 55(5)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'tabu search'.

Category: Research article

article id 1232, category Research article
Pete Bettinger, Mehmet Demirci, Kevin Boston. (2015). Search reversion within s-metaheuristics: impacts illustrated with a forest planning problem. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1232.
Highlights: The interruption of the sequence of events used to explore a solution space and develop a forest plan, and the re-initiation of the search process from a high-quality, known starting point (reversion) seems necessary for some s-metaheuristics; When using a s-metaheuristic, higher quality forest plans may be developed when the reversion interval is around six iterations of the model.
The use of a reversion technique during the search process of s-metaheuristics has received little attention with respect to forest management and planning problems. Reversion involves the interruption of the sequence of events that are used to explore the solution space and the re-initiation of the search process from a high-quality, known starting point. We explored four reversion rates when applied to three different types of s-metaheuristics that have previously shown promise for the forest planning problem explored, threshold accepting, tabu search, and the raindrop method. For two of the s-metaheuristics, we also explored three types of decision choices, a change to the harvest timing of a single management unit (1-opt move), the swapping of two management unit’s harvest timing (2-opt moves), and the swapping of three management unit’s harvest timing (3-opt moves). One hundred independent forest plans were developed for each of the metaheuristic / reversion rate combinations, all beginning with randomly-generated feasible starting solutions. We found that (a) reversion does improve the quality of the solutions generated, and (b) the rate of reversion is an important factor that can affect solution quality.
  • Bettinger, School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E. Green Street, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA 30602 ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Demirci, General Directorate of Forestry, Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs, Republic of Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boston, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 396, category Research article
Timo Pukkala, Mikko Kurttila. (2005). Examining the performance of six heuristic optimisation techniques in different forest planning problems. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 396.
The existence of multiple decision-makers and goals, spatial and non-linear forest management objectives and the combinatorial nature of forest planning problems are reasons that support the use of heuristic optimisation algorithms in forest planning instead of the more traditional LP methods. A heuristic is a search algorithm that does not necessarily find the global optimum but it can produce relatively good solutions within reasonable time. The performance of different heuristics may vary depending on the complexity of the planning problem. This study tested six heuristic optimisation techniques in five different, increasingly difficult planning problems. The heuristics were evaluated with respect to the objective function value that the techniques were able to find, and the time they consumed in the optimisation process. The tested optimisation techniques were 1) random ascent (RA), 2) Hero sequential ascent technique (Hero), 3) simulated annealing (SA), 4) a hybrid of SA and Hero (SA+Hero), 5) tabu search (TS) and 6) genetic algorithm (GA). The results, calculated as averages of 100 repeated optimisations, were very similar for all heuristics with respect to the objective function value but the time consumption of the heuristics varied considerably. During the time the slowest techniques (SA or GA) required for convergence, the optimisation could have been repeated about 200 times with the fastest technique (Hero). The SA+Hero and SA techniques found the best solutions for non-spatial planning problems, while GA was the best in the most difficult problems. The results suggest that, especially in spatial planning problems, it is a benefit if the method performs more complicated moves than selecting one of the neighbouring solutions. It may also be beneficial to combine two or more heuristic techniques.
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. BOX 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Kurttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 419, category Research article
Tero Heinonen, Timo Pukkala. (2004). A comparison of one- and two-compartment neighbourhoods in heuristic search with spatial forest management goals. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 419.
This study presents a comparison of the performance of four heuristic techniques with one- and two-compartment neighbourhoods in harvest scheduling problems including a spatial objective variable. The tested heuristics were random ascent, Hero, simulated annealing and tabu search. All methods seek better solutions by inspecting the neighbourhood solutions, which are combinations that can be obtained by changing the treatment schedule in one (one-compartment neighbourhood) or two (two-compartment neighbourhood) compartments. The methods and neighbourhoods were examined in one artificial and four real landscapes ranging from 700 to 981 ha in size. The landscapes had 608 to 900 stand compartments, and the examined planning problems had 2986 to 4773 binary decision variables. The objective function was a multi-objective utility function. The spatial objective variable was the percentage of compartment boundary that joins two compartments, both of which are to be cut during the same 20-year period. The non-spatial objectives were net incomes of three consecutive 20-year management periods and the remaining growing stock volume at the end of the third 20-year period. In another problem formulation, the total harvest of the first 20-year period was used as an objective variable together with the spatial objective. The results showed that a two-compartment neighbourhood was systematically and often clearly better than a one-compartment neighbourhood. The improvements were greatest with the simplest heuristics, random ascent and Hero. Of the four heuristics, tabu search and simulated annealing proved to be the best methods, but with a two-compartment neighbourhood the differences between methods were negligible.
  • Heinonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)

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