Current issue: 54(4)
Under compilation: 54(5)
In this paper the development of sown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands into forests is studied. The material was collected in stands sown in 1930–1940 in private forests in the Forestry Board districts of Central and Northern Ostrobothnia. The 119 areas, including both burned and other areas, were studied in 1955.
Most seedings had been carried out on relatively poor soils, mostly representing Vaccinium and Calluna type forests. 71% of the areas consisted of large forest fires, mostly from 1933. The most burned areas did not have seed producing trees nearby. The other sown areas were in general small, 1–2 ha, and near forests capable of producing seeds. The species of previous tree generation, in the older areas mostly pine and in the younger areas Norway spruce, affected tree species composition of the new tree generation.
Over 90% of the burned areas were in silviculturally good or satisfactory condition, while the main part of the other sown stands was in fair or poor condition. Weeding and thinning had been done only in the oldest stands. Most stands had been left untended. Natural new trees often competed with the sown pines, and cull-trees and border forest increased natural regeneration in the areas. In Calluna type the poor soil limited regeneration and growth of broadleaf trees. The worst competitors were naturally regenerated pine seedlings both on Calluna and Vaccinium type. On Vaccinium type also birch and sometimes also aspen (Populus tremula L.) competed with sown pine. On better sites and paludified areas competition by broadleaf trees increased. The rhythm of development of broadleaved trees is so different from pine that only those broadleaved trees that are formed in the stand when the pine seedlings are larger can develop harmoniously with pine. Due to the harmful competition, the seedling stands should be tended early on. In addition, it may be advisable to abandon the practise to leave trees on sowing areas.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.
The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The regeneration of forests in Hämeenkangas area in Southern Finland has been difficult due to various damages from the middle of the 1800s. Few seed trees were left in the area, and artificial regeneration has been used since 1880s. The area became an experimental area of the Forest Research Institute in 1924. The aim of the study was to survey the area before it was transferred to the Finnish Defense Forces.
The original Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest of the esker area suffered from many forest fires. The total area is 13,000-14,000 ha, of which the experimental forests of Forest Research Institute cover 6,000 ha. The area is dry upland forest, and drought affects the survival of germlings. Soil frost is a major cause of loss of young seedlings. Sowing method affects the early development of the seedlings. Band sowing proved to be the best method regarding the soil frost. A total of 39 different harmful insect species, 8 pathogen species and 7 other causes of damages have been detected in the area.
The development of seedling stands follow a certain pattern, reported also in other studies. Many of the pine seedling stands develop well until they reach a certain height. After that seedlings begin to suffer from damages, but after reaching another stage develop normally. The damages affect the height growth of the seedlings. Some common damages are caused by Pissoides weevils, needle damages caused by certain beetles, shoot damages by Evetria resinella, and pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum).The PDF includes a summary in German
Early growth of four different tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix sibirica Ledeb and Betula pendula Roth) 16–23 years after planting were compared in a field experiment of 16 square plots established on a stony, grove-like upland (Oxalis-Myrtillus forest type) in Southern Finland. This study gives additional results to the publication Folia Forestalia 386/1979.
At this early stage, the growth of the spruce stand was clearly slower than that of the other species for all parameters to be measured (height, diameter, and volume growth). Height growth was most rapid in the silver birch stand and diameter growth in the larch stand. No clear differences were found in the mean volume of the 100 thickest trees in the stand between the larch and silver birch.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.
The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.
Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Increase in the elk (Alces alces L.) population and the problems of its grazing has called for detailed research. The present study concentrated on three observation areas representing northern, western and eastern parts of Finland. There were 28 field observers watching 68 elks.
Earlier investigations in Finland indicate that aspen (Populus tremula L.) is the staple diet of elk. This study reached different conclusions, probably largely because of aspen is gradually becoming an increasingly rare tree species in Finland. According to this study, the principal food of elk in the winter is willow (Salix sp.). In the whole country, willow accounts for about 70% of elk’s nutrition. In the Far North the percentage is approx. 90. Of the other tree species, the order of preference is: aspen, Scots pine, mountain ash, juniper and birch. In addition, in Western Finland where snow is less deep, lingonberry and blueberry shrubs are on the menu. Beard moss on the spruce was frequently eaten locally. Elk seems to have eaten mainly the last annual shoot of trees and bushes. In few cases it has gnawed the bark of Scots pine, aspen and willow. Elk consumes in average 340 twigs or terminal shoots per day in the winter. This corresponds to about 1.8 kg of food.
The problem of elks damaging Scots pine seedlings has been observed in Western Finland, were the elk population is higher. The article suggests that suitable feeding places would be left for elk in places that are unsuitable for agriculture or forestry. Leaving, for instance, birch seedlings in Scots pine stands has been noticed to attract elks and to increase the damage to pine.
The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.
Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches.