Current issue: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'terrain'.

Category: Research article

article id 1492, category Research article
Li-Bin Liu, Yang-Yang Wu, Gang Hu, Zhong-Hua Zhang, An-Yun Cheng, Shi-Jie Wang, Jian Ni. (2016). Biomass of karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in central Guizhou province, southwestern China: a comprehensive inventory of a 2 ha plot. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1492
Highlights: Comprehensive inventory of the karst secondary forest based on a 2 ha large plot enhanced the reliability of biomass estimates; The biomass was 158.1 Mg ha−1, and the five dominant tree species accounted for 92.4% of aboveground tree biomass; The estimated necromass of woody debris and litter in the karst secondary forest was 17.6 Mg ha−1.

The biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest was comprehensively inventoried in a permanent 2 ha plot in southwestern China. Biomass models, sub-sampling, soil pit method, and published data were utilized to determine the biomass of all components. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest was 158.1 Mg ha−1; the total biomass included the major aboveground (137.7 Mg ha−1) and belowground (20.3 Mg ha−1) biomass components of vascular plants as well as the minor biomass components of bryophytes (0.078 Mg ha−1) and lichens (0.043 Mg ha−1). The necromass was 17.6 Mg ha−1 and included woody debris (9.0 Mg ha−1) and litter (8.6 Mg ha−1). The spatial pattern of the aboveground biomass was determined by the spatial distribution of dominant trees with large diameter, tall height, and dense wood. The belowground biomass differed in terms of root diameter and decreased with increasing soil depth. The belowground biomass in each soil pit in local habitats was not related to the spatial distribution of woody plants and soil pit depth. The karst forest presented lower biomass compared than the nonkarst forests in the subtropical zone. Biomass carbon in the karst terrains would increase substantially if degraded karst vegetation could be successfully restored to the forest. Comprehensive site-based biomass inventory of karst vegetation will contribute not only to provide data for benchmarking global and regional vegetation and carbon models but also for regional carbon inventory and vegetation restoration.

  • Liu, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail: liulibin@mail.gyig.ac.cn
  • Wu, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail: wuyang2468@hotmail.com
  • Hu, School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China; Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Environment Change and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China ORCID ID:E-mail: ahhugang@gmail.com
  • Zhang, School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China; Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Environment Change and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China ORCID ID:E-mail: gxtczzh@gmail.com
  • Cheng, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: chenganyun@vip.skleg.cn
  • Wang, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: wangshijie@vip.skleg.cn
  • Ni, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: nijian@vip.skleg.cn (email)
article id 1030, category Research article
Jussi Manner, Tomas Nordfjell, Ola Lindroos. (2013). Effects of the number of assortments and log concentration on time consumption for forwarding. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1030
Highlights: We analysed the effects of total and forwarded log concentrations (m3 (100 m)–1) and the number of loaded assortments on forwarding; The combination of the number of loaded assortments and their abundance (i.e. forwarded log concentration) affected time consumption most; This knowledge enables improved efficiency by optimizing number and assortment proportions in the various loads required to forward a stand.
Forwarding has been carried out for 50 years, but much is still unknown about this work. Its complexity comes from both stand features and essential decision-making. Forwarding time consumption is influenced by e.g. log concentrations and number of assortments. Traditionally, focus has been on the total log concentration (TLC), referring to all logs at the harvesting site. However, we focused on forwarded log concentration (FLC), the load-specific log concentration which depends on the assortment distribution at harvesting site and the load-specific number of assortments. To evaluate the effects of TLC, number of assortments in a load and FLC on the loading and unloading times, a standardized field experiment was carried out. Pile and load sizes were constant, while TLC and FLC were manipulated by varying the pile distribution on the test path. For all work elements, the time consumption per m3 was significantly affected by the number of assortments that were loaded, but only the “driving while loading” work element was also significantly influenced by TLC. However, when untangling the intercorrelation between tested factors, it was found that the time consumption for driving while loading significantly decreased as a function of FLC and was unaffected by the number of assortments in a load. That FLC influences the forwarding time consumption highlights the need to study the effects of combining various assortment proportions in a load. Such knowledge will enable analysis of the most efficient number and assortment proportions to combine in the various loads required to forward a given stand.
  • Manner, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.manner@slu.se (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.nordfjell@slu.se
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@slu.se
article id 958, category Research article
Back Tomas Ersson, Linus Jundén, Urban Bergsten, Martin Servin. (2013). Simulated productivity of one- and two-armed tree planting machines. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.958
Highlights: Using discrete-event simulation and detailed terrain and machine models, the productivities of excavator-based one- and two-armed tree planting machines were simulated; The machines’ arms were equipped with one-and two-headed planting devices; Two planting heads per arm rather than two arms per base machine is better for increasing the productivity of intermittently advancing planting machines on Nordic clearcuts.
To increase mechanized planting, planting machine productivity must increase in order to improve cost-efficiency. To determine if excavators with two crane arms could potentially help to increase planting machine productivity under Nordic clearcut conditions, we modelled one-armed and semi-automated two-armed excavators with one- and two-headed planting devices. Using a recently developed tool for discrete-event simulation, these machine models then mounded and planted seedlings on terrain models with moraine soil having various frequencies of obstacles (stumps, roots and stones). Compared to if the two heads were mounted pairwise on only one arm, the results showed that productivity did not increase if two planting heads were attached individually to two separate crane arms. But productivity did increase if the planting machine had four planting heads mounted pairwise on two separate arms. However, despite assuming automated mounding and crane motion between planting spots, the two-armed, four-headed model never achieved high enough productivity levels to make it more cost-efficient than one-armed machines. The simulations illustrate that our terrain models generate realistic root architecture and boulder content distributions in moraine soil, while our machine models functionally describe mechanized planting work. Based on our assumptions, we conclude that further development work on two-armed excavator-based planting machines for Nordic clearcut conditions is not warranted. Our simulations reveal that increasing the number of planting heads per crane arm rather than number of crane arms per base machine offers the greatest potential to raise the productivity of intermittently advancing planting machines.
  • Ersson,  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se (email)
  • Jundén,  UMIT Research Lab, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: linus.junden@gmail.com
  • Bergsten,  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
  • Servin,  UMIT Research Lab, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: martin.servin@physics.umu.se

Category: Research note

article id 1136, category Research note
Håkan Lideskog, Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Magnus Karlberg. (2014). Determining boreal clearcut object properties and characteristics for identification purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1136
Highlights: We define the quantitative properties and qualitative characteristics of stumps, stones, slash, and roots, the most important objects interacting with machine activities after clearcutting; We develop a flowchart showing how a computer-aided system using clearcut object identification should be executed.
After clearcutting, machines traffic the clearcut conducting different silvicultural activities. Many objects on a forest clearcut (slash residues, stones, stumps and roots) may disturb e.g. site preparation and planting. This paper describes properties and characteristics of these objects. A flowchart was developed that describes a possible computer-aided system that identifies the objects, and ultimately, makes a machine avoid or target them. A system for obstacle identification creates conditions for further technical development and (semi)automation of e.g., site preparation, mechanized planting, and stump removal.
  • Lideskog, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hakan.lideskog@ltu.se (email)
  • Ersson, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se
  • Bergsten, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
  • Karlberg, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.karlberg@ltu.se
article id 1136, category Research note
Håkan Lideskog, Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Magnus Karlberg. (2014). Determining boreal clearcut object properties and characteristics for identification purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1136
Highlights: We define the quantitative properties and qualitative characteristics of stumps, stones, slash, and roots, the most important objects interacting with machine activities after clearcutting; We develop a flowchart showing how a computer-aided system using clearcut object identification should be executed.
After clearcutting, machines traffic the clearcut conducting different silvicultural activities. Many objects on a forest clearcut (slash residues, stones, stumps and roots) may disturb e.g. site preparation and planting. This paper describes properties and characteristics of these objects. A flowchart was developed that describes a possible computer-aided system that identifies the objects, and ultimately, makes a machine avoid or target them. A system for obstacle identification creates conditions for further technical development and (semi)automation of e.g., site preparation, mechanized planting, and stump removal.
  • Lideskog, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hakan.lideskog@ltu.se (email)
  • Ersson, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se
  • Bergsten, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
  • Karlberg, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.karlberg@ltu.se

Category: Article

article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4743, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Metsämaaston luokittelun yhtenäistämispyrkimyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14453
English title: Attempts to unify the classification of forest terrain.

The article is a report from the meeting of the Section 32 of the IUFRO in Canada on September 15.–25. 1964, which three Finnish forestry experts participated. The theme of the meeting was classification of forest terrain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 176 article id 7623. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7623
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7598, category Article
T. Eriksson, G. Nilsson, G. Skråmo. (1978). The Inter-Nordic project of terrain and machines 1972-1975. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 164 article id 7598. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7598

The paper is the final report of the Inter-Nordic Terrain-machine Project (1972–1975). It deals with the requirements for a terrain classification for forestry, its factors and classes, and presents a terrain classification.

The mechanization of hauling, which took place in the field of forestry in the 1950's, added to the need for a terrain classification. Different terrain classifications based on different terrain factors have been developed in many countries. In the meeting of IUFRO Section 32 held in Montreal in 1964, it was found that a general system was needed for measuring and describing those terrain conditions having a significant influence on forest operations. The requirements for such a classification system are given in the paper. Because some of the requirements are contradictory, the classification must be a compromise. The most important factors from the forestry point of view are presented in the article.

The terrain classification presented in this report consists of two stages. The first stage is a primary terrain classification, in which terrain factors are measured or described objectively. The second is a secondary descriptive classification. Only factors essential to the activity in question are taken into account. After this, in a secondary functional stage, the requirements of the employer of the system, e.g., working method, machines etc., are also taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Eriksson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Skråmo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7562, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). The effect of terrain on the output in forest transportation of timber. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 128 article id 7562. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7562

The first part of the study includes a summary of conclusions from five earlier reports dealing with terrain transportation costs, effect of terrain, load, snow and additional machine components on the mobility of forest tractors, and the distance a vehicle has to move in forest transportation of timber. In the second part of the study the effect of these separate factors on the transport output have been analysed on the basis of simulating a transportation of 3,000 loads by computer.

It was concluded that no specific terrain factor had a dominating effect on any component of the forwarding output. However, many terrain-factor combinations with a nonsignificant effect on the mobility and also on the forwarding output were identified. The most significant factors affecting the output were the size of load and the distance driven during the cycle.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7609, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1969). Metsän vaurioituminen kesäaikaisessa puunkorjuussa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 100 article id 7609. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7609
English title: The amount of injuries caused by timber transportation in the summer.

The purpose of this study was to build a mathematic predictive model for the formation of injuries and to try its usability in predicting. The empirical data consisted of 24 thinning sites, which were situated mainly in forests owned by forestry companies. The timber was made by strip roads. The terrain transportation of timber was carried out by forwarders or by agricultural tractor-trailer combinations.

The model has been compiled by multiple regression analysis. The predictive model has been interpreted so that the formation of injuries is, for one part, dependent of the number of trees exposed to damages, and, on the other hand, on the factors influencing the probability of injuries, the possibility for this existing. The number of trees exposed to injuries is dependent on the density of strip roads and on the amount of standing timber left after logging. The probability of injuries is influenced by the quality of the standing timber, the type of soil and the intensity of the timber harvesting process.

The predictive model has been interpreted in similar way as the number of injured trees. The possibility of formation of injuries is mainly affected by the length of strip roads and the amount of the standing timber. The probability of injuries is influenced, for the part of the number of root injuries by the strength of the soil type, and probably also by transportation equipment. For the amount of stem injuries no valid predictive equation was found in this study.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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