Current issue: 56(1)

Under compilation: 56(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'trafficability'.

Category: Research article

article id 9948, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Ville Hallikainen, Jori Uusitalo, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2018). Co-variation relations of physical soil properties and site characteristics of Finnish upland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9948.
Highlights: Atmospheric temperature sum is related to site index H100 as a covariate;Soil pH and water retention at field capacity (FC) are also closely related to H100;Fine fraction is related to water retention at FC, soil layer and site type;Fine fraction co-varies also with temperature sum, H100 and slope.

Physical soil properties have a marked influence on the quality of forest sites and on the preconditions for forest growth and management. In this study, water retention characteristics (WRC) and related physical soil properties in addition to vegetation coverage and tree stand data were studied at upland forest sites in Finland. Fixed and mixed models between soil and site characteristics were formed to estimate physical and hydrologic soil characteristics and the site quality with indirect co-varying variables. In the present data, the site quality index (H100) shows a high coefficient of determination in respect to the temperature sum. It is also related to soil fine fraction content, topsoil pH and water retention at field capacity. The thickness of the humus layer is predictable from the pH and cover of xeric and mesic plant species. The soil fine fraction content (clay + silt) is closely related to water retention at field capacity, the soil layer and site type, and without WRC to the temperature sum and site index and type, as well as the slope angle. The soil bulk density is related to organic matter, depth (layer) or alternatively to organic matter, slope and field estimated textural class (fine, medium, coarse). Water retention characteristics were found to be best determinable by the fine fraction content, depth and bulk density. Water content and air-filled porosity at field capacity are closely related to the fine fraction. This study provides novel models for further investigations that aim at improved prediction models for forest growth, hydrology and trafficability.

  • Heiskanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Soil ecosystems, Neulaniementie 5, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Applied statistical methods, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Forest technology and logistics, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvesniemi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Biorefinery and bioproducts, Tietotie 2, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 993, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Jari Ala-Ilomäki. (2013). The significance of above-ground biomass, moisture content and mechanical properties of peat layer on the bearing capacity of ditched pine bogs. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 993.
Intensive utilisation of peatland forests calls for logging activities to be increasingly carried out in conditions other than those in harsh winter. The low bearing capacity of peatlands forms a severe obstacle for the prevailing harvesting machinery. The aim of this study was to clarify and quantify the significance of above-ground biomass, brash mat, moisture content and mechanical properties of peat layer on the bearing capacity of pine bogs. In-situ driving tests were conducted in Western Finland on a pine bog covering a large variation of growing stock. Portable tools were tested for measuring strength properties of the top layer of peat. According to the results, shear modulus of top layer of peat, volume of trees and the existence of cutting debris are the most important factors affecting bearing capacity. Spiked shear vane was shown to be a promising tool in predicting the strength properties of peat soil.
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 10197, category Research note
Ville Kankare, Ville Luoma, Ninni Saarinen, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Markus Holopainen, Mikko Vastaranta. (2019). Assessing feasibility of the forest trafficability map for avoiding rutting – a case study. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10197.
Highlights: A static trafficability map was developed to provide information about suitable harvesting season; The majority (91.7%) of the evaluated thinning stands were harvested without causing rutting damage if operations were timed correctly in relation to the static trafficability map information; The static trafficability map provides reliable and slightly conservative estimation of the forest trafficability for supporting forest operations.

Information on forest trafficability (i.e. carrying capacity of the forest floor) is required before harvesting operations in Southern Boreal forest conditions. It describes the seasons when harvesting operations may take place without causing substantial damage to the forest soil using standard logging machinery. The available trafficability information have been based on subjective observations made during the wood procurement planning. For supporting forest operations, an open access map product has been developed to provide information on trafficability of forests. The forest stands are distributed into classes that characterize different harvesting seasons based on topographic wetness index, amount of vegetation, ground water height and ditch depth. The main goal of this case study was to evaluate the information of the static forest trafficability map in relation to the detected rutting within logging tracks measured in the field. The analysis concentrated on thinning stands since the effect of rutting is significant on the growth of the remaining trees. The results showed that the static trafficability map provided reliable and slightly conservative estimation of the forest trafficability. The majority (91.7%) of the evaluated stands were harvested without causing significant damage if harvesting was timed correctly compared to the trafficability information. However, it should be pointed out that the weather history at small scale, the skills of a driver, and effects of used machinery are not considered in the map product although they can have a considerable impact on the rutting.

  • Kankare, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland; Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: E-mail: (email)
  • Luoma, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarinen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peuhkurinen, Arbonaut Oy, Malminkaari 13–19, FI-00700 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vastaranta, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 176 article id 7623.
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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