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Articles containing the keyword 'turvekankaat'.

Category: Article

article id 7175, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1967). Hakkuun vaikutus ojitettujen soiden vesitalouteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 2 article id 7175. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7175
English title: Influence of cuttings on the water economy of drained peatlands.

The present investigation revealed that the influence of a forest cover on the water economy of the soil is very great in Finland. Cutting of the forest gave cause to a rise of the ground water table, which, when clear-cutting is in question, reached a magnitude of 20–40 cm. The water supplies of the soil increased 40–60 mm. In the winter, too, the ground water remaind at a lower level in the forest than in opening, however, the difference is rather small. Thinnings had same kind of effect as clear-cuttings, but the influence of even heavy thinnings was still relatively small.

The water supplies of the soil after felling decreased mainly due to the decrease in the interception in the canopy. When the water table is at the same level in the forest and in opening, evapotranspiration might be greater in the forest than in openings. However, when the water level is during the growing season considerably lower in the forest than in an opening, the evapotranspiration is strongly decreased in the forest, which means that more water is evaporated and transpirated from the opening than from the forest. Because the water table is at a higher level in the opening than in the forest, runoff from clear-cut areas has exceeded that from the forest. This means that the influence of felling on the water economy of the soil is actually even greater than indicated in this work.

The results mean that the influence of the forest cover makes up that of drainage. This affects the need for maintenance of ditches. On the other hand, the final cutting will rise the ground water strongly.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7144, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kuivatuksen tehokkuus ja turpeen lämpötalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 4 article id 7144. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7144
English title: The effect of drainage degree on temperature conditions of peat.

The determination of biologically most favourable strip width in peatlands to be drained has been hindered by lack of information of the temperature conditions in the surface peat and in the air close to the ground after drainage of different intensities. Temperature measurements were carried out on peatlands drained to different degrees in Central Finland in the summers of 1960 and 1961. The ground water level in the measuring points, and the strip width served as the criterion for differences in water condition.

When the drainage became more intensive, the temperature of the surface peat decreased. However, temperature differences were small, and discernible only when the differences of water conditions were considerable. The effect of strip condition to temperature seems to be of similar nature than the ground water level. Even in extreme cases temperature differences due to different drainage intensity were relatively small, and seldom exceeded 2°C.

Differences in temperature dependent on the growing stock may be as high as 10°C. Thus, the temperature of the surface peat may be dependent on factors more important than temperature differences caused by aspects of drainage. A well-drained peatland is coldest at the beginning of a growing season compared with poorly drained peatland. The temperature differences increase deeper in the peat. This is caused by the better heat conductivity of the moist peat. Also, daily variations in temperature in the surface peat are large in moist peat.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7119, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1960). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvavan puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7119
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained peatlands.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between faultless timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength to the grain, volume weight, and shrinkage. In addition, the influence of the boundary zone between the close-ringed wood formed before draining and the wide-ringed wood produced after draining on strength of the timber was studied. The material consisted of 15 sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (B. Pendula Roth).

The volume weight of wood of the tree species in ascending order is; spruce, pine, white birch, silver birch. The volume weight of Scots pine seems to decrease from the butt end upwards, while no trend was revealed for spruce. In the coniferous trees, the wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior draining. No distinct trend was seen in the birch species. The volume weight of pine and spruce increased with decreasing width of the growth rings up to a certain limit, after which the conditions inverted.

The compressive strength of the different kinds of wood seems to increase from the butt end upwards, but after height of two meters it begins to decrease considerably. In birch, this point of inversion is in somewhat greater height. In spruce timber, the compressive strength parallel to the grain is lowest for wood which contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed after draining. The boundary zone between the woods formed before and after draining is very distinguishable, but has no remarkable influence on the compressive strength parallel to the grain. Shrinkage of close-ringed wood is higher in all three principal directions than that of wide-ringed wood. This can be explained by the variations in volume weight and fibrillar orientation of the tracheid walls.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7117, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1961). Metsäojituksen vaikutuksesta puuston kasvuun ja poistumaan hakkuusuunnitteiden laskemista varten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 8 article id 7117. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7117
English title: The influence of forest drainage on growth and removal in Finland. For estimations of allowable cut.

The Finnish forest industry is undergoing a vast expansion, which has raised questions of forest balance. This paper studies the possibilities to increase the amount available timber by means of forest drainage. About third of the Finnish land area is peatlands. The calculations of the investigation are based on Forestry Board districts. Based on earlier studies, there is estimated to be 3,042,000 ha of true drainable swamps, 973,000 ha of poor swamps, 1,381,000 ha of uplands in need of drainage, and 1,205,000 ha of drained peatlands. Therefore, the area of drainable and drained lands totals 6,6 million ha, and requirement of forest drainage 5,4 million ha. The drainage hardly reaches this extent, however. It can be assumed that part of the poor swamps is uneconomical to drain. In addition, a half of the paludified forest land will probably not be drained. Thus, it can be estimated that the area to be drained in the future is about 5 million ha. It seems possible that this area could be drained within about 50 years with the present draining capacity.

Draining of all objects of forests would increase the annual increment of our forests, in time, by about 10.5 million m3. This would signify an increase of 23% compared to the present growth of the forests. The increase in the growth consists mainly of softwood: 16% is birch, and the remaining 84% almost equally of Scots pine and Norway spruce. The increase of growth is relatively slow. Depending on the rate of the drainage program, the mean increase of growth will be reached in about 25–35 years. The increase in removal indicated by the increase in the mean increment will be reached in only 50–60 years.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4770, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1968). Ennakkotuloksia suometsiköiden ojituksen jälkeisestä kehityksestä ja siihen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4770. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14555
English title: Preliminary results of post-drainage development of peatland stands in Finland.

The present paper is a preliminary report of a project designed to determine the order of profitability of various forest improvement measures – seeding and planting, drainage, and fertilization – in various types of stands and in different parts of the country on drained peatlands. Sample plot data on the effect of draining on increment was derived from areas drained 28– 36 years ago. The study was carried out in the southern half of Finland.

The observations on increment changes are based on two measurements of the sample stands 12 years apart. Supplementary calculations indicate that the stands on drained peatland, depending on site quality and tree species, have either continued to grow like mineral-soil sites of similar fertility or have somewhat increased their growth rate.

The effect of draining intensity was studied using strip measurements. It was found that both the total amount of wood produced (current stand + cutting removal + natural removal) and the current annual volume increment for the 5-year period systematically decrease as the ditch interval increases. The decrease is, however, relatively slight. In Eriophorum vaginatum pine swamps, the total amount of wood produced and the increment show a decrease of ca. 20% with an increase in ditch interval from 20 to 60 metres. In other sites, the decrease is ca. 5-10%

It can be concluded that if the increase in ditch interval do not result in considerably poorer timber assortment distributions than indicates by stand production and increment, it is profitable to pan for a relatively large ditch interval and a slightly smaller than maximum wood production. Supplementary data and check calculations may cause some changes in these preliminary results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14549
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7566, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Ojitusalueiden puuston kasvun jatkumisesta ja alueellisuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 132 article id 7566. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7566
English title: Regional variation and continuity of stand growth in old forest drainage areas.

The study deals with the development during the 1950s and 1960s of a stand growing on peatlands which had been drained in the 1930s. The following characters were determined by measurements: the volume of the growing stock, the volume increment, the relative increment, the increment percent and the increment curves. Moreover, the possible changes taking place in the difference between tree growth along the ditches and in the middle of the strip between ditches were studied. In addition, the regional variation in increment was studied; this question was studied as the regression between the relative growth and the temperature sum. The results were compared with other Finnish investigations into the regional variation of increment.

The volumes of the growing stock had increased during the course of twelve years by 70–10 m3 /ha depending on the site type and climatic zone concerned. The relative increment had dropped in each case studied. As a matter of fact, this is only to be expected because the volumes had increased and the absolute growth had remained more or less unchanged. The development of the increment percent was compared with mineral soil stands in the case of Southern Finland, both uncut stands and stands treated with cuttings. According to the results obtained, the development of the increment percent was better in the present material than in uncut forests, but in some cases it did not reach the level of tended stands. The revival of the tree crop after draining takes place at different rates in the vicinity of and, on the other hand, at greater distances from the ditches and that this relationship is dependent on the fertility of the site.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7548, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Pertti Veijola. (1971). Lannoituksen ja sarkaleveyden vaikutus rämeen uudistumiseen ja taimien kasvuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 114 article id 7548. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7548
English title: Effect of fertilization and ditch spacing on regeneration and seedling growth in pine swamps.

In 1965 and 1966 a total of 25 experiments were laid out in various parts of Finland in order to find out the effect of simultaneous variation in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of plantations and natural seedling stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on pine swamps. The fertilizer used was Y fertilizer for peat soils, a fertilizer mixture containing 14 % N, 18 % P2O5 and 10 % K2O. It was applied in rates of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. The ditch spacings studied were 10, 20 and 30 m. The present paper is a preliminary report on a series of studies, the experiments will be observation for a total of 15–20 years.

Mortality of the planted seedlings was found to be the higher after the first growing season, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that had been applied. Fertilizing caused an increase in seedling mortality even after the first growing season following application. At the end of the fifth growing season the height of both natural and planted seedlings is the greater, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that has been applied. Analysis of the height growth of the seedlings showed that larger quantities of fertilizer did not increase growth in the same proportion. The occurrence of growth disturbances is the greater, the more fertilizer has been applied.

Fertilization also changed the composition of ground vegetation. The in the beginning of the experiment  birch (Betula sp.) was absent in the area, but was found in the stands the greater abundance the higher application of the fertilizer.

From the viewpoint of growth of the seedlings the best results were obtained with the greatest intensity of fertilization and the narrowest ditch spacing used in the study. The results also show that strong fertilization and a high degree of drainage intensity are not capable of bringing about any particularly good growth on peatlands which originally are relatively poor in nutrients. The growth values now obtained equal only one third of those obtained on peat soils of greater fertility.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veijola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7547, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1971). Pohjavesipinta ja sen mittaaminen ojitetuilla soilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 113 article id 7547. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7547
English title: Ground water table in drained peat soils and its measurement.

The present study deals with the ground water table in the soil of drained peatlands and with the technique used for its determination. The terms depth and height of the ground water table are defined in the paper. Because of the fact that the surface of peatlands moves under the influence of a great number of different factors, the depth of the ground water table and the height of the ground water table are not parallel concepts. The present paper concentrates on the depth of the ground water table.

Observations on the depth of the ground water table in the sample plots in 1966-67 and 1968-69 show that the maximum of the late summer usually exceeds that of the early spring, and that the minimum occurring in the period of snow melting is more clearly discernible than that of the fall. Great differences occur in the depths of the ground water table in different sample plots. These differences are due to the specific properties of the peat of different peat layers, which are expressed in terms of the ground water coefficient. The duration of the depth of the ground water table proved to be a useful way to express the long-term changes.

Four kinds of short-term fluctuations in the ground water table were observed: a) the ground water table falls during the night hours, although the rate of falling is slower than in daytime, b) the ground water table rests at the same depth during the night, whereas during the day it clearly falls, c) the descent of the ground water table is similar throughout the whole 24-hour period, d) the ground water table rises during the night hours and falls in daytime. Occurrence of these types are discussed. Typical short-term fluctuation is the fall due to evaporation in the daytime.

The third part of the paper discusses the techniques used to measure the changes in ground water table.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7611, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1969). Kuusen ja männyn kasvun kehitys ojitetuilla turvemailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 93 article id 7611. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7611
English title: Post-drainage growth rate of Norway spruce and Scots pine on peat.

The present study is an attempt to establish the response to drainage of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on some peatland sites, and to determine the revival of the trees and continuance of the growth after drainage. Growth of trees in four types of peatland types of drained peatlands drained between 1908-1918 were studied, and the results were compared with corresponding mineral soil sites

In pine the response to drainage was faster than in spruce in all age classes. Even the oldest groups of trees showed as good growth as trees of the same size growing on mineral soils. The rapidity of revival and the radial growth maximum are affected by the age of the tree at the time of ditching and the site fertility. The size of the trees, too, is of importance for the magnitude of post-drainage radial growth; the influence is similar in different sites. The basal area growth of trees growing on peat usually showed an unbroken increase during the entire post-drainage period. Neither the height growth indicates a decline in growth over time.

In the light of the results from sample tree analysis, it seems that tree growth gradually rises even after the revival period in peatlands originally covered by forest. The are some errors in the comparisons made, but it can be observed that aging of drainage areas as such does not mean that growth conditions become poorer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4731, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Juhani Päivänen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1966). Koetuloksia männyn kylvöstä ja istutuksesta ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4731. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14289
English title: Scots pine seeding and planting on drained peat soils.

This paper describes the preliminary results of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeding and planting trials on drained peat soils.

The results showed that a perpared peat surface was a better surface for seeding than the unprepared one. Planting of 2+1-year seedlings succeeded better than planting 1-year seedlings. Planting on the turf gave better survival than planting on the unprepared soil surface. The whole growing season was suitable time for planting Scots pine seedlings except May when the peat soil under the surface was still frozen.

Using fertilizers in connection with planting was surveyed in two ways. Mortality of seedlings increased when they were top-dressed with NPK fertilizer. Using a so-called spot fertilizing with several combinations of fertilizers resulted in K and N tending to increase the mortality of seedlings, but P decreasing mortality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4725, category Article
Carl Olof Tamm. (1965). Some experiences from forest fertilization trials in Sweden. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4725. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14283
Original keywords: lannoitus; kasvu; turvekankaat; Ruotsi

The many unsolved questions concerning fertilization makes it difficult to forecast accurately its biological and economic consequences. Some of the problems are discussed in this paper. The most common types of forests in Sweden, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on well-drained mineral soil, respond strongly to nitrogenous fertilizers, but the effect of phosphate, potash or lime is small or nil, at least within 5–10 years after application. The response of nitrogen lasts 4–5 years in pine and somewhat more in spruce.

Drained peatlands usually respond to mineral fertilization, but the improvement brought about by a PK application depends, inter alia, on the nitrogen content of the peat. Peatlands with a peat low in nitrogen need NPK fertilization. For deep peatlands, a moderate or high nitrogen content, a single PK application improves growth conditions for a very long time. Experience of fertilizing shallow peatlands and poorly-drained mineral soil is very limited, but it seems easy to get a growth response either with nitrogen alone or with NPK.

The results of fertilization at the time of planting have not, as a rule, been very good in Sweden. An exception is the afforestation of abandoned fields on drained deep peat, where PK fertilizer around the plant seems to be essential for both survival and growth.

  • Tamm, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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