Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'undergrowth'.

Category: Research article

article id 933, category Research article
Per-Ola Hedwall, Harald Grip, Sune Linder, Lars Lövdahl, Urban Nilsson, Johan Bergh. (2013). Effects of clear-cutting and slash removal on soil water chemistry and forest-floor vegetation in a nutrient optimised Norway spruce stand. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.933
Fertilisation with nutrient optimisation has in Sweden resulted in large increases in volume growth in young stands of Norway spruce. There are, however, environmental concerns about repeated fertilisation and one is the risk of nutrient leakage to ground water resources and aquatic ecosystems after clear-cutting of such forests. The present study followed soil-water chemistry in optimised fertilised stands after clear-cutting, as well as effects of harvest of slash on nutrient leakage. Parts of a 30-year-old stand of Norway spruce, which had been subject to a nutrient optimisation experiment for 17 years, were clear-cut. A split-plot design with whole-tree harvesting as the sub-plot treatment was applied. Lysimeters were installed and soil-water sampled at nine occasions during the following four years. No significant effects of fertilisation on nitrate leaching were found, while harvest of slash reduced the concentration of Ca, DOC, DON, K, Mg, ammonium and nitrate, as well as pH in the soil solution. While no effects of fertilisation could be seen on the soil water concentration of N, the results indicate an interaction between fertilisation and harvest of slash on the concentration of nitrate in the soil solution. The results indicate that forest-floor vegetation plays an important role in the retention of N after clear-cutting of fertilised forests.
  • Hedwall, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per-ola.hedwall@slu.se (email)
  • Grip, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: harald@grip2.se
  • Linder, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: sune.linder@slu.se
  • Lövdahl, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.nilsson@slu.se
  • Bergh, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.bergh@slu.se

Category: Article

article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7407, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1951). Alikasvosasemasta vapautettujen männyn taimistojen toipumisesta ja merkityksestä metsänhoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 3 article id 7407. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7407
English title: On the recovery of released Scots pine undergrowth and its silvicultural importance.

There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.

The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vaartaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7402, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1950). Alikasvoskuusten biologiaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 7402. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7402
English title: On the biology of undergrown Norway spruce.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) invading sites is common in Finland. The species tends to establish itself as undergrowth, and takes over when it gets space to grow. To determine whether the undergrowth is suitable as the new generation requires knowledge on the biology of spruce undergrowth. One of the issues is determining the age of the stunted trees. In this investigation, 100 undergrown spruce trees, their crown and their root systems were studied. A method was developed to determine the age of the trees.

The root system of all trees in Vaccinium sites and of stunted trees in Myrtillius sites were superficial. The root systems of older spruces were purely of adventitious origin. The longer the period of stunting growth, the younger is the root system. In addition to acropetal and general adventitious ramification there is often adventitious branching of the roots of pathological causes. Mortality among the long roots is frequent.

A stunted tree has not the same ability as a viable tree to make use of already existing branches for building assimilating surface. When comparing trees with equally large assimilating surface, a stunted tree had greater sum of roots compared to a viable tree. The root system of a stunted undergrown spruce was very superficial compared with the other trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5512, category Article
Christian Messier, Pasi Puttonen. (1993). Coniferous and non-coniferous fine-root and rhizome production in Scots pine stands using the ingrowth bag method. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15673

Coniferous and non-coniferous fine root and rhizome production was measured after one growing season using the ingrowth bag method in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands differing in ages from 7 to 105 years in Southern Finland. Total fine-root production decreased from the 7-year to 20-year-old stands, and then increased slightly in the 85- to 105-year-old stands. Most of the total fine-root biomass in the youngest age groups came from non-conifer species, whereas most of the total fine-root biomass in the three older age groups came from conifer species. The maximum coniferous fine-root production was found to occur at crown closure in the 11- to 13-year-old stands. Rhizome production was the lowest and highest in the 20- and 85- to 105-year-old stands, respectively. The increase in rhizome production in the 85- to 105-year-old stands was associated with an abundant understory cover of Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea and an increase in light penetration. The ingrowth bag method was found to be useful in assessing the relative fine-root production among species-group and successional stages of Scots pine stands.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Messier, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5125, category Article
Ilppo Greis, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce undergrowth under varying shading. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5125. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15066

The crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth was studied in relation to the prevailing light conditions and potential photosynthesis. Shading decreased the stem height growth more than the length increment of laterals, producing a plate-shaped crown in deep shade. Needles responded to shading by adopting a horizontal inclination in deep shade. The needles were wide and thin respectively in shade. In the open the needle cross-section was almost square. Stem radial growth and height growth were both affected by shading exhibiting a linear response to the prevailing light conditions and the potential photosynthesis. Light conditions under dominating trees were closely correlated with the basal area of the dominating trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Greis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4534, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1938). Hakkausalan raivaamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13943
English title: Clearing of a felling area.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development coursesarranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administrationespecially in regional levelThe education was arranged by Forest Service. 
This presentation describes clearing of felling areas. 

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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