Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'vegetation analysis'.

Category: Article

article id 7155, category Article
Bo Högnäs. (1966). Investigations on forest types and stand development in Åland in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 2 article id 7155. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7155

The purpose of this study is to clarify the forest types in pure coniferous stands in Åland in Finland, to study them in a biological light and account for the production of the stands on respective sites. The flora of the forest types in Åland has been described in an earlier study, but as the plant associations have not been described it has often been difficult to determine the correct types in field work. Sample plots were chosen in coniferous forests with maximum 20% of other species. The vegetation analysis was limited to determine composition of species, projected coverage and the frequency of species. In addition, cubic volume and growth of the growing stock was calculated for the stands.

The results of the study showed that site type and fertility correspond to each other nearly without exception only on normal moraines, if only the ground vegetation is used as a criterion for the type. The general occurense of soils of different qualities makes it necessary to determine, besides forest type, other characteristics in the stands, preferably the dominant height. The total production of coniferous forests with great probability is smaller in Åland than in mainland Finland. The results can be applied also to Åboland’s archipelago, where the milieu of the coniferous forests is similar.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Högnäs, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7485, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). A method for establishing small permanent sample plots for ecological studies. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 3 article id 7485. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7485

Especially in experimantal ecological research it is used small sample plots that are inventoried consequently. The paper describes a method for establishing small sample plots, developed by the writer in 1956. In the method, the central point of the sample plot is marked with an iron skewer, and the marking of the area to be inventoried was accomplished with a circular frame that is movable. The frame was fitted to the skewer with an aperture that indicated the central point. The area of the frame was relatively small, 0,25 m2. The sample plots were arbitarily placed at intervals from one another.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
English title: Knowledge on the forest types in Estonia.

The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.

Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.

The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.        

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5247, category Article
Eeva-Liisa Jukola-Sulonen, Maija Salemaa. (1985). A comparison of different sampling methods of quantitative vegetation analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15426

Different sampling methods (the percentage cover scale, the graphical method, two-point quadrat methods, the five-, nine- and twelve-class cover scales, and the biomass harvesting) were used in estimating abundance of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas and on an abandoned field in Southern and Central Finland. The results are examined with the help of DCA ordinations. In addition, the species numbers and diversity indices obtained by different sampling methods are compared.

There were no large differences in DCA configurations between the sampling methods. According to all the sampling methods, a complex soil fertility-moisture gradient (a forest site type) was interpreted as the main ordination gradient in the vegetation data for clear-cut areas. However, different sampling methods did not give similar estimates of species numbers and diversity indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jukola-Sulonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15384
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7037, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia Pohjois-Suomen metsätyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 7037. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7037
English title: Studies on forest site types in Northern Finland.

The forest site classification system used in Finland is based on ground vegetation rather than the wood production capacity. A. K. Cajander has presented a detailed classification of different forest site classes in different parts of the country. This study focuses on the forest site types of Northern Finland, which are less well defined. The article presents detailed vegetation analysis and lists of plant species in different forest site types in Northern Finland. In contrast to southern parts of Finland, both the natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands are uneven-aged in the north. The forests are also relatively thin. There is a marked difference in height of trees between the richest and poorest sites, but the dominant trees of the same site type were of similar height both in the north and south part of the study area. The differences in the height of dominant trees seem to be smaller than in Southern Finland. Also, in windy areas prone to snow damage, climate conditions can affect tree growth more than the forest site type. In more sheltered areas forest site type determines forest growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4522, category Article
A. V. Auer. (1937). Muhkurin kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 41 article id 4522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9067
English title: Vegetation in Muhkuri experimental area in southwest Finland.

A vegetation analysis was performed in Muhkuri experimental area of the Forest Research Institute. The area is located in southwest Finland near city of Turku. The dominant tree species of the area is oak (Quercus robur L.) which can be found in all the area. Common woody species are also aspen (Populus tremula L.), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), juniper (Juniperus communis L.) and mountain currant (Ribes alpinum L.). A total of 198 vascular plants were found in the area, 34 of which were common in most parts of the area. Typical vegetation of different parts of the area is described. Finally, a list of all plant species is presented in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4478, category Article
Taimi Mäkelä. (1936). Lehdoista ja lehtokasvien leviämisestä Pohjois-Pirkkalan-Tyrvään alueella. Silva Fennica no. 37 article id 4478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9064
English title: Herb-rich forests and their vegetation in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland.

Vegetation inventory was made to study plant species growing in herb-rich forest in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland. The area belongs to a district that is rich in grass-herb forests, where the bedrock is calciferous. Six herb-rich forest site types were identified in the area. The species composition in the herb-rich forests was compared to those in Turku in southwest Finland, and in Ladogda Karelia in Eastern Finland.  The main characteristics of the plant associations were similar, but there were a few species that are common in Pirkkala-Tyrvää area that are rare in the other areas, and vice versa. The district rich in grass-herb forests of Pirkkala may extend more westwards than it has been assessed earlier. Finally, the article lists the plant species found in the herb-rich forests in the area and defines their distribution and abundance.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4475, category Article
Olavi Cajander. (1934). Viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta sekä lehtokasvillisuudesta ja -kasvistosta keskisen Längelmäveden seudulla. Silva Fennica no. 34 article id 4475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9047
English title: Distribution of fertile lands and vegetation indicative for herb-rich forest sites in Längelmävesi area in Southern Finland.

Typical for the area of Längälmävesi, in Satakunta in Southern Finland, are densely populated fertile lowland areas near the waterways and poorer sparcely populated upland areas. The changes in fertility of the land influence the vegetation, and has directed where the population has settled. A vegetation survey was made using specific plant species as indication to fertility. A detailed description of the species composition and distribution of the plant species indicative for fertile land is presented in the article.

Analyzing the fertility only based on the plant species indicative for rich soils underestimates the proportion of fertile lands. Farmlands, on the other hand, have been cleared also on less fertile soils, which would give an overestimate of the fertile lands. A map of fertile lands was drawn based on both vegetation and location of the fields. The changes in fertility influenced also bird species observed in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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