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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'willow'.

Category: Research article

article id 7001, category Research article
Fei-Fei Zhai, Jun-Xiang Liu, Zhen-Jian Li, Jin-Mei Mao, Yong-Qiang Qian, Lei Han, Zhen-Yuan Sun. (2017). Assessing genetic diversity and population structure of Salix viminalis across Ergun and West Liao basin. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 7001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7001
Highlights: High genetic diversity and moderate population differentiation were detected in twelve Salix viminalis populations; Populations from Ergun basin presented higher genetic diversity than populations from West Liao basin; Populations with short distances presented low differentiation.

Salix viminalis L. is an important shrub that has potential for use as a bioenergy crop, for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and sewage sludge treatment. It is mainly distributed in the northeast of China, but the species has not yet been used a resource here. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of populations from the Ergun basin and West Liao basin using 20 microsatellite markers. A high level of genetic diversity (Na = 16.45, He = 0.742) was detected for S. viminalis, and populations from the Ergun basin exhibited higher genetic diversity and private alleles numbers than the West Liao basin. The 12 populations could be divided into two clusters by both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA clustering which were consistent with the populations derived from the two basins. Moderate population differentiation (FST = 0.076) was shown in S. viminalis, and AMOVA analysis confirmed that most of the genetic variation (86.13%) was attributed to individual differences within populations, while 11.49% was attributed to differences between basins and 2.38% to differences within each basin. Significant correlations of FST/(1–FST) with log (geographic distance) among 12 populations (r = 0.634, p < 0.00) and 10 populations within the Ergun basin (r = 0.482, p = 0.0002) indicated that geographical distance was the principal factor influencing genetic structure. As most of genetic variation exist within populations, so protection measures should be focused on populations with higher genetic diversity and unique alleles, such as Tuli, Mordaga downstream, Zhadun1 and Genhe.

  • Zhai, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China; School of Architectural and Artistic Design, Henan Polytechnic University, Century Avenue, Jiaozuo, Henan, 454000, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: lkyzff@163.com
  • Liu, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: liu-jx295@163.com
  • Li, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: zhenjianli@163.com
  • Mao, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China; Research Institute of Economic Forest, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry, Anjunanlu, Urumqi, Xinjiang, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: 350512173@qq.com
  • Qian, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: qianyq@caf.ac.cn
  • Han, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: hdd@caf.ac.cn
  • Sun, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: lkyszy@126.com (email)
article id 163, category Research article
Blas Mola-Yudego. (2010). Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 163. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.163
The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha–1 yr–1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations.
  • Mola-Yudego, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: blas.mola@uef.fi (email)
article id 380, category Research article
Tapani Repo, Janne Laukkanen, Raimo Silvennoinen. (2005). Measurement of the tree root growth using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.380
The non-destructive evaluation of plant root growth is a challenge in root research. In the present study we aimed to develop electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for that purpose. Willows (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) were grown from cuttings in a hydroponic culture in a growth chamber. Root growth was monitored at regular intervals by a displacement method and compared with the EIS parameters of the plants. To measure its impedance spectrum (IS) (frequency range from 40 Hz to 340 kHz) each plant was set in a measuring cell filled with a solution of the hydroponic culture. The IS was measured using a two-electrode measuring system. A silver needle electrode was connected to the stem immediately above the immersion level and a platinum wire was placed in the solution. The measurements were repeated twice weekly for a root growth period of one month. The IS of the entity consisting of a piece of stem, roots and culture solution were modelled by means of an electric circuit consisting of two ZARC-Cole elements, one constant-phase element, and a resistor. On the plant basis, an increase in root volume by growth correlated with a reduction in the sum of resistances in the ZARC-Cole elements (mean Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = –0.70).
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapani.repo@metla.fi (email)
  • Laukkanen, University of Joensuu, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silvennoinen, University of Joensuu, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5342, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Timo Törmälä. (1988). Selection of fast-growing willow (Salix spp.) clones for short-rotation forestry on mined peatlands in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15499

Possibilities of developing suitable willow (Salix spp.) clones for short-rotation forestry on mined peatlands in the north-western area of Finland were studied in a field experiment in which 300 willow clones were tested during 1985–87. Most of the tested clones started to grow from cuttings on limed and fertilized peat soil. Salix viminalis L. clones of southern origin had a higher leafless above ground biomass production than the well adapted control clone and the local Finnish willows, but their winter hardiness was not satisfactory. The growth habit of some southern willows was also better than that of the control clone. It was also possible to select clones with good sprouting capacity. There were few Salix myrsinifolia Calisb. clones of Finnish origin, which had better cold tolerance than all other willows tested and higher biomass production than that of the control clone. The most critical factor to be selected for this is the optimal combination of winter hardiness and biomass production. This is attempted by selecting clones on the basis of this experiment for a breeding program.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Törmälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5317, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Markku Yli-Halla. (1987). Behaviour of certain phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5317. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15474

The solubilityof various phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil was studied in an incubation experiment aimed at screening potential fertilizers for the cultivation of fast-growing willows. (KPO3)n proved not to be a source of the slow-released K regarded as most desirable for this kind of cultivation as it was hydrolysed completely in the soil during incubation. Phosphorus from easily soluble or hydrolysable compounds (superphosphate, KH2PO4, (KPO3)n) was bound in the soil largely by Al and Fe and elevated the level of readily soluble P considerably, whereas rock phosphates were found to be practically unchanged after incubation and did not contribute to the readily soluble P in the soil. Apatites proved to be quite insoluble and are therefore assumed to be unsuitable as P fertilizers for fast-growing willows, which have a high nutrient demand.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Halla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5317, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Markku Yli-Halla. (1987). Behaviour of certain phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5317. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15474

The solubilityof various phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil was studied in an incubation experiment aimed at screening potential fertilizers for the cultivation of fast-growing willows. (KPO3)n proved not to be a source of the slow-released K regarded as most desirable for this kind of cultivation as it was hydrolysed completely in the soil during incubation. Phosphorus from easily soluble or hydrolysable compounds (superphosphate, KH2PO4, (KPO3)n) was bound in the soil largely by Al and Fe and elevated the level of readily soluble P considerably, whereas rock phosphates were found to be practically unchanged after incubation and did not contribute to the readily soluble P in the soil. Apatites proved to be quite insoluble and are therefore assumed to be unsuitable as P fertilizers for fast-growing willows, which have a high nutrient demand.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Halla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5309, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1987). Salix "Aquatica Gigantea" and Salix x dasyclados Wimm. in biomass willow research. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5309. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15466

Salix 'Aquatica Gigantea', widely experimented and promising species for temperate zone short rotation forestry, has since 1950 recorded in Finland 23 times with different clone numbers. Salix x dasyclados Wimm., by morphological, cultivational and productivity characteristics similar willow has been recorded 16 times.

The nomenclature and origin of both willows have remained unclear in field research. Recent observations, based on morphological analyses and chromosome studies suggest that ’Aguatica gigantea’ and most S. x dasuclados clones can be collected under one Siberian species: Salix burjatica Nasarov. The true Salix x dasyclados Wimm. is a female hybrid S. x viminalis x cinerea, famous West-European basket willow that has been very little experimented in Finland.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5210, category Article
Heikki Smolander, Juha Lappi. (1984). The interactive effect of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis in Salix. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5210. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15389

The interactive effects of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis was studied in Salix sp. cv. Aquatica using the closed IRGA system. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the CO2 response of photosynthesis. The interactive effect of water stress and temperature was divided into two components: the change in CO2 conductance and the change in the photosynthetic capacity. The CO2 conductance was not dependent on the temperature when the willow plant was well watered, but during water stress it decreased as the temperature increased. The photosynthetic capacity of the willow plant increased along with an increase in temperature when well-watered, but during water stress temperature had quite opposite effect.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5097, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Ari Ferm, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). On the properties of one-year shoots of Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Salix spp. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5097. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15038

Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing on a drained peatland were cut during dormancy. The properties of the one-year old shoots produced by the stumps were measured in the autumn after one growing season. The one-year old willow shoots (a mixture of Salix phylicifolia L., S. pentandra L. and S. caprea L.) were collected from an abandoned field.

The basic density of unbarked shoots was 443 kg/m3 for birch and 346 kg/m3 for willow. The basic density of the bark was much higher than that of the wood. The effect of shoot length on the properties was small with the exception of cellular proportions. The fibre percentage increased and vessel percentage decreased with increasing shoot length.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ferm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4833, category Article
Eero Malmivaara, Jouni Mikola, Christel Palmberg. (1971). Pajujen mahdollisuudet metsäpuiden jalostuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4833. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14622
English title: Potential of willows in forest tree breeding.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; pajut; Suomi

A review is made into the experiences and possibilities of willow breeding, with a particular consideration of their application under Finnish conditions.

In comparison with other tree genera, Salix has many advantages in breeding. The great number of species, large genetic variation between and within species and frequent crossability offer good possibilities for improvement by hybridization. The dioecious flowering, plentiful seed production and short generation cycle are valuable properties for breeding by controlled pollination. Individuals with desirable characteristics can be easily propagated vegetatively from cuttings. The propertied stated above are also characteristic of poplars, the breeding of which has resulted in great success. Corresponding results can be therefore expected from willow breeding, which has recently been initiated in several countries.

Today willows have no practical significance for forestry in Finland. There are, however, some suitable Salix species, both indigenous and exotic, for starting material for breeding, and plenty of favourable sites for willows. Therefore, the beginning of breeding research with willows should be well justified also in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loisa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4450, category Article
Seth Nordberg. (1928). Vertaileva katsaus pajun viljelykseen ja sen edellytyksiin ulkomailla ja Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 9 article id 4450. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8398
English title: Review on willow plantations and their requirements in foreign countries and in Finland.
Original keywords: paju; Salix; viljely; viljelymenetelmät
English keywords: willow; willow plantations

There is demand for cultivated willow in toy and barrel making, and handcrafts in Finland. In Europe, Salix sp. have been cultivated on several kinds of sites. In Finland, suitable sites for willow plantations could be found, for instance, by the rivers and brooks, on other alluvial lands, wet meadows and other humid lands unsuitable for agriculture. The article suggests that the cultivation of willow should begin on the agricultural lands, because the choice of origin of the willow cuttings is less important when it is grown on fields, and the areas are more accessible. The desired qualities for cultivated willow are good growth rate and robust stems, frost resistance and resistance to annual cuttings. Of the different species, especially suitable is Salix sect. Amygdalinae. In field tests, all the tested Salix species have been frost resistant, which makes it possible to cut the stems annually.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nordberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4450, category Article
Seth Nordberg. (1928). Vertaileva katsaus pajun viljelykseen ja sen edellytyksiin ulkomailla ja Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 9 article id 4450. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8398
English title: Review on willow plantations and their requirements in foreign countries and in Finland.
Original keywords: paju; Salix; viljely; viljelymenetelmät
English keywords: willow; willow plantations

There is demand for cultivated willow in toy and barrel making, and handcrafts in Finland. In Europe, Salix sp. have been cultivated on several kinds of sites. In Finland, suitable sites for willow plantations could be found, for instance, by the rivers and brooks, on other alluvial lands, wet meadows and other humid lands unsuitable for agriculture. The article suggests that the cultivation of willow should begin on the agricultural lands, because the choice of origin of the willow cuttings is less important when it is grown on fields, and the areas are more accessible. The desired qualities for cultivated willow are good growth rate and robust stems, frost resistance and resistance to annual cuttings. Of the different species, especially suitable is Salix sect. Amygdalinae. In field tests, all the tested Salix species have been frost resistant, which makes it possible to cut the stems annually.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nordberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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