Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'wood transport'.

Category: Article

article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7684, category Article
Pekka Mäkinen. (1993). Puutavaran kuljetusyritysten menestymisen strategiat. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 238 article id 7684. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7684
English title: Strategies used by timber truck companies to ensure business success.

The aim of the study was to determine how timber truck transport business succeeds in the competition within its sector, and the effect it has on profitability structure of the sector. Furthermore, strategic groups were looked at in depth, as well as the competitive strategies of the most successful companies and groups of companies. The theoretical competitive strategy was operationalized.

A total of 53 timber truck transport entrepreneurs were interviewed. The average age of the entrepreneurs was 51 years. Of the businesses, 35% were partnership companies, 6% open companies, and 59% self-employed. The business owned an average 1.5 trucks, and at the time of interviewing their average age was four years. Nearly nine out of ten entrepreneurs had no schooling for the line of business, and four out of five had no short-term training. The attitude of the timber truckers toward their activities was more like that of self-employed persons than that of entrepreneurs. A total of 61.5% of them reporter that they carried on entrepreneurship simply to assure themselves a job.

The operational profitability of the sector has been good in the years 1984 to 1990, and the business profitability fairly good. The median equity ratio in the sector has remained at about 20% and the ratio of debts to turnover about 40%. The sector has been more profitable than forest machine contracting primarily due to the barriers to entry into the sector.

Cluster analysis, using Ward’s method, was used for seeking out strategic groups. The lengths of the customer relationships proved a significant barrier to mobility. The most successful business used the competitive strategy of cost weighted focussing. This was done through optimization of the capacity utilization rate and through choice of correct customers. The strategic position for successful business was judged to be good in the future. Success in the future will require above all activeness and innovation ability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7673, category Article
Jimin Tan. (1992). Planning a forest road network by a spatial data handling-network routing system. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 227 article id 7673. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7673

The basic objective in planning a forest road network is to minimize the total cost of terrain transportation, road transportation, road construction and maintenance by controlling the road location, road network density and road quality, besides environmental and ecological considerations. Studies on the optimization of forest road network have encountered difficulties in taking into account the spatial diversity of forest terrain and stands. The spatial data handling-network routing system developed in this study proves to be useful in assisting forest managers to carry out the planning of forest road networks by covering the spatial and economic analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Tan, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7603, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1969). Ancient forestry : A historical study. Part II, The procurement and trade of forest products. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 95 article id 7603. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7603

The present paper presents a study on the works of ancient writers that deal with trees, forests and the use of forests before the time of actual forest sciences. The work describes the development of knowledge pertaining to the forest and trees and the progress made on utilizing them. This second part of a series of two articles is concerned with logging, transportation and trade of timber, as well as procurement and trade of other forest products. These activities have been practiced as long as the history of mankind is known.

The article introduces the most important ancient written sources from the standpoint of the subject of the article, and related modern literature. The second part describes the texts concerning felling and primary conversion, and skidding and transportation. The third part concentrates on timber trade, and the fourth on the procurement and trade of other forest products.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4623, category Article
Metsätalouskomitea. (1952). Puun maakuljetusolojen kehittäminen : vuoden 1949 metsätalouskomitean mietintö N:o 1. Silva Fennica no. 73 article id 4623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9095
English title: Development of land transportation of wood.

The government of Finland appointed in1949 a committee to draft a program to promote forestry and increase the production of forests in the immediate future. The committee regarded promotion of transportation of roundwood and fuel wood as the most urgent question of the assignment. A separate committee was assigned to give a report on floating.

The report gives a summary of timber transportation facilities. The importance of land transport, especially truck transport, has grown. This has influenced other means of long-distance transport, such as railways and floating. Building of truck roads can bring large areas of presently unaccessible forests accessible for forest industry.

The committee suggest improvements in road legislation. Improvements needed in the road system for better timber transport facilities are outlined. The committee gives a detailed list of roads, compiled by area. The total length of forest roads to be constructed is 5,584 km, and the estimated cost 6,702 million marks. Railroads would be built 1,453 km at the cost of 35,745 million marks.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Metsätalouskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4605, category Article
Arvo Kivelä. (1951). Pohjois-Suomen uitot ja niiden tehoa haittaavat tekijät. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14001
English title: Floating in Northern Finland and factors reducing its efficiency.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Floating channels of Northern Finland have been unable to fulfill all the needs of wood transportation of the area. This presentation presents diferent ways to improve the efficiency of floating by improving working methods and the channels, and thus decreasing costs of wood transportation.

  • Kivelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4595, category Article
Lauri Silvàn. (1948). Metsäautoteiden rakentaminen. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13997
English title: Building of forest lorry roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation discusses cost-effectiveness of building forest lorry roads to expand the availability of timber in state forests, and gives examples of calculating costs of building a road.

  • Silvàn, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4555, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Puutavaran autokuljetuksesta ja sen merkityksestä valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13962
English title: Car transportation of roundwood and its significance to forestry in the state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history of road transport of timber in Finland and discusses its significance and potential to forestry in the state forests.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive